1. In a study by Corsini & Wedding (2005) the 2000s, it was counted

1. In a study by Corsini & Wedding (2005) the 2000s, it was counted that there are over _____ different approaches to counseling.
a. 300
b. 400
c. 500
d. 600
2. According to the text, you should choose your counseling
theory based on:
a. your supervisor’s orientation.
b. the specific client with whom you are working.
c. what other therapists have chose.
d. none of the above
3. Theory is:
a. fun.
b. essential to human life.
c. helpful to the counselor in that he/she doesn’t get lost
working the client.
d. all the above
4. The principle of ___________ says the simplest explanation
that can handle the data is the best.
a. stimulation
b. parsimony
c. practicality
d. none of the above
5. Mary sought counseling because she feels very lonely. When
Mary’s therapist began exploring the source of Mary’s
loneliness, Mary disclosed that several times, people have
told her that they have a hard time dealing with her
“constantly chewing things such as gum, hard candy, pencils
and pens”. Mary’s counselor, who is a well-trained analyst,
believes that Mary is fixated in the Oral Stage of psychosexual
Given this information, which of the following is true?
a. Mary’s sexual drive was not satisfied from birth to age one.
b. Mary received too little Erotogenic stimulation as an infant.
c. Mary received too much anal stimulation as an infant.
d. a and b
6. Dean’s wife Jean is constantly reminding Dean to pick up after
himself at home. Jean also gets upset because Dean
frequently volunteers his time and sometimes their money
to their friends and other people in the community who are in
need. The result of Dean’s generosity is that Dean spends
less time at home and often they do not have enough money to
cover their monthly expenses. According to Freud:
a. Dean’s parents had rigid rules about toilet training and
rarely praised him for success.
b. Dean was not breast fed.
c. Dean’s parents offered extreme amounts of praise for his success in toilet training.
d. Dean never resolved his Oedipal complex.
7. Nancy goes to the gym every day and pounds on a punching
bag. Which defense mechanism is she using?
a. Identification with the aggressor
b. Projection
c. Displacement
d. None of the above
8. What is the relative importance of cognition in Psychoanalytic
a. The client’s thoughts are the most important factor in understanding behavior.
b. Cognition is important in the processing of unconscious matter.
c. Thinking about the situation helps the client begin to accept the therapist as a unique individual.
d. The client is encouraged to use cognition to control emotions
9. What is the relative importance of behavior in Psychoanalytic
a. Much behavior is driven by and related to unconscious motives.
b. The therapist notices that the client is more likely to perform desired behaviors when appropriately reinforced.
c. The client is aware that his/her realistic anxiety drives his/her behavior.
d. a and c
10. The most important thing the analyst does is:
a. help the client act out her unconscious impulses.
b. interpret the client’s transference.
c. assist the client in making peace with his mother.
d. changes the client’s defense mechanisms.
11. Match the phrase, “Guided by the morality principle”, with the
letter of the appropriate word.
a. Id
b. Superego
c. Ego
d. None of the above
12. Match the phrase, “Guided by the reality principle”, with the
letter of the appropriate word.
a. Id
b. Superego
c. Ego
d. None of the above
13. Neoanalytic approaches to counseling originated in Freud’s models but then deviated slightly or significantly. Which theory seems the closest to traditional psychoanalysis?
a. Ego Psychologist
b. Object Relations
c. Self Psychology
d. Relational Psychoanalysts
14. Which theory seems to deviate most noticeable from traditional
a. Ego Psychologist
b. Object Relations
c. Self Psychology
d. Relational Psychoanalysts
15. Freud and Jung had a major falling out about what?
a. The name of the Vienna Psychoanalysis Society.
b. The role of sexuality in regard to human behavior.
c. The role of the ego.
d. All of the above
16. Jung’s theory of personality is comprised of dimensions that
are opposite concepts that balance each other. The dimension
that allows people to understand themselves and others is:
A. Introvert/Extrovert (I/E).
B. Sensing/Intuition (S/I).
C. Thinking/Feeling (T/F).
D. Judging/Perceiving (J/P).
17. Sarah believes that she must make straight As in all of her
counseling classes. According to Adler, she is making which
basic mistake?
a. Distorted attitudes about self
b. Distorted goals
c. Distorted conclusions
d. None of the above
18. Which of the following, according to Individual Psychology, is
the most important force in how individuals form their
a. The creative power of the individual
b. Birth order
c. Parenting style
d. Sex
19. Early recollections are used to:
a. gain true information about an individual’s early experience.
b. diagnose social interest.
c. understand lifestyle.
d. b and c
20. The most important goal in Adlerian counseling is:
a. decreasing symptoms.
b. accepting one’s sex.
c. resolving neurotic conflicts.
d. increasing social interest.
21. Darby, age 12, is always wanting to stay up late. His father
lets Darby stay up as late as he wants, but insists that Darby
get up on time and get to school. Darby protests, saying that
he is too tired. Father insists, and Darby drags himself out of
bed and off to school. The father is using which Adlerian
a. Allowing natural consequences
b. Using logical consequences
c. Imaging
d. Catching oneself
22. Which of the following is NOT a criticism of Individual
a. Too simple
b. Blatant disregard for social class
c. Stereotyping of sex roles
d. Failure to consider unconventional families
23. Adler believed that one’s personality is formed by:
a. age 6.
b. adolescence.
c. middle teens.
d. none of the above
24. One’s level of social interest, according to Adler, is:
a. innate.
b. relatively unaffected by family influences.
c. passed on unconsciously through a multigenerational process.
d. affected by problems in development.
25. Adler thought that dreams:
a. express unconscious conflicts.
b. represent some current problems of the person.
c. were great diagnostic tools.
d. were not of interest in helping the client.
26. The most useful skill in the Person Centered counselor’s
arsenal is:
a. empathy.
b. interpretation.
c. insight.
d. teaching.
27. When a person talks a lot about external events, expresses few
feelings, and has certainty about themselves, the Person
Centered Therapist would conclude:
a. they are probably not ready for therapy.
b. change is not likely.
c. he or she is in stage one of the therapy process.
d. all of the above
28. The MOST important element(s) in Person Centered therapy
a. thoughts.
b. feelings.
c. behavior.
d. physiology.
29. When a client in Person Centered counseling shows resistance,
they are likely reacting to:
a. the therapist’s unconditional positive regard.
b. their inner conflicts.
c. the therapist’s interpretations.
d. none of the above
30. Defensiveness is the hallmark of a person traditionally
described as:
a. neurotic.
b. psychotic.
c. depressed.
d. all of the above
31. One problem with research on Person Centered Therapy is that:
a. not much has been done.
b. Carl Rogers discouraged research.
c. you can’t do research when the therapist is nondirect.
d. it is difficult to operationalize some of the constructs.
32. According to Person Centered theory, human aggression is:
a. a natural part of life.
b. not a part of the human psyche.
c. to be suppressed in counseling.
d. part of the conditions of worth.
33. According to Person Centered theory, when we start to be
aware of experience that is counter to our self concepts, we
are first likely to:
a. act out.
b. subceive them.
c. repress them.
d. let them fully into awareness.
34. Authenticity involves:
a. courage.
b. determination.
c. willingness to face our own anxiety about not being.
d. all of the above
35. The most severe type of meaninglessness, according to Maddi
(2005) is:
a. nihilism.
b. vegetativeness.
c. comatose.
d. none of the above
36. Which of the following is NOT a theme seen in contemporary
ET approaches?
a. Relationship
b. Empathy
c. Understanding
d. Flexibility
37. Bugenthal and Kleiner (1993) identified four stages of the ET
therapy process. What is the correct order for them?
a. Deepening the client’s concern, developing the alliance, inner exploration, working through the resistance
b. Working through resistance, developing the alliance, inner exploration, deepening the client’s concern
c. Developing the alliance, deepening the client’s concern, inner exploration, working through the resistance
d. Inner exploration, working through the resistance, deepening the client’s concern, developing the alliance
38. An ET counselor asks her client to mediate on her death,
picture her funeral, write her obituary and decide what she
would wear. This technique is known as:
a. bracketing.
b. guided fantasy.
c. deflection.
d. paradoxical intention.
39. Healthy contact with the environment, according to Gestalt
theory, results in:
a. assimilation.
b. accommodation.
c introjection.
d. confluence.
40. Tammy is angry because her boyfriend, Shane, has dumped
her. Every time his name is mentioned she clenches her fist,
as to not hit herself, as evident with the bruises on her arms
and leg. According to Gestalt Therapy, she is experiencing:
a. introjection.
b. retroflection.
c. confluence.
d. suppression.
Please answer questions 41 – 43 based on the paragraph below:
George is your client who is coming to counseling because he is depressed about his father’s recent death. He has told you that he has great difficulty dealing with authority figures, and after some discussion, you find out that George did not get along well with his father when he was young.
41. If you are a Gestalt Therapist, you will probably conclude that
a. is experiencing unfinished business.
b. has disowned some feelings.
c. is probably operating on the basis of interjected shoulds.
d. all of the above
42. As a Gestalt Therapist, you are authentic in your interaction
with George, but not terribly invested in helping him change.
You are displaying:
a. creative indifference.
b. inappropriate behavior.
c. retroflection.
d. affirmation of the self.
43. You find yourself being angry with George’s father for the way
he treated George as a child. According to Gestalt Therapy,
you are probably experiencing:
a. reactive countertransference.
b. proactive countertransference.
c. proactive transference.
d. reactive transference.
44. Gestalt therapists would be likely to use which of the
following techniques?
a. Dreamwork
b. Dialog
c. Hypnosis
d. A and B
45. Maladaptive behavior in Gestalt Therapy would NOT be likely to include:
a. inability to complete gestalts.
b. dichotomizing the self.
c. disowning parts of self.
d. cognitive distortion.
46. Gestalt Therapists believe that contact:
a. facilitates the development of a healthy sense of self.
b. is a trivial component of a person’s more important daily activities.
c. prevents healthy growth and development.
d. is a positive way to reframe aggression.
47. Which of the following statements best describes research that
has tested the quality of Gestalt Theory?
a. Gestalt Therapy Theory is easily testable and based on sound analog studies.
b. Gestalt Therapy Theory is difficult to test because of constructs that are difficult to operationalize.
c. Gestalt Therapy Theory is easily testable, but the results do not generalize to other samples.
d. Gestalt Therapy Theory is difficult to test because it is difficult to recruit participants for studies.
Dave has a shoe phobia. It has gotten so bad that he can’t go to work because he works construction and his boss will not allow him to come to work barefoot. Dave consults with Phil the behavior therapist. Phil discovers that when Dave was young, his dad would beat Dave with his wingtips when he did something wrong.
48. Phil notes that Dave, until recently, has been able to wear
shoes for short periods of time. However, Dave’s phobia has gotten worse lately. Phil thinks that:
a. Dave’s father has been around when Dave has been wearing shoes.
b. removing his shoes reduces Dave’s anxiety.
c. removing his shoes is reinforcing to Dave.
d. all of the above
49. Which technique is Phil likely to use to help Dave?
a. Extinction
b. Punishment
c. Positive reinforcement
d. Systematic desensitization
50. Which one of the following is not associated with Behavior Therapy?
a. Skinner
b. Watson
c. Adler
d. Pavlov
51. I am trying to train my dog Fido to sit. Every time he sits, I
give him a cookie. Before I can get the behavior perfectly every time, Fido wanders off and jumps in the nearby lake. What has most likely happened here?
a. I have become negatively reinforcing to my dog.
b. He experiences sitting as punishment.
c. He has become satiated on dog cookies.
d. none of the above
52. Another explanation for Fido’s behavior could be:
a. he is picking up on my frustration.
b. the lake is more reinforcing than dog cookies.
c. he is bored and needs some new excitement.
d. lake jumping has been reinforced in the past.
53. Money is a _______ reinforcer.
a. generalized
b. conditional
c. classical
d. generalized conditioned
54. Behavior Therapy has been criticized for all of the following
a. it is simplistic (too simple)
b. the ignoring affect
c. behaviorists are cold-hearted
d. it is not very operationalizable
55. Ronnie and his counselor are constructing a anxiety hierarchy.
What technique is being used?
a. Extinction
b. Paradoxical Intervention
c. Exposure and response prevention
d. Systematic desensitization
56. The Little Albert case study demonstrated:
a. fears could be classically conditioned.
b. the principles of reinforcement.
c. the value of punishment.
d. all of the above
57. In REBT, D stands for:
a. dogmatic.
b. disastering.
c. dysfunctional belief.
d. none of the above
58. When the counselor disputes my idea that people will make
fun of me if I dance poorly, she is using:
a. elegant REBT.
b. inference chaining.
c. inelegant REBT.
d. a and b
59. Elegant REBT has the following outcomes EXCEPT:
a. commitment to something outside one’s self.
b. clients learn the differences between preferences and demands.
c. clients learn a better life philosophy.
d. clients get insight into the development of their irrational
60. In REBT, resistance is seen as originating in:
a. the client’s tendency to be irrational.
b. the client’s belief that the therapist is mistaken.
c. unconscious motivation to defeat the therapist.
d. a and b
61. The REBT Counselor asks the client, “Does it follow that if you got fired from this job you will never succeed at keeping
one?” The therapist has just used which technique?
a. Logical disputation
b. Empirical disputation
c. Functional disputation
d. Pragmatic disputation
62. The best client outcome in REBT involves:
a. differentiation.
b. symptom remission.
c. better interpersonal relationships.
d. adopting a new life philosophy.
63. Holly is very concerned with her appearance and thinks that
if she sets foot out of her house without makeup, people would
turn away from her because she is so ugly and that would be
awful. Holly’s irrational belief is:
a. that people would laugh at her.
b. that it would be awful if people turned away from her.
c. that she can’t set foot out of her house without makeup.
d. that she is ugly.
64. Holly’s REBT Therapist decides that she should paint her face
blue and walk around the mall. Robert, the REBT Counselor,
has assigned a(n):
a. interpersonal nightmare.
b. proselytizing task.
c. shame attacking exercise.
d. reframing task.
65. Cognitive Therapy has been criticized for which of the
a. Constructs are often difficult to operationalize.
b. There is not enough emphasis on cultural factors that influence the client.
c. There is not enough attention paid to familial influences.
d. All of the above
66. Which of the following does not fit with the others?
a. Downward arrow
b. Thought recording
c. Activity scheduling
d. Shame attacking
67. Researchers who have studied Cognitive Therapy generally
report finding:
a. consistent empirical evidence to support the causal model
of depression.
b. consistent empirical evidence to support the descriptive model of depression.
c. consistent empirical evidence to support Cognitive Therapy as the preferred method of treatment for depression when compared to other treatment modalities.
d. limited empirical evidence to support the descriptive model of depression.
68. Which of the following is LEAST likely to be included as a goal
in the treatment plan of a client who is receiving Cognitive
a. Development of adaptive problem solving strategies
b. Demonstration of a shift from primitive to more reflective operations
c. Development of awareness of unconscious motives that are driving behavior
d. Demonstration of the ability to generalize material learned in therapy sessions to every day life
69. Cognitive structures used to organize information are known
a. schemas.
b. triads.
c. neurons.
d. functionals.
70. The initial roles of the therapist and client in Cognitive
Therapy are MOST like:
a. co-therapists
b. doctor-patient
c. parent-child
d. fellow travelers
71. Empirical evidence supports that a causal relationship exists
a. cognitions and psychological distress.
b. cognitions and psychological well-being.
c. sociotrophy, autonomy and psychological distress.
d. none of the above
72. Which of the following is an example of a constructive mode
according to Cognitive Therapy theory?
a. Recreational activities
b. Creativity
c. Feelings of happiness
d. Perceptions of threat
73. Helen arrived for her therapy session and reported to her
therapist that she is “a terrible mother” because she forgot to
make cookies for her daughter’s snack time at school today.
Helen’s therapist knows from previous sessions that Helen
works very hard to maintain open communication with her
daughter about school and her friendships and has a schedule
at home that is predictable. Helen’s therapist is MOST likely
to conclude that Helen is demonstrating which of the following
cognitive distortions?
a. Emotional reasoning
b. Tunnel vision
c. Magnification/minimization
d. Overgeneralization
74. Reality Therapy advocates advise that parents should evaluate
their parenting behavior according to whether:
a. their kids adopt good values.
b. it brings them closer to their kids.
c. it meets the kids’ needs.
d. it meets the parents’ needs.
75. “Never give up” would be the mantra of the _______ Therapist.
a. Gestalt
b. Family Systems
c. Reality
d. Interpersonal
76. The key difference between the Cognitive Therapist’s and
Reality Therapist’s idea of the need for power is that Cognitive
Therapists assert that _____ and Reality Therapist’s assert that
a. humans want power for the sake of having it; power is a means to an end of survival
b. power is a means to an end of survival; humans want power to satisfy aggressive urges
c. humans want power to compensate for their irrational beliefs; power satisfies the need for superiority
d. power is a means to an end of survival; humans want power for the sake of having it
77. The focus of Reality Therapy on personal choice makes it a(n):
a. difficult theory to use with clients who are from minority and disadvantaged cultures.
b. useful theory for working with clients who are from minority and disadvantaged cultures.
c. difficult theory to use with clients from the majority culture.
d. useful theory for working with clients who are physically disabled.
78. Which of the following is a central construct of Reality Therapy?
a. Quality time
b. Basic needs
c. Basic mistakes
d. Organismic valuing
79. According to Reality Therapy Theory, a counselor who talks
about transference is:
a. using a theoretically realistic construct.
b. transferring her own issues onto the client.
c. avoiding responsibility for the relationship.
d. meeting her own needs for power.
80. The philosophy of humans that is adopted by Reality
Therapists asserts that humans:
a. are subject to environmental influences.
b. have no desire to have control over their lives.
c. are drive by a variety of internal impulses.
d. are able to make choices to exert more control over their lives.
81. Glasser asserts that human behavior is a function of the:
a. drive to satisfy basic needs.
b. environmental constraints that are placed on the individual.
c. parental influence that remains over them.
d. extent that they are involved in interpersonal relationships.
82. Which of the following is NOT one of Reality Therapy’s basic human needs?
a. Love
b. Security
c. Power
d. Fun
Shanelle is seeing Betty F, the feminist therapist because she is having panic attacks.
83. Betty and Shanelle analyze the effects that being African
American and female have in Shanelle’s life. Betty is likely to
be which kind of Feminist Therapist?
a. Radical
b. Liberal
c. Cultural
d. None of the above
84. Which of the following techniques is Betty LEAST likely to use
with Shanelle?
a. Systematic desensitization
b. Gender role analysis
c. Self disclosure
d. Assertiveness training
85. According to Feminist Therapists, women get diagnosed as
dysfunctional because:
a. stereotypically feminine traits are not valued by society.
b. male traits set the standard for health.
c. society ignores the oppression of women.
d. all of the above are true
86. Cultural Feminists are known to focus on _______ whereas
Socialist Feminists are known to focus on _________.
a. the difference between males and females; cultural norms of femininity
b. cultural norms of femininity; the differences between males and females
c. oppression due to minority status; oppression due to social class
d. oppression due to social class; oppression due to minority status
87. Feminist Therapists are often criticized because:
a. the underlying theory of FT is too complex, making it
difficult to use with most clients.
b. psychotherapy is inherently oppressive.
c. FT focuses too much on techniques and not enough on
philosophy and theory
d. it is only applicable to white, middle class adolescent
88. In Feminist Therapy, the roles of client and counselor are:
a. teacher-student.
b. egalitarian.
c. expert-expert.
d. b and c
89. Feminist Therapists promote:
a. clients’ adherence to traditional sex roles.
b. an egalitarian therapy relationship.
c. conformity to societal norms.
d. individual therapy over group therapy for all clients.
90. The founder of Feminist Therapy is:
a. Nancy Murodck.
b. Hillary Clinton.
c. Betty Friedan.
d. None of the above
91. Feminist Therapists like to use what to diagnose their clients?
b. Chesler’s (1972) book, Women and Madness
c. Brown’s (2002) book, Subversive Dialogs
d. none of the above
92. When stress levels rise in a family that is of relatively low
differentiation, which of the following is likely to be observed?
a. Problems in the couple relationship.
b. Dysfunction in a child.
c. Dysfunction in one of the partners.
d. All of the above are possible.
93. Which of the following is NOT likely to be characteristic of a Bowenian Family Therapist?
a. Joins with the family
b. Maintains an “I” position
c. Relies on objective thought and observation rather than empathy
d. Relates in a genuine manner
94. Family Systems Theories are often criticized for:
a. allowing the client to “control” the direction of the therapy.
b. the role of the therapist as the “expert” and client as “passive”.
c. both the client and therapist being considered “experts”.
d. its relatively “loose” application of constructivism.
95. Which of the following statements is NOT accurate regarding
the outcome research that has been conducted on Family
Systems Theories?
a. All of the Family Systems Theories appear to be effective.
b. Relatively few studies exist that examine the efficacy of
specific Family Systems Theories.
c. Researchers studying the efficacy of Family Systems
Theories have typically used controlled clinical trials to do
d. Outcome research is difficult to conduct due to the lack of
manualized treatment programs for Family Systems
96. Theorists from which of the following orientations tend to be
the harshest critics of Family Systems Theories?
a. Person Centered
b. Behaviorism
c. Gestalt
d. Feminist Therapy
97. Solution Focused Therapy is known to focus particularly on:
a. stages of personality development across the lifespan.
b. human nature.
c. mechanisms of change.
d. the etiology of problems.
98. Solution Focused Therapists believe that it is preferable to
____ during the initial session with a client.
a. form a solvable complaint
b. conduct a thorough social history of the client
c. solve the client’s presenting problem
d. a and c
99. A(n) __________ letter can be composed for clients who are
reluctant about therapy to acknowledge the client’s choice and
control in his/her life.
a. encouraging
b. persuasive
c. readiness
d. none of the above
100. A criticism of Narrative Therapy is that:
a. it is too difficult to read and understand.
b. it loses the family.
c. it does not include a more defined theoretical structure.
d. all of the above