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QUESTION #1

1. Of the people you have read about, watched videos about, OR the course content in the latter modules of this course – which OVERALL AREA has inspired you the most and is the area that you’ve found most interesting among the topics? Why do you feel this way? Does it tie in to your intended major and/or career path?

QUESTION #2

2. Part of your college learning experience is to rule OUT possible occupations, professions, or specific jobs. Which hospitality and tourism job or area of the business is something you will definitely NOT consider among your professional choices? Why do you feel this way? What, in particular, did you hear/read/see/learn that led to this personal feeling?

QUESTION #3

3. Have you personally taken the career assessment offered through FAU – Major KnOWLedge which helps direct you to a potential the major AND career choice?  If yes, what was the outcome?  If not, why not? 

If you have not yet taken this assessment, remember that it is FREE for students.  Dr. Ricci recommends that you take this assessment for your own career path self-knowledge and reflection. Even if you are a graduating senior, it’s never to late to learn about what potential career areas may “spark” your excitement and interest.

Other than Major KnOWLedge, have you taken any other career assessment tool?

QUESTION #4 (be sure to answer all portions of the question)

4. In response to the all the articles about Florida reaching various milestones for visitors and the ongoing fight about whether we SHOULD or SHOULDN’T fund tourism promotion to our state (articles found primarily in Module 1)

What are your overall comments on tourism promotion for Florida after learning about the hospitality industry in this course?

What makes us a great destination?

What could hurt us in the near future in regards to our ability to continue to attract visitors?

Do you personally suggest visits from your out-of-state friends and family members – why or why not?

What are your thoughts on the articles discussing “over” tourism?

Exploring the Hospitality Industry
FOURTH EDITION

Chapter 1
Hospitality Spirit

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Copyright © 2019, 2016, 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Learning Objectives (1 of 2)

• At the completion of this chapter you should be
able to:
 Describe the interrelated nature of hospitality

and tourism.
 Describe the characteristics of the hospitality

industry.
 Summarize the Stephen Hall Code of Ethics for

the hospitality and tourism industry.

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Learning Objectives (2 of 2)

• At the completion of this chapter you should be
able to:
 Explain why service is so important to success

in the hospitality industries and how to perfect it.
 Determine and prepare yourself for a career

path in the hospitality and tourism industry.

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The “Pineapple” Tradition
• The pineapple is a

symbol of:
 Welcome
 Friendship
 Hospitality

Credit: Geoff Dann/Dorling Kindersley

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FIGURE 1–1 Probable Career Path in
Hospitality

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Hospitality and Tourism
• The largest and fastest growing industry in the

world
• The umbrella of travel and tourism covers many

professions to meet the wants and needs of
people away from home.

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FIGURE 1–2 Scope of the Hospitality and
Tourism Industries.

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Characteristics of the Industry (1 of 3)

• Long hours
 Evenings
 Weekends
 Holidays

• Open 365 days a year
• A variety of shifts

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Characteristics of the Industry (2 of 3)

• Intangible
 Service cannot be touched or taken home.

• Perishable
 If the product isn’t sold, revenue is lost.

• Inseparable
 Production and consumption occur

simultaneously.

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Characteristics of the Industry (3 of 3)

• Career options within the scope of the industry
include:
 Restaurants
 Hotels
 Casinos
 Cruise ships
 National parks
 …and many more

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FIGURE 1–4 Lodging Management
Career Ladder.

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Ethics (1 of 4)

• Ethical questions to ask when faced with a difficult
situation:
 Is this legal?
 Is this balanced?
 How will I feel about myself after making this

decision?

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Ethics (2 of 4)

• Moral principles and values used to answer
questions about what is right and wrong

• Integral part of the industry
• A part of individual value system

 Every individual is different.

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Ethics (3 of 4)

• In many cases, situational ethics are applied
instead of using moral absolutes.

• Decisions are made in each situation regarding
whether it is right to steal, lie, drink and drive, etc.

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Ethics (4 of 4)

• Stephen Hall developed a code of ethics for the
hospitality and tourism industry.

• His eleven-point code pinpoints the essence of
ethics and morality as it relates to how we treat
our guests and our employees.

• It simply says that we will be fair and equitable at
all times.

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Focus on Service
• Great service results in happy guests.
• Happy guests provide repeat business.
• Great service provides excellent experiences for

all guests.
• Guests share their service experiences with

others, by word of mouth, whether good or bad.

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Seven Deadly Sins of Service
• At America’s Service, by Karl Albrecht, identifies

these seven sins of service:
1. Apathy
2. Brush-off
3. Coldness
4. Condescension
5. Robotics
6. Rule book
7. Runaround

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Keys to Service Success (1 of 3)

• Focus on the guest
• Understand the importance of guest service
• Build a service culture
• Emphasis on “high touch” vs. “high tech”
• Thrive on change

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Keys to Service Success (2 of 3)

• “We buy loyalty with service”
 It’s more expensive to attract new guests than it

is to retain current guests.
 Build guest loyalty with great guest service.

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What Is a Moment of Truth?
• Whenever a guest interacts with an employee
• These moments can make or break the guest

experience.
• Every service organization experiences thousands

of these per day.

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Moments of Truth in Action
• These are examples of moments of truth:

 Guests calling for a reservation
 Guests welcomed to the establishment
 Guest informed room or table not ready
 Guest orders a meal
 Server brings out the order
 Server delivers the meal
 Guest pays and leaves

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Keys to Service Success (3 of 3)

• Effective leaders use all the tools at their
command to effect positive change.

• Empowered employees feel more responsible for
their jobs and the organization’s success.

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Service and Total Quality Management
(TQM) (1 of 3)

• Total quality management is a continuous
process.

• Total quality management works best when
managers are good leaders.
 Leaders empower employees who welcome

change.

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Service and Total Quality Management
(TQM) (2 of 3)

• Benefits of a successful TQM program:
 Cost reductions
 Increased satisfaction for both guests and staff
 Increased profits

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Service and Total Quality Management
(TQM) (3 of 3)

• TQM must have support at all levels in the
organization.

• Empowerment enables the staff to feel
responsible for their own success and that of the
organization.

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Empowerment
• Empowerment encourages the employee to:

 Speak out about problems and concerns.
 Take responsibility for their actions.
 Consider themselves professionals.
 Have the authority to make decisions when

serving guests.

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Disney Service Model
• The Disney mission statement is: “We Create

Happiness.”
• Everything that occurs within the Disney

environment is focused on achieving the mission
statement.

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Disney’s Approach
• A fundamental element is the tradition and

standards of guest service.
• Provide clear expectations and standards.
• Communicate these expectations through

demonstration, information, and examples.
• Hold cast members accountable for their

feedback.

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Disney’s Service Model
• The Disney Service Model itself is based on these

elements:
 It begins with a smile.
 Make eye contact and use body language.
 Respect and welcome all guests.
 Value the magic.
 Initiate guest contact.
 Creative service solutions.
 End with a “thank you.”

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Career in Hospitality (1 of 5)

• Progressing in a hospitality career is not always a
straight line.

• It may include working in a variety of departments
and capacities.

• It is also important to set career goals to help you
make decisions on your career path.

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Career in Hospitality (2 of 5)

• The most important element of success is a
service attitude.

• Personal characteristics critical for success:
 Honesty, hard work, team player, being

prepared to work long hours, cope with stress,
good communication skills, and a strong desire
to exceed guest expectations

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Career in Hospitality (3 of 5)

• Recruiters look for service-oriented people.
• Recruiters also look for leadership characteristics.

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Career in Hospitality (4 of 5)

• It is important to conduct a self-assessment.
• Use this as an opportunity to measure your

personal and professional strengths and
weaknesses.

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Career in Hospitality (5 of 5)

• It is important that you start now with your
development of leadership skills by getting
involved in on-campus activities.

• Involvement in professional organizations and
associations will demonstrate your commitment to
a leadership role.

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Trends in Hospitality
• These are just a few of the trends that can be

noted in the hospitality industry:
 Sustainability
 Globalization
 Safety and Security
 Diversity
 Technology
 Legal Issues

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Copyright

  • Exploring the Hospitality Industry
  • Learning Objectives (1 of 2)
  • Learning Objectives (2 of 2)
  • The “Pineapple” Tradition
  • FIGURE 1–1 Probable Career Path in Hospitality
  • Hospitality and Tourism
  • FIGURE 1–2 Scope of the Hospitality and Tourism Industries.
  • Characteristics of the Industry (1 of 3)
  • Characteristics of the Industry (2 of 3)
  • Characteristics of the Industry (3 of 3)
  • FIGURE 1–4 Lodging Management Career Ladder.
  • Ethics (1 of 4)
  • Ethics (2 of 4)
  • Ethics (3 of 4)
  • Ethics (4 of 4)
  • Focus on Service
  • Seven Deadly Sins of Service
  • Keys to Service Success (1 of 3)
  • Keys to Service Success (2 of 3)
  • What Is a Moment of Truth?
  • Moments of Truth in Action
  • Keys to Service Success (3 of 3)
  • Service and Total Quality Management (TQM) (1 of 3)
  • Service and Total Quality Management (TQM) (2 of 3)
  • Service and Total Quality Management (TQM) (3 of 3)
  • Empowerment
  • Disney Service Model
  • Disney’s Approach
  • Disney’s Service Model
  • Career in Hospitality (1 of 5)
  • Career in Hospitality (2 of 5)
  • Career in Hospitality (3 of 5)
  • Career in Hospitality (4 of 5)
  • Career in Hospitality (5 of 5)
  • Trends in Hospitality
  • Copyright

Exploring the Hospitality Industry
FOURTH EDITION

Chapter 2
Tourism

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Copyright © 2019, 2016, 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Learning Objectives (1 of 2)

• After completing this chapter, the students should
be able to:
 Explain the nature of tourism in today’s world.
 Describe the economic impact of tourism.
 Compare the different methods of tourist travel.
 List the important international and domestic

tourism organizations.

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Learning Objectives (2 of 2)

• After completing this chapter, the students should
be able to:
 Compare the major promoters of tourism and

how they promote tourism.
 Compare and contrast the major types of travel.
 Describe the sociocultural impact of tourism and

changing concepts in the industry.

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Tourism Highlights
• People have traveled for centuries.
• Traces of travel date back to:

 776 B.C. and the early Olympic Games held in
Greece.

• Religious travel grew in the 13th century.
 Growth of inns to support travelers

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What Is Tourism?
• The world’s largest industry
• Dynamic and evolving
• Stimulates economic growth and job creation

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Tourism Highlights (1 of 4)

• 17th Century
 Saw increased travel by horse and carriage.
 Post houses were set up to accommodate riders

and their animals.
• 19th Century

 Cruising becomes fashionable.
 Rail travel gains in popularity.

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Tourism Highlights (2 of 4)

• 20th Century
 Automobile is invented and travel by car

increases.
 Air travel gains in popularity in the mid-20th

century.
 Cruising returns to popularity.

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Tourism Highlights (3 of 4)

• 21st Century
 Temporary decline in tourism during the early

part of the century due to:
• Terrorist attacks (9/11)
• SARS
• Flu outbreaks
• War

• Tourism begins increasing in the 2010s

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Tourism Highlights (4 of 4)

• 21st Century
 China’s expenditures on travel abroad reached

$102 billion in 2012.
 The UNWTO expects this segment to grow

substantially in the future.

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UN World Tourism Organization (1 of 3)

• UNWTO is a specialized organization of the
United Nations (UN) focused on global tourism.

• The UNWTO is the leading international
organization in the field.

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UN World Tourism Organization (2 of 3)

• Plays a key role in the following areas:
 Developing sustainable tourism
 Developing universally accessible tourism
 Continued focus on economic development
 Developing a global code of ethics for tourism

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UN World Tourism Organization (3 of 3)

• UNWTO defines tourism as “the activities of
persons travelling to and staying in places outside
their usual environment for not more than one
consecutive year for leisure, business, and other
purposes.”

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Tourism Benefits
• These benefits include:

 Opening of borders across the globe
 Increased disposable income
 Increased vacations
 Reasonably priced airfares
 More people interested in travel

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Tourism 2020 (1 of 3)

• Top three tourist receiving areas are projected to
be Europe, East Asia, and Pacific and the
Americas.

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Tourism 2020 (2 of 3)

• Within the tourism industry, there is
interdependence between the segments of
tourism: travel, lodging, foodservice, and
recreation.

• Each segment relies on the others for growth.

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Tourism 2020 (3 of 3)

• Tourism growing at 3.1% a year
• Contributes 7.6 trillion to the global economy
• 1 in every 11 workers around the globe

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The Multiplier Effect
• When a tourist spends money (on travel, lodging,

food, etc.) the money is recycled into the local
industry, so businesses can purchase more goods
and services, generating more use of the money.

• This is known as the multiplier effect.

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FIGURE 2–2 The Multiplier Effect.

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Primary Modes of Travel
• Air
• Rail
• Automobile
• Bus

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Air Travel (1 of 2)

• One of the greatest influences on modern travel
• On any given day, more than 5,500 planes are in

the air over the United States.
• Competition between airlines has significantly

increased air travel.
• Business travelers are spending less.

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Air Travel (2 of 2)

• Many air carriers are facing challenges from
lowered costs and rising operating expenses.

• Major airlines are forming alliances that allow
them access to “feeder” markets.
 A “feeder” market is a market that provides the

source passengers for a particular destination.

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Hub-and-Spoke System
• A system that allows passengers to travel from

one smaller city to another via a hub or hubs
• Benefits of the hub-and-spoke system include:

 Airlines can service more cities at a lower cost.
 Airlines can maximize passenger loads between

smaller cities.

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FIGURE 2–3 The Hub-and-Spoke
System.

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Rail Travel – U.S. (1 of 2)

• Made mass travel available to all
• Began to decline in popularity beginning in the

1920s
• Faced with a possible collapse of the industry,

Congress passed the Rail Passenger Service Act
in 1970 (amended in 2001).

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Rail Travel – U.S. (2 of 2)

• The National Railroad Passenger Corporation was
established shortly after this act was passed.

• This entity began operation as a semi-public
corporation establishing intercity rail service.

• This corporation is known as Amtrak.

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Rail Travel – Abroad
• Rail travel in other countries is far ahead of the

United States.
• High-speed networks are well developed.
• Trains have the capacity to travel in speeds in

excess of 250 mph.
• Rail passes allowing travel in many countries are

available to purchase.

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Future of Rail Travel
• New technology causing changes

 Maglevs
• Can travel at speeds over 300 mph
• Travel on a cushion of magnets above the

ground
• Very efficient

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Automobile Travel (1 of 2)

• In 1895, the first “horseless carriages” were seen
on the road.

• Changed America’s way of life
• Largest segment of ground transportation

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Automobile Travel (2 of 2)

• Provides a convenient form of travel for short and
medium-length trips

• Economical and provides revenues for local
communities (tourists)

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Rental Cars (1 of 2)

• Over 5,000 companies in the United States rent
cars.
 75% of rentals occur at airports.
 30% of rentals are from leisure travelers.

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Rental Cars (2 of 2)

• Four largest U.S. car rental companies are
 Hertz
 Avis
 National
 Budget

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Bus Travel
• Convenient and economical
• Allows leisure travelers to relax and enjoy the ride
• Different types of bus services include:

 Local
 Charter/Tour
 Airport
 Commuter/Rapid Transit

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Tourism Organizations
• The UNWTO represents all national and official

tourism interests of its members.
• Many other international and domestic

organizations
• Each organization has a specific role/purpose.

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International Organizations (1 of 3)

• International Air Transportation Association (IATA)
 Regulates almost all international air travel
 Maintains stability of fares and rates

• International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO)
 Coordinates the development of civil aviation

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International Organizations (2 of 3)

• World Bank (WB)
 Lends money for tourism development

• United Nations Development Program (UNDP)
 Assists countries with development projects

including tourism

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International Organizations (3 of 3)

• Organization for Economic Cooperation and
Development (OECD)
 Established in 1960
 Designed to support sustainable economic

growth
 Boost employment
 Raise living standards
 Contribute to growth in world trade

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Domestic Organizations
• National Tourism Organization (NTO)

 Found in many countries to coordinate tourism
efforts

• Travel Industry of America (TIA)
 Main body for promotion and development of

tourism in the United States

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Promoters of Tourism (1 of 3)

• Tour Operators
 Promote trips/tours that they plan and organize
 Tours in the United States account for about

500,000 tours a year.

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Promoters of Tourism (2 of 3)

• Travel Agencies
 Act as a travel counselor
 Use computerized reservation system to make

bookings
 Provide personalized service
 Paid by commission

• Decreasing use of services as more people
book trips using Internet resources

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Promoters of Tourism (3 of 3)

• Travel Corporations
 Provides services, including foreign currencies,

traveler’s checks, and gift checks
 American Express Travel Services is the largest

provider of services.

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Other Promoters of Tourism
• Corporate Travel Manager
• Travel and Tour Wholesalers
• Certified Travel Counselor
• National Offices of Tourism
• Destination Management Companies

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Pleasure Travel (1 of 2)

• Pleasure travel comprises about 79% of domestic
travel.
 Leisure
 Recreation
 Holiday
 Visiting family and friends

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Pleasure Travel (2 of 2)

• Travel is likely to increase in the coming years as
we see:
 Longer life spans
 Flexible working hours
 Early retirements
 Greater ease of travel
 Tendency to take shorter, more frequent trips
 Increase in the standard of living

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Business Travel
• Business travel has declined in recent years.
• Businesses are cutting back on their business

trips, yet business travelers are the most frequent
guests of mid- to high-priced hotels and resorts.

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Impact of Tourism (1 of 2)

• From a social and cultural perspective, tourism
can leave both positive and negative impacts on
communities.

• Tourism is a means of enhancing international
understanding, peace, prosperity, and universal
respect for, and observance of, human rights.

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Impact of Tourism (2 of 2)

• Ecotourism is “responsible tourism.”
• Cultural tourism is defined as visiting for historical,

artistic, scientific, or lifestyle/heritage reasons.
• Tourism enhances the arts and crafts of a

destination by providing new markets for local
artisans.

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Sustainable Tourism
• According to the International Ecotourism Society,

sustainable tourism is:
 “responsible travel to natural areas that

conserves the environment and sustains the
well-being of local people”

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Trends in Tourism (1 of 2)

• Employment prospects will continue to improve.
• Increased awareness in eco-tourism
• Government recognition of the importance of

tourism
• Increased marketing and corporate partnerships

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Trends in Tourism (2 of 2)

• Increased Internet bookings and ticketless travel
• Introduction of environmentally friendly vehicles
• More cars equipped with Global Positioning

Systems (GPS)

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Copyright

  • Exploring the Hospitality Industry
  • Learning Objectives (1 of 2)
  • Learning Objectives (2 of 2)
  • Tourism Highlights
  • What Is Tourism?
  • Tourism Highlights (1 of 4)
  • Tourism Highlights (2 of 4)
  • Tourism Highlights (3 of 4)
  • Tourism Highlights (4 of 4)
  • UN World Tourism Organization (1 of 3)
  • UN World Tourism Organization (2 of 3)
  • UN World Tourism Organization (3 of 3)
  • Tourism Benefits
  • Tourism 2020 (1 of 3)
  • Tourism 2020 (2 of 3)
  • Tourism 2020 (3 of 3)
  • The Multiplier Effect
  • FIGURE 2–2 The Multiplier Effect.
  • Primary Modes of Travel
  • Air Travel (1 of 2)
  • Air Travel (2 of 2)
  • Hub-and-Spoke System
  • FIGURE 2–3 The Hub-and-Spoke System.
  • Rail Travel – U.S. (1 of 2)
  • Rail Travel – U.S. (2 of 2)
  • Rail Travel – Abroad
  • Future of Rail Travel
  • Automobile Travel (1 of 2)
  • Automobile Travel (2 of 2)
  • Rental Cars (1 of 2)
  • Rental Cars (2 of 2)
  • Bus Travel
  • Tourism Organizations
  • International Organizations (1 of 3)
  • International Organizations (2 of 3)
  • International Organizations (3 of 3)
  • Domestic Organizations
  • Promoters of Tourism (1 of 3)
  • Promoters of Tourism (2 of 3)
  • Promoters of Tourism (3 of 3)
  • Other Promoters of Tourism
  • Pleasure Travel (1 of 2)
  • Pleasure Travel (2 of 2)
  • Business Travel
  • Impact of Tourism (1 of 2)
  • Impact of Tourism (2 of 2)
  • Sustainable Tourism
  • Trends in Tourism (1 of 2)
  • Trends in Tourism (2 of 2)
  • Copyright
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