5340 u5 d2 effective communication in coalition building

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5340 U5 D2 Effective Communication in Coalition Building

In your Developing Nonprofit and Human Service Leaders textbook, there is
a discussion of two tools for effective communication in organizations and
teams: active listening and emotional intelligence. As related in the text, the
concept of emotional intelligence has been gaining attention over the past
two decades, with more research and the emergence of tools for measuring
emotional intelligence.

In your initial post, discuss how a leader of a multi-organizational team
would use active listening and emotional intelligence skills to help move the
team forward in a collaborative project. How would the addition of emotional
intelligence skills add to the ability to achieve results beyond those that
active listening skills or skills as a subject matter expert alone would
achieve? Support your post by citing the article by Mathew and Gupta
(2015) from the Studies for this unit or by citing other current literature on
emotional intelligence.

NOTE: Minimum of 350 words and 1 scholarly journal

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Full Text | Scholarly Journal

Transformational Leadership : Emotional Intelligence

Mathew, Molly; Gupta, K S. SCMS Journal of Indian Management; Kochi Vol. 12, Iss. 2, (Apr-Jun 2015): 75-89.

https://capella.alma.exlibrisgroup.com/openurl/01CAPELLA_INST/01CAPELLA_INST:Services?
genre=article&atitle=Transformational+Leadership+%3A+Emotional+Intelligence&author=Mathew%2C+Molly%3BGupta%2C+K+S&volume=12&issue=2&spage=75&date=2015-
04-01&rft.btitle=&rft.jtitle=SCMS+Journal+of+Indian+Management&issn=0973-3167&isbn=&sid=ProQ%3Aabiglobal_

Abstract

In this paper efforts are made to develop a conceptual framework of the relationship between Transformational Leadership (TL) and Emotional Intelligence (EI). It is important
to know more about this relationship, because a growing body of research indicates that transformational leaders are smart with their feelings and they drive the emotions of
those they lead in the right direction. Transformational leadership style is relationship centered and transformational leaders influence the team to do more than expected.
People will follow a leader who inspires them. This research paper develops the relationship framework after an intensive literature search on TL and EI. This framework is used
in developing a measuring instrument and the relationship between TL and EI is empirically examined among 300 leaders from different industries.

Headnote
Abstract

In this paper efforts are made to develop a conceptual framework ofthe relationship between Transformational Leadership(TL) and Emotional Intelligence(EI). It is important to
know more about this relationship, because a growing body of research indicates that transformational leaders are smart with their feelings and they drive the emotions of
those they lead in the right direction. Transformational leadership style is relationship centered and transformational leaders influence the team to do more than expected.
People will follow a leader who inspires them. This research paper develops the relationship framework after an intensive literature search on TL and EI. This framework is used
in developing a measuring instrument and the relationship betweenTL and EI is empirically examined among 300 leaders from different industries.

Key Words : Emotional Intelligence, Emotions, Transformational Leadership, Leadership.

Organizations are made of people, processes and property. Current trend shows that company’s people are the differentiator. Today, businesses can find meaningful advantage
by focussing on the relationships with people whether it be customers, employees or leaders.

It is generally accepted that leaders with strong analytical skills perform better than leaders without these skills. But sometimes very intelligent leaders fail. Often these
failures are due to problems that arise while relating to team members or bosses or clients. In today’s business environment intellect alone won’t make great leaders.In a
study, Joseph (1998) found that while IQ scores had no predictive value (correlation of .07 with performance), EQ scores predicted 27% of job performance.

Leaders are being judged by their ability to handle themselves and the team. A leader with vision and passion can achieve great things by injecting enthusiasm and energy.
Today leaders are expected to guide, motivate, inspire, listen, persuade, and create significance. Hence dealing with emotions is a crucial part of a leaders’ success.

Great leadership requires excellence in many areas- strategy, execution, discipline, innovation, and analysis. However being smart with feelings has received the least attention
and could be one of biggest drivers to managing many relationship challenges that leaders face at work. In reality effective leaders work through emotions (Goleman et ah,
2002).

The role of emotional intelligence in forecasting effective leaders is an area of research that is gaining energy and popularity in Industrial/Organizational psychology (Goleman,
1995,1998a,b, 2000; Sosikand Megerian, 1999; Miller, 1999; George, 2000; Barling etal, 2000; Watkin, 2000; Dulewicz, 2000; Palmer et al., 2001 ).

Transformational Leadership

Leadership is undergoing a fundamental transformation today. The transformationfrom a leader as a boss and critic to leader as a partner and coach. This transformed role
requires certain skills because leadership is what you do with people, not to them.

Evidence from an array of studies has supported the positive effect of Transformational Leadership (TL) on productivity, job satisfaction, stress, and commitment (Bass, 1985;
Howell and Avolio, 1993; Bass and Avolio, 1994; Avolio and Yammarino, 2002; Dionne, Yammarino, Atwater and Spangler, 2004). Therefore, it can be assumed that the skills
of transformational leadership would encourage performance and innovation in this rapidly changing marketplace.

The four characteristics of TL as identified by previous researchers (Bass, 1985,1990; Bennis and Nanus, 1985; Bass and Avolio, 1989; Podsakoff et al., 1996) are as follows :

a. Idealized influence where the leader is seen as a role model,

b. Inspiration motivation where the leader inspires motivation and team spirit,

c. Intellectual stimulation where the leader stimulates creativity and innovation, and

d. Individualized consideration where the leader mentors and supports each follower.

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By giving meaning and purpose to the work they do, transformational leaders inspire and motivate followers to go beyond expectations (Shamir, 1991).

Transformational leaders use intellectual stimulation to challenge their followers’ customary ways of doing things and encouraging innovative ways of working and solving
problems (Bass andAvolio, 1994,1997).

Bass and Avolio (1997) suggested that transformational leaders attained greater levels of success in the workplace, were promoted more often, produced better financial
results, and were rated to be more effective by their employees than transactional leaders.

Transformational leaders stimulate and inspire followers to achieve extraordinary outcomes and also develop their own leadership capacity. Transformational leaders respond to
individual followers’ needs by empowering them and by aligning the objectives and goals of the followers, the leader, the group, and the organization (Bass and Riggio, 2008).

Emotional Intelligence

Salovey and Mayer (1990) argued in their first article that there is another kind of intelligence called Emotional Intelligence that might help understand better who succeeds
and who does not in business.

Goleman (1995) published his first book on El and popularized the concept to the whole world.Goleman ( 1995) described emotional intelligence in five domains: knowing
one’s emotions, managing one’s emotions, motivating oneself by marshaling emotions, recognizing emotions in others, and managing emotions in others so as to handle
relationships. Leaders who are self aware, who manage themselves, and associate with others are able to nurture a work climate where people feel great and do more and
better work. In “working with emotional intelligence,” Goleman reported that 80-90% of the competencies that differentiate top performers are in the domain of El. The many
pressures on leaders today make emotional intelligence particularly important.

Emotionally intelligent leaders are thought to perform better in the workplace (Goleman, 1998a,b), be happier and more dedicated to their organization (Abraham, 2000), take
advantage of emotions and use them to foresee major improvements in organizational functioning, improve decision making, solve problems, instill a sense of enthusiasm,
excitement, trust and co-operation in other employees through interpersonal relationships (George, 2000).

Emotional Intelligence (El) is about undersatnding and accepting emotions as assets as they convey something. When managed intelligently, leaders gain incredible value from
emotions and develop real self-efficacy. Emotional Intelligence helps leaders make better decisions and gain the full commitment and energy of those they lead (Freedman,
2007).

To show how El predicts performance, leaders in the Australian Tax office were studied by using their assessment tools, performance metrics and self-ratings.

Rosette (2005) found that cognitive ability predicted less than 2 % of the variation in performance and personality predicted nothing, while 25% of the performance variation
was explained by EL

TL and El Relationship

A transformational Leader exhibits empathy, motivation, self-awareness, and self-confidence (Burns, 1978; Bass, 1985). Goleman (1995) described the above qualities to be
subcomponents of emotional intelligence. Emotionally intelligent leaders use empathy to connect to the emotions of the people they lead. These leaders empathize and also
express the emotions that the individual or group is experiencing. The team thus feels understood and cared for by the leader.

Charisma, a trait of a transformational leader, is a well developed social and emotional skill, (Riggio 1986, 1987, 1998). Emotional intelligence is botha core and necessary
component of the personal charisma that is demonstrated by transformational leaders.

Transformational leaders use emotion to communicate their vision and to motivate followers (Conger and Kanungo, 1987, 1994, 1998; House et ah, 1991; Kanungo and
Mendonca, 1996).

Bass (1990) argued that transformational leaders meet the emotional needs of each employee and establish trust, which is a major component of transformational leadership
style. Cooper ( 1997) proposed that trust is important characteristic of emotional intelligence. A trusting environment offers team members with a certain amount of emotional
safety and provides the basis for coordinated effort.

Bass (1990b) described that transformational leaders use motivation to communicate high expectations to their employees. Past researchers (Sosik and Megerian, 1999;
Barling et ah, 2000) have proposed that internal motivation relate well to transformational subscales. Goleman (1995) argued that all effective leaders possess intrinsic or self-
driven motivation. These leaders strive to achieve beyond expectations. Self Motivation, a component of El, is also a characteristic trait of transformational leaders.

Ashforth and Humphrey (1995) noted that transformational leadership appears to be dependent upon the evocation, framing and utilization of emotions. Leaders who are
tuned into theirs and others emotions are better equipped to intervene in emotionally challenging situations through individualized support, empathy and role modeling.

Sosik and Mergerian ( 1999) suggested four points at which EI and TL intersect:

(a) Adherence to professional standards of behavior and interaction, which they related to idealized influence or charisma,

(b) Self-Motivation, the ability to control and influence life events, which they related to the inspirational motivation,

(c) Intellectual stimulation: the leader must be able to stimulate the intellectual and professional development of the followers. Building strong supportive member
relationships and trust helps accomplish this. Bass (1990) established trust to be a major component of transformational leadership style. And Cooper ( 1997) proposed that
trust is important characteristic of emotional intelligence, and

(d) Individual focus on others, which they related to, individualized attention.

Ashkanasy and Tse (2000) opined that transformational leaders are sensitive to needs of their followers, show empathy and are able to understand how others feel. A leader
with high emotional management skills looks out for the needs of others over his or her personal needs.

Barling et al. (2000) concluded that emotional intelligence is positively related to three components of transformational leadership (idealized influence, inspirational motivation,
and individualized consideration). They reported the highest correlations between emotional intelligence and inspirational motivation, indicating that the emotional intelligence
dimension of understanding emotions is particularly important in leadership effectiveness. They suggested that emotional intelligence predisposes leaders to use
transformational behaviors.

Palmer etal. (2001) observed several significant correlations between transformational leadership and emotional intelligence. The ability to monitor and the ability to manage
emotions in oneself and others significantly correlated with the inspirational motivation and individualized consideration. Second, the ability to monitor emotions within oneself
and others correlated significantly with the idealized influence.

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The level of emotional intelligence of leaders governs their ability to manage the feeling and emotions of the teams and motivate them to meet its goals (Lutzo, 2005). Such
leaders inspire their team through positive thoughts and clear vision.

Every leader has the ability to develop the emotional competencies of the team and become a resonant leader. Leaders with high emotional intelligence are self-aware and they
understand themselves. They are hopeful, compassionate and mindful. Effective leaders are familiar with their people’s feelings and motivate them in a positive direction. This
resonance comes naturally to emotionally intelligent leaders and this resonance boosts performance (Goleman et al., 2002).

Sixty-two CEOs and their top management teams were assessed on their energy, enthusiasm and determination levels. The study showed that the more positive the overall
moods of people in the top management team, the more cooperative they were and the better the company’s business results (Goleman, Boyatzis and McKee,2002).

Accurately recognizing emotions in others is critical to the capacity of leaders to inspire and build relationships (Caruso etal., 2002).

A leader’s ability to stimulate, inspire and lead an individual is thought to be closely connected to the emotional intelligence of the leader (Riggio and Pirozzolo, 2002).

Sivanathan and Fekken (2002) found a significant correlation between EI and TL among 12 university residence hall staff supervisors. Gardner and Stough’s (2002) study
supported the existence of a strong relationship between transformational leadership and overall emotional intelligence. The outcomes of leadership (extra effort, effectiveness
and satisfaction) were all found to correlate significantly with the components of emotional intelligence as well as with total emotional intelligence. Each outcome of leadership
correlated the strongest with the dimension of understanding of emotion external.

Empathetic response was found to be the most consistent antecedent of transformational leadership behaviors. This finding is consistent with the findings of Kellett et al.
(2002) and Wolff et al. (2002) that empathy predicts leader emergence. This shows that leaders with empathy for colleagues are more likely to be transformational in their
approach.

Transformational leaders get followers to envisage an attractive future and motivate them to be committed in reaching that future. Such leaders also develop team spirit by
role modeling enthusiasm, high moral standards, integrity, optimism, and provide meaning and challenge to the work followers do, and in the process they enhance the self
efficacy, meaning, confidence and self determination of followers (Avolio et al., 2004)

Rubin et al. (2005) attempted to study if the tendency to be more transformational can be predicted. They narrowed the investigation to two important individual differences
namely emotional intelligence and personality traits. The results showed that emotional recognition, positive affectivity and agreeableness were positively linked to TL behavior.
Within emotional intelligence, perceiving emotions is specifically important for TL behavior.

Downey et al. (2005) studied the relationship between leadership style, intuition, and emotional intelligence in female managers and found that managers displaying
transformational leadership behaviors were more likely to display higher levels of El and intuition. Intuition correlated significantly with emotional recognition and expression,
and emotions direct cognition.

Barbuto and Burbach (2006) explored the relationship between EI and TL and found that El (including all components) shared positive relationships with each subscale of TL.
Empathetic response shared significant positive relationships with transformational leadership. Leaders demonstrating empathy also exhibited greater degrees of intellectual
stimulation and individualized consideration.

From the above studies it is seen that the ability to manage one’s emotions and the emotions of others is the best predictor of transformational leadership behaviors.

The area of Transformational Leadership and Emotional Intelligence as a measure to improve workplace relationships and productivity, is the focus of this paper.

In this paper an attempt is made to do study the relationship between TL and El and develop a framework connecting the two concepts.

? From all of the research discussed in this literature review, we begin to see that there is emotional intelligence components in transformational leadership.

? Transformational leadership andEmotional Intelligence are based on relationships and are thus related to each other.

? The ability to manage emotions of self and others, is the best predictor of transformational leadership.

? Empathy is seen as the most consistent antecedent of transformational leadership. A leader’s emotional expression does affect the team.

? Charisma, influence, intellectual stimulation and individualized attention all intersect with Emotional Intelligence.

? Transformational leadership and Emotional Intelligence encourage innovative ways of working and solving problems.

? Trust and supportive relationship with the leader is important. Trust is established to be a major component of transformational leadership style. And trust is an important
characteristic of emotional intelligence.

Emotional Intelligence and Transformational Leadership -A Conceptual Framework

Based on the above discussion, a conceptual framework relating Transformational Leadership with Emotional Intelligence is developed and shown below.

The method used to study the relationship between TL and El

The following section describes the methods used to measure TL and El and to empirically examine the relationship between them. TL and El were measured by having the
respondents reply to a relatively simple questionnaire having 46 questions around the 4variables of TL (Creating A Shared Vision, Inspiring To Go Beyond, Integrity
Demonstration, Building Effective Relationships) and 5 variables of El (Identifying One’s Emotions, Understanding Other’s Emotions, Managing Emotions, Internal Motivation,
Empathy). The 20 questions for Transformational leadership were framed after looking into various leadership inventories and rewording them according to the current need.
The 26 questions for El were adapted from the Six Seconds International Emotional Intelligence tool.

The Population Sample Studied: The sample used in the present study to empirically examine the relationship between TL and El is 300. The results of the 300 participants,
who completed the questionnaire, were examined. Based on the nature of study, it was seen necessary to use correlation in analyzing the results. The results of this study are
presented below and the objective is to examine the extent to which TL and El are related.

This sample (n=300) included individuals from seven different industries such as Financial services, IT services, Educational Services, Health Services, Hospitality, NGO and
Retail. The Sample comprised 60% male and 40% female.

Observations on the profiling: Although majority of the respondents are male at 60%, there is a very close percentage of women at 40%. Two thirds of the sample population
are married. More than half the population falls between the age group of 26 to 35 years. Almost a third of the population is between 36 and 45 years of age. Almost three
fourths of the population has an experience range of 6 to 15 years.

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Post Graduates seem to dominate this category followed by the graduates. All of the population handles a team and majority handle a team of under 10 members. Major
contribution of responses was from the financial and IT sectors. 59% of responses are from the senior level and 30% from the middle level.

There are clear high points in the demographic categories such as age, education, experience and designation levels that may positively affect the perception and
understanding of the various variables discussed in the questionnaire.

When observing the TL construct, the similarity in the range of values in the TL factors strengthen the validity of the data collected.

The mean in each of the El categories is on the higher score range which shows clarity in the interpretation of the variables under study. The mean and standard deviation
values for all the factors are in a close range of variation, which is a positive indication for the study. The similarities in the values go on to strengthen the attributes of the
population. The variation in the values between each factor is low which shows the construct is good. Also while comparing the individual standard deviation values, they are
not very deviant from their respective means. All this means that the study has good levels of accuracy.

A preliminary comparison of the two constructs (TL and El) shows similarity in the patterns formed by the Mean and Standard deviation values that could translate to prove the
commonality in the attributes. It is to be observed that the standard deviation is slightly higher in the TL construct but that can be attributed to the transitional quality of the
factors of the two constructs. Leaders with high El exhibit transformational behaviors and this relationship exists because of the strong emotional relationship that is obvious
between the leader and the follower in a transformational leadership style (Goleman, 1995; Megerian and Sosik, 1996; and Cooper, 1997).

A similarity in the values is significant enough to show that a relationship exists between the two constructs.

The Mean and Standard Deviations of EI and TL construct are similar but not the same. This could be because El may seem more controllable as it has to do with self primarily,
as compared to Leadership where influencing others is critical.

Correlation Analysis Between TL and El

The next step is to examine the relationship between TL and EL The correlation coefficient is a number between -1 and 1 that indicates the strength of the linear relationship
between two variables. The purpose is to measure the closeness of the linear relationship between TL and EL

The correlation between the 4 TL dimension scores and the 5 El dimension scores were compared in the sample studied (300 valid cases). The correlation between the total
and individual dimension scores of TL and El indicated a relationship between the two constructs.

The value of “r” according to the theoretical interpretation guidelines is not very high. However in some fields of study e.g. Social or Behavioral Sciences, a correlation of r=0.3
or r=0.4 may be called “strong” or even “very strong.” Hence the behavioral nature of this study provides a strong support to the values being low. Keeping the above
interpretation in perspective, 0.35 is not weak. Higher values of El do tend to show higher values of TL, as all ‘r’ values are positive which shows an influencing relationship
exists.

The similarity in pattern is rather a highlight compared to the actual numerical value. However the above matrix contains all possible combination of correlation among the two
constructs. It is given that there is an existent correlation, which is a positive outcome to the study.

Also, interpreting the numbers, understanding emotions contributes least in creating a shared vision. El contributes the most in inspiring to go beyond. Comparatively, El has a
significantly high contribution to TL, which establishes the core essence of the study. The significance is 100% in almost all cases except in three dimensions, again the lowest
being 99.6%.

Row-wise Correlation Analysis

Here the row wise observations of the factorial influences are considered. It is observed that the range of the values fall under a very similar category. The variation range is a
maximum of 7% when all the categories are considered. The factors are similar in values because all factors not only contribute individually to TL factors but also cumulatively
to TL.

It is noteworthy to observe the cumulative influence. Cumulative consideration of the factorial influence throws more strength to the objective of the study. Cumulative
influence can be considered here due to the similarity in the contributing factors. This similarity in the ranges goes a long way in understanding the objectives of this study.

Identifying Emotions (IE) produces 27% to 30% effect on the various TL dimensions. The highest contribution of IE is towards Buiding Effective Relationships and TL. The
cumulative contribution to TL (144%) is observed here which leads to an average contribution of 28.8% from each factor.

The range of Correlation of Understanding Emotions (UE) with TL dimensions is 15% to 22%. Highest contribution of understanding emotions is towards’Inspiring to go
beyond.’ TL receives a high enough influence from this factor. The cumulative contribution to TL (91%) is observed here which leads to an average contribution of 18.2% from
each factor.

The range of correlation of Managing Emotions (ME) with TL dimensions is 23% to 26%. Clearly Integrity demonstration and TL is the highest scorer. The cumulative
contribution to TL ( 124%) is observed here which leads to an average contribution of 24.8% from each factor,

Here the Correlation range oflntrinsic Motivation (IM) with TL dimensions is 28% to 35%. Highest being inspiring to go beyond and a very close second highest being TL. The
cumulative contribution to TL (159%) is observed here which leads to an average contribution of 31.8% from each factor.

Correlation of Empathy (EM) with TL dimensions ranges from 17% to 25%. Inspiring to go beyond getting the most contribution and also the TL getting a significantly high
contribution. The cumulative contribution to TL (106%) is observed here which leads to an average contribution of 21.2% from each factor.

The Correlation analysis of the two constructs TL and El is shown here. The range here is 30% to 36%,highest being inspiring to go beyond. TL stands second highest. The
cumulative contribution to TL ( 166%) is observed here which leads to an average contribution of 33.2% from each factor.

Cumulative consideration of the factorial influence considered here shows that the lowest contribution itself is above 90%, which is a good value in itself considering the factor
being ‘Understanding Emotions.’Also it is to be noted that the average contribution derived from the cumulative influence is very close to the individual value of TL. This
confirms the objective of the study. The cumulatively highest influential factor is El, which once again goes on to prove the objective of this study.

Conclusion

In this paper we see that Emotional Intelligence does play a role in Transformational Leadership. The major findings and their implications, importance and limitations are
summarized below.

First, the results from the study show that transformational leadershipand emotional intelligence are related. This confirms earlier studies mentioned in review of literature
(Goleman, 1995, 2002; Sosik and Mergerian, 1999; Ashkanasy and Tse, 2000; Barling et ah, 2000; Palmer et ah, 2000; Gardner and Stough, 2002; Barbuto and Burbach,

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2006 etc.). This confluence of general findings confirms the relationship between the two constructs.

The ability to be aware of our and others emotions, manage them intelligently, be sufficiently self- motivated and empathetic contribute to a transformational leadership style.

The implications of these findings are that it is possible to create El roadmaps for guided intervention to enhance TL. Assessment could identify those specific El factors that
need to be strengthened in order to influence a transformational leadership style. The construction and examination of such roadmap requires a great deal of collaborative
research in this area. Hopefully, the findings presented in this paper will be applied in the workplace to increase a transformational leadership style.

Limitations of the present study

Although this study has generated interesting findings regarding the relationship between TL and El and has provided some suggestions for continued research for applying El
in order to enhance transformational leadership style, the findings need to be replicated on larger and diverse population samples. The overall goal is to help people become
more emotionally intelligent and be more effective in the way they lead and to feel better about themselves. To help meet this challenge, future studies should use a wider
variety of instruments and methods to examine the relationship between TL and EL If we use a variety of approaches to collect and evaluate data, we will be better able to
learn more about these two important constructs, the relationship between them and how best to develop them.

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522.
AuthorAffiliation
Molly Mathew

Corporate Trainer

PhD Scholar, Jain University, Bangalore

Mobile:+91 9916777747

Email id: [email protected]

Dr K. S. Gupta

Director

KSG Center for Learning and Development,

Bangalore, Email: [email protected]

Tel: 9818998047

Email: [email protected]
Copyright School of Communication & Management Studies Apr-Jun 2015

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Subject Studies;
Emotional intelligence;
Correlation analysis;
Leadership;
Employees;
Emotions

Business indexing term Subject: Leadership;
Employees

Classification 9130: Experiment/theoretical treatment
2200: Managerial skills

Title Transformational Leadership : Emotional Intelligence
Author Mathew, Molly; Gupta, K S
Publication title SCMS Journal of Indian Management; Kochi
Volume 12
Issue 2
Pages 75-89
Number of pages 15
Publication year 2015
Publication date Apr-Jun 2015
Publisher School of Communication & Management Studies
Place of publication Kochi
Country of publication India, Kochi
Publication subject Business And Economics–Management
ISSN 09733167
Source type Scholarly Journal
Language of publication English
Document type Journal Article
Document feature Tables; References; Diagrams; Graphs
ProQuest document ID 1695027575
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53

A ccording to research, oral and written communication skills are among the most
important skills for nonprofit leaders to have (Hoefer, 2003). This chapter provides
information about understanding what you want to communicate and communi-

cate well, primarily in one-on-one and collegial situations. Communication is such a vital
skill for nonprofit leaders that we also have Chapter 13, “Persuasion,” and Chapter 14,
“Advocacy,” which also deal with communication. Those chapters are geared toward com-
munication with the purpose of moving others to agree with you and to take certain actions.
The skills in this chapter are important for being able to be persuasive as well, so these
interpersonal skills really form the foundation for communication of all types.

Before moving forward, it is important to remember that the techniques of “communica-
tion” are rarely important for their own sake. Communication, at its core, is sending and
receiving messages—messages of praise, correction, affirmation, hope, affection, or belong-
ing, for example. Leaders must know the techniques of effective communication to make
connections with others within and outside their organization, and to provide a means of
accomplishing organizational goals through the work of those others. The most well-written
and delivered speech, for example, even if it is a wonderful application of “communication
theory,” will fall flat if personal connection is not made.

In this chapter, we have three underlying topics. First, we examine the need for manag-
ers to use active listening techniques; second, we examine management of emotions;
finally, we look at storytelling as a method of making your message resonate. All of these
techniques, when used to communicate with others, are important in developing your
leadership capacity.

ACTIVE LISTENING

Arguably the most important skill for effective personal communication (as a manager
or otherwise) is to be able to use active listening. Based on the work of Carl Rogers, this
process is seen as part of a manager’s job, but the listener must have true empathy for
and trust in the speaker’s ability to self-direct, or else it is impossible to truly listen
actively. Rogers and Farson (1987) indicate that active listening is “the art of listening
for meaning” (p. 1) and that this requires careful listening, but even this alone is not
sufficient.

Active listening, according to Rogers and Farson (1987), brings about better self-
understanding for the speaker who becomes “more emotionally mature, more open to their
experiences, less defensive, more democratic and less authoritarian” (p. 1). The listener also
benefits by obtaining more information from the speaker, developing deep positive relation-
ships, and constructively improving attitudes.

5Personal Communication

Watson, Larry D. (Dan), and Richard A. Hoefer. Developing Nonprofit and Human Service Leaders : Essential Knowledge and Skills, SAGE Publications, Incorporated, 2013. ProQuest
Ebook Central, http://ebookcentral.proquest.com/lib/capella/detail.action?docID=1921122.
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54 LEADERSHIP AND COMMUNICATIONS

To achieve these results, the active listener must use the following techniques.

• Listen for meaning, not just content. Messages and conversations have content, but
content can be surrounded by additional contextual information. For example, a colleague
could tell you, “I just completed the quarterly report for the new project we’re starting,” and
you would be likely to give a positive response. Suppose that colleague told you instead, “I
finally got done with the quarterly report for the director’s pet project—now I can do some
real work!” You would probably understand that a significantly different set of meanings
was intended by your colleague. Even if you gave the same content response, such as
“Congratulations!” it might be construed differently in the two situations by your colleague.
In the first situation, you might find the meaning given to your word as a straightforward
and supportive acknowledgement. In the second situation, however, your coworker might
assume you are being ironic, which could still be seen as supportive, but might be interpreted
as disrespectful by the director if you were overheard.

• Respond to feelings. For active listening to take place, you must let the speaker know
that you have comprehended both the content of the statement and the feelings that
emerge with the content. In the same example, you could be a better listener if you replied,
in the first instance, “Congratulations! That must feel good to have that finished!” and, in
the second, “You sound like you’re not too happy with having to do that job. It must be
a relief to move on to something else.” Neither of these responses takes much longer to say,
but both indicate that you are trying to understand how your coworker feels about what
has just been said.

• Note nonverbal cues. Communication happens through many channels, including
voice tone, speed of talking, volume level, vocal hesitations, facial expressions, hand gestures,
and other body language. To completely understand someone else’s meaning, you must
decode what all these nonverbal signals mean.

While the benefits of active listening are many, there are at least three reasons why people
do not listen actively. Multitasking is a common behavior where we try to do something else
while the speaker is talking. This frequently results in miscommunication because important
nonverbal and emotional cues are not noticed. It is best to lay aside other things and focus
on the speaker when you wish to listen carefully. Some people are unable to actively listen to
a speaker because they are formulating their own responses to the previous statement the
speaker said. They may even be lining up the reasons why the speaker is wrong instead of
following along with what is being said. Remember that you are not engaging in a debate,
but rather attempting to understand the other person’s viewpoint.

Another barrier to active listening that frequently occurs at work is that the person speak-
ing is of lower status than the listener. While we would all like to believe this is not true about
ourselves, the facts are otherwise. Our supervisors and leaders usually receive our attention
because what they say can affect our job situation positively or negatively. It is more difficult
to listen attentively to someone who reports to you, particularly when you have a lot of other
work to complete. It can be even worse if the person speaking is in a different department or
is unknown to you. Unfortunately, we may respond to communications from clients with a
lack of attention as well. Despite our best intentions, we may also harbor biases and preju-
dices about certain populations that get in the way of listening to them. The best way to guard
against these tendencies is to stay aware of our own biases and to feel deeply that each person
has inherent worth, just as Carl Rogers taught.

Becoming skilled in active listening techniques will not solve every problem you encounter
as a manager. You will still need to work with employees who are not performing well. Some
employees may expect you to understand them using ESP, so they don’t need to explain to
you what they are thinking. This is a challenge. Over time, however, using active listening
will make your job easier because you will at least understand what your coworkers want
to tell you. This will go a long way to making every day smoother because your colleagues

Watson, Larry D. (Dan), and Richard A. Hoefer. Developing Nonprofit and Human Service Leaders : Essential Knowledge and Skills, SAGE Publications, Incorporated, 2013. ProQuest
Ebook Central, http://ebookcentral.proquest.com/lib/capella/detail.action?docID=1921122.
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Personal Communication 55

will learn to trust that you will listen to them before you make decisions that affect them.
Your colleagues will have seen you seeking to understand their views first before you take
action. Even if they don’t agree with your final decision, they will be more likely to follow
your lead because their ideas have been heard.

MANAGING YOUR EMOTIONAL SELF

Related to the need to be a skilled active listener, and thus to understand what other people
want to communicate, is the need to manage your own emotional self. While the idea of
emotional intelligence is currently heatedly debated on both conceptual (Eysenck, 2000;
Locke, 2005) and methodological (Brody, 2004) grounds, managers need to understand their
own emotions (as they occur) and be able to handle them appropriately. Managers and lead-
ers are frequently put into positions where conflict is either raging or bubbling under the
surface. Frequently, tough decisions must be made. The outcomes of these decisions can have
severely negative repercussions for some people—staff members might be laid off or fired,
client services reduced, or programs eliminated entirely.

Even if you have used active listening to its fullest, sometimes people are going to be very
distraught and angry. They may yell at you, threaten you, or start other unpleasant or even
dangerous situations. It is at times such as this that your ability to notice how you are feeling
(angry, frightened, irritated, afraid, withdrawn, and so on) is vital. Strong emotions can result
in an “emotional hijacking” (Goleman, 2006) where your feelings literally avoid the rational
parts of your brain and affect your “primitive brain” directly. Such a hijacking can cause you to
invoke the “flight or fight” response, which motivates you to run away or to lash out. Hormones
and adrenaline are immediately released by your body, which then stimulate action without
thought. While this type of reaction is important if one is about to be attacked by a predator, it
has less use in a nonprofit office. Being unable to take control back after an emotional hijacking
can be quite damaging to your career and have negative effects for your organization.

In this type of situation, being able to note and classify your emotional state allows you to
re-route your hijacked brain so that your thoughts go through the rational parts of the cortex,
and allows you to regain the ability to think logically about how to respond to the perceived
danger you face. It may be that you are not threatened nearly as much as you first thought.
Taking the time to calm down enough to think again will usually save considerable amounts
of time later on as you will not need to retrace your steps or attempt to undo hasty actions.

Once the emotions are noted, they have less power to control you. You can also take four
additional steps when confronted with an emotionally difficult situation at work. First, take
control of yourself. If you are not under control, you won’t be able to assist others. One way
to manage yourself is to breathe deeply and slowly, forcing oxygen into your system (which
is good for thinking) and preventing you from rashly taking action. In situations like this, it
is better to take slow steps, even taking a step back mentally, than to jump ahead quickly
without thinking things through. Second, you can also take a few moments to think about
how you would like the situation to end and the steps you can take to achieve that preferred
end. Third, by engaging your active listening skills, you can determine what your colleague
wants from the situation. This act will take time and also help pacify the other person to
some extent. Finally, you can try to interject some humor into the situation. This must be
genuine humor, and preferably self-deprecating, rather than a sarcastic or snide sort of jok-
ing about the other person. While not always an easy thing to do, finding a way to comment
on something funny about yourself or the situation relieves tension and allows for a peaceful
resolution. Many times, a mild disagreement can escalate into something much worse, a
situation that causes lasting damage to relationships and job performance. These few simple
acts on your part can keep communication open.

As a leader, you will at times need to manage your team and their feelings in group (rather
than one-on-one) situations. You must be clear about your own feelings, as noted earlier, and

Watson, Larry D. (Dan), and Richard A. Hoefer. Developing Nonprofit and Human Service Leaders : Essential Knowledge and Skills, SAGE Publications, Incorporated, 2013. ProQuest
Ebook Central, http://ebookcentral.proquest.com/lib/capella/detail.action?docID=1921122.
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56 LEADERSHIP AND COMMUNICATIONS

you can use similar techniques to bring about good results in meetings. One of the more
important elements of communicating during group sessions is to be clear about what others
in the group are thinking and feeling. Often, when there is conflict within a group, or as
options are being discussed, frustrations arise if participants do not feel they are being heard.
You need to ask for clarification and use your active listening skills in these situations. You
should also ask questions and be willing to challenge ideas that are put forth so that pros and
cons can be brought out ahead of any decisions. In addition, it is wise to have the group
discuss issues such as what are “best case” solutions, and what alternative solutions are
acceptable. By separating out these two levels of results, solutions meeting different needs or
views can often be found. By modeling what you expect from others, you will help create a
higher functioning group. In the end, your final decision probably will not make everyone
happy. Still, if the process is open and people have a chance for meaningful participation, you
can usually retain good working relationships.

A final way to keep emotional hijacking from occurring is to take the surprise element out
of the situation. It may not be that your fight-or-flight response is related to the actual topic
(as conflictual as it might be) but rather that your emotions are aroused because of the sud-
denness or unexpectedness of the issue arising at that moment. It is often appropriate to take
a step back and request a short break or to schedule a separate meeting time for topics with
high emotional loads. You will have time to consider what you want to accomplish with the
discussion, as will everyone else involved. By lowering the stress levels for yourself and others,
better decisions will be made.

If you have introduced the concept of emotional hijacking to your coworkers and
explained how our emotions can bypass our logical thinking processes, leading to unneces-
sary escalation of responses to issues, everyone on the team can be on guard to keep the whole
group or a member of the group from succumbing to this common problem. It can even turn
into a group practice that a certain phrase can be used to signal to people that they may need
to check and monitor their emotional situation. When used in this way, the power of the
group is enhanced and individuals within it can be nudged by colleagues to become more
self-aware and productive.

STORYTELLING

Humans have used stories and storytelling since we developed the ability to communicate. It
continues to be a primary means for helping people listen and remember important messages
(Heath & Heath, 2007). Listening to carefully crafted stories has been shown to create changes
in the listener’s brain chemistry, increasing both cortisol (which focuses attention) and oxytocin
(which improves the ability to empathize and create feelings of care) (Zak, 2011).

Excellent stories have advantages for communicating ideas because they have a clear
narrative and so are easy to follow, they are concrete, they are credible, they contain a sur-
prising element, and they pack an emotional jolt. Even mediocre stories that have just some
of these elements help people retain key, simple points that help them act in desired ways
(Heath & Heath, 2007). Stories are seen to be more captivating, conversational, outwardly
focused on the audience, entertaining, compelling, textured, and real than typical organiza-
tional communications (Hoffman, 2011).

Different types of stories exist for different purposes. Simmons (2007) describes many
types of stories that are useful to achieve different types of goals. We look at four here. The
first, “Who I am,” is useful when you want to get across your values and the kind of leader
or person you are. You open yourself up a bit to allow those around you to see who you are.
This type of story is important in job interviews, for example, when interviewers might ask
you to describe a time when you overcame an obstacle, or approached a new situation.
Political candidates have a well-rehearsed story of “Who I am” so they can connect with the
electorate, particularly as they start wooing new sets of voters.

Watson, Larry D. (Dan), and Richard A. Hoefer. Developing Nonprofit and Human Service Leaders : Essential Knowledge and Skills, SAGE Publications, Incorporated, 2013. ProQuest
Ebook Central, http://ebookcentral.proquest.com/lib/capella/detail.action?docID=1921122.
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Personal Communication 57

A second type of story is called the “Why I am here” story, and can be related to the first type.
When you are a leader, people working with and for you want to know not only who you are, but
also why you are in your current position. You’ve chosen to be a part of an organization, in fact,
to be a leader within it. People rightly want to have insight into what you want to accomplish.

Teaching stories are the third type Simmons (2007) discusses. For millennia, the parables
of Jesus, such as the Good Samaritan, or the parables of Aesop, with the story of the Boy Who
Cried Wolf, have become shorthand ways of communicating the right way or the wrong way
to live. If you can encapsulate “best practices” for your organization in a teaching story, you
can be sure that the message will get through.

The fourth type of story communicates a vision. Martin Luther King Jr.’s “I Have a Dream”
speech is such a story, but so is John Kennedy’s speech about sending a man to the moon and
returning him safely. When you and your organization can develop a story of where you want
to go, such inspiration will help you keep going through even massive difficulties. In Chapter 6,
you will read about the value of an organizational vision. Remember that your vision is only a
set of words unless you can get people to act to achieve it. A vision story provides just the means
to make the vision “sticky”—easily remembered and thus capable of being worked toward
(Heath & Heath, 2007).

When you have an important message to deliver to your coworkers, a story might be the
best way to begin. When using storytelling in this way, you need to prepare—few of us are
able to speak extemporaneously in an effective way (although we can get better with prac-
tice). Good stories, even very short ones, often have the following features in common:

1. A protagonist in a situation

2. A challenge (internal and/or external)

3. A resolution to the challenge

4. Moral or application

The first three features together are called the dramatic arc. Longer stories have more
challenges that need to be dealt with, and have smaller resolutions and setbacks along the
way, leading eventually to the ultimate showdown and climax to the story. In the end, some-
thing has changed, whether it is the situation, the protagonist, or both. When stated plainly,
this becomes the moral of the story. Sometimes it is left up to the listeners to determine the
moral for themselves, especially if the story is left unfinished as part of a current situation or
as a way of stimulating engagement in the decision-making process.

Naturally, you will need to speak and write in other ways as well, for example, when com-
municating a set of facts or options that are being considered. Even here, however, you can
incorporate a look at challenges, emotions, and successes in narrative forms that will hold
your audience’s attention and stick in their heads. Once you begin communicating with sto-
ries, you will find that people remember what you have to say and you have more of an
impact (Simmons, 2007).

One of the beneficial aspects of storytelling is that you are forced to determine what point
you wish to make before you can effectively communicate it. We have all been in conversa-
tions with people who want to tell a story that is lacking a dramatic arc, rambles endlessly,
and has no point. As you begin to use stories in your work life, remember to describe a person
or situation, the challenges to be faced, the difficulties in overcoming obstacles, and the ben-
efits that ensue when the deeds are successfully accomplished.

SUMMARY

This chapter has described three areas of interpersonal communication skills that leaders need
to master. The first, active listening, allows you to learn what others think and make good use

Watson, Larry D. (Dan), and Richard A. Hoefer. Developing Nonprofit and Human Service Leaders : Essential Knowledge and Skills, SAGE Publications, Incorporated, 2013. ProQuest
Ebook Central, http://ebookcentral.proquest.com/lib/capella/detail.action?docID=1921122.
Created from capella on 2023-02-08 17:46:37.

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58 LEADERSHIP AND COMMUNICATIONS

of their knowledge because you are listening for meaning. You will be able to make better
decisions with a broader set of facts and emotional understanding by listening actively.
Becoming skilled in emotional management and emotional intelligence was the second topic.
Learning to take charge of your emotions in the service of your work and organization rep-
resents an important aspect of leadership. If you are not in charge of yourself, you are really
not in charge of much at all. Finally, we presented information about storytelling, and the
benefits it can bring to your ability to communicate about yourself, the organization’s view
of best practices, and the future you are working towards.

REFERENCES

Brody, N. (2004). What cognitive intelligence is and what emotional intelligence is not. Psychological
Inquiry, 15, 234–238.

Eysenck, H. (2000). Intelligence: A new look. Piscataway, NJ: Transaction Publishers.
Goleman, D. (2006). Emotional intelligence (10th anniversary ed.). New York: Random House.
Heath, C., & Heath, D. (2007). Made to stick: Why some ideas survive and some die. New York:

Random House.
Hoefer, R. (2003). Administrative skills and degrees: The “best place” debate rages on. Administration

in Social Work, 27(1), 25–46.
Hoffman, L. (2011). Storytelling vs. corporate speak [Web log post]. Retrieved from http://www

.ishmaelscorner.com/2011/09/22/infographic-storytelling-vs-corporate-speak
Locke, E. (2005). Why emotional intelligence is an invalid concept. Journal of Organizational Behavior,

26(4), 425–431. doi:10.1002/job.318.
Rogers, C., & Farson, R. (1987). Active listening. In R. Newman, M. Danzinger, & M. Cohen (Eds.),

Communicating in business today. Lexington, MA: D.C. Heath & Company. Retrieved from http://
www.go-get.org/pdf/Rogers_Farson.pdf

Simmons, A. (2007). Whoever tells the best story wins: How to use your own stories to communicate
with power and impact. New York: American Management Association.

Zak, P. (2011). Trust, morality—and oxytocin [Video file]. Retrieved from http://www.youtube.com/
watch?v=rFAdlU2ETjU

HELPFUL TERMS

Active listening—a type of listening that seeks to understand the meaning behind words
rather than just the words themselves.

Emotional hijacking—a situation where your feelings are strong enough to overcome your
rational thought process.

Emotional intelligence—the concept that there exists a set of skills that allow people to
understand their own and others’ emotions, help them regulate their emotions, and help
them plan and achieve goals in their life.

Teaching story—a type of story that has an explicit moral or lesson that will help listeners
behave in the desired manner after hearing it.

Unconditional positive regard—a term associated with the work of psychologist Carl
Rogers, meaning acceptance of a person as a person, even when you may not agree with his
or her behavior. It is a way for the manager to point out and seek to correct employee mis-
takes or errors without the employee feeling less worthy as a person.

Vision story—a type of story that communicates the preferred future that you or your orga-
nization is working to achieve.

Why I am here story—a type of story that communicates your reason for being in the posi-
tion you are in and what you hope to accomplish.

Watson, Larry D. (Dan), and Richard A. Hoefer. Developing Nonprofit and Human Service Leaders : Essential Knowledge and Skills, SAGE Publications, Incorporated, 2013. ProQuest
Ebook Central, http://ebookcentral.proquest.com/lib/capella/detail.action?docID=1921122.
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Personal Communication 59

Who I am story—a type of story that communicates who the storyteller is by revealing per-
sonal values, beliefs, and history. It is very useful in allowing others to become comfortable
with you as a person because they feel they know you and can perhaps more easily trust you.

EXERCISES

1. In-Basket Exercise

Directions

For this exercise, pretend you are Becky Jones, Communications Director for your
organization. Your boss, the CEO of the entire agency, needs your help. Using the ideas
presented in this chapter, craft a 3 minute presentation with PowerPoint slides (or other
visual aids) or a speech (without visual aids) that will give the CEO something “compelling,
entertaining, and (hopefully) lucrative” as he requests.

Memo

Date: September 1, 20XX

To: Becky Jones, Communications Director

From: Shawn O’Malley, CEO, Youth Services of Eastern Oklahoma

Subject: Message for End of Year Fundraising Kickoff

In two weeks, I will provide the closing talk to the End of Year Fundraising Kickoff Dinner
with some of our best donors. Usually, I list off the goals and objectives we set at the start
of the year and how we’ve done in accomplishing them so far. In the past few years, I have
found that we are not getting the financial benefits from these events that are expected by
members of the board and what our agency needs. I’ve looked in the mirror and found what
I think is the reason for this lack of success. Frankly, I have given boring speeches, but I don’t
know how to make them better.

This year, I am asking for your help to take the usual list of goals, objectives, and results and
turn it into a compelling, entertaining, and (hopefully) lucrative communication with our best
donors. Here are the facts—I would like to hear back from you with your draft by next week.

I know people like to hear how their money is spent, so I have gotten this information for
you. So far this year, we have served 147 youth (85 boys and 62 girls). We have served over
132,000 meals, washed sheets nearly 7,000 times, administered 219 prescriptions, and
bought 46 pairs of glasses, 93 dresses, 151 pairs of pants, 289 shirts/tops, 308 pairs of shoes,
and many dozens of socks and pieces of underclothing. Our cleaning supplies budget is
$12,000. Office supply purchases have topped $14,000, due mainly to the need to upgrade
the computers we have in the residences and offices. Luckily, we were able to get a good price
on those from the local Best Buy store. Grounds-keeping with all this snow we had last win-
ter has run over budget, and stands at $7,450. Utilities are also high this year, costing about
$21,000 so far. We are hoping for a mild winter this year.

The economy of the state has been poor this year, with the economic downturn lingering in
its effects. Unemployment is at 12%, job losses are in the thousands in our area, and natural
disasters are sucking potential donors dry. Our foundation supporters have reduced funding
by 15% over the past three years, and government reimbursements are running six months
behind. Our total income for the year is down 4%, after previous dips of 1% and 6%.

We anticipate that we will exhaust our cash reserves within six months and be forced to
do something drastic to continue serving the same number of clients. We are not likely to be
forced to close our doors next year, but the future after that is rather grim.

Typical client 1: Sally, a 12-year-old girl who has been abused for a period of 10–12
months by a family member. Parents have relinquished rights. Adoption for this type of client
is rare. She is under our care and protection for perhaps the next six years.

Watson, Larry D. (Dan), and Richard A. Hoefer. Developing Nonprofit and Human Service Leaders : Essential Knowledge and Skills, SAGE Publications, Incorporated, 2013. ProQuest
Ebook Central, http://ebookcentral.proquest.com/lib/capella/detail.action?docID=1921122.
Created from capella on 2023-02-08 17:46:37.

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60 LEADERSHIP AND COMMUNICATIONS

Typical client 2: Nicodemus, a 16-year-old boy who is looking at the end of his time with us
in less than two years. He came to our facility after being orphaned a year ago and attempting
to live on the streets. He wants to be independent but doesn’t have strong social or living skills.

Here is our mission, for your easy reference: “We protect children and youth from abuse
and neglect by providing a safe, caring residential alternative when needed.”

As the largest provider of services to youth in the eastern Oklahoma area, we strive to
ensure that no child is left in an unsafe situation for more than 24 hours. We do this through
three emergency shelters, one residential facility, and 43 staff members. We also provide
parent-training programs to prevent problems before they begin. We don’t turn children
away, calling on an extensive network of emergency foster care parents when other resources
are full or otherwise unavailable to meet the needs of impacted children.

See what you can do with this information, will you?

2. How Was Your Day?

Sitting with a partner, tell the story of what you did this morning to get to school or work
on time. Don’t make anything up, just stick to the facts. Complete this task in two minutes
or less. This is the sort of typical “how was your day?” approach to conversation and com-
munication. Listen to your partner’s story. Now, take a 10-minute break and revise your story,
keeping in mind the following prompt: What obstacles did you face to get to or school or
work (internal or external)? How did you address each issue? Were you successful or not?
What lessons can you draw from this experience? Retell the story of your morning.

3. Emotional Self-Management

Think of a situation at work or school where you were quite irritated or angry and you let
it show. Discuss with a colleague or two what happened and what you did. If you were to find
yourself in a similar situation, how could you apply some of the tools for emotional self-man-
agement? Do you think they would be effective in this situation?

4. Active Listening

Active listening is very helpful in many workplace situations. Working with the same person you
talked with in Exercise 3, pretend that you are that person’s instructor or supervisor who witnessed
the situation. Role-play how you would work with your colleague to resolve the situation.

ASSIGNMENTS

1. The concept and measurement of Emotional Intelligence (EI) is controversial. Some
authors say that it doesn’t really exist as an “intelligence.” Write a four- to five-page
paper discussing the main arguments about the validity of EI as a concept. Which side
of the argument do you believe is correct? What are the implications of your position
as a nonprofit manager?

2. The idea of active listening is derived from the work of psychologist Carl Rogers.
Unconditional positive regard is another concept he developed and embraced. Write a
short paper (four to five pages) of the pros and cons of Rogers’ work as it applies to
being a manager or leader in a nonprofit organization. Which techniques, if any,
would you like to incorporate into your management and leadership style?

3. Storytelling is an art and a profession. There are storytelling events and workshops
across the country. If possible, attend one to gain a deeper understanding of this ancient
craft. If you cannot attend one live, locate a book or other training aid about storytell-
ing. Write a review of what you saw, heard, or read, and how you can apply the prin-
ciples to your own life, particularly your life as a nonprofit leader and manager.

Watson, Larry D. (Dan), and Richard A. Hoefer. Developing Nonprofit and Human Service Leaders : Essential Knowledge and Skills, SAGE Publications, Incorporated, 2013. ProQuest
Ebook Central, http://ebookcentral.proquest.com/lib/capella/detail.action?docID=1921122.
Created from capella on 2023-02-08 17:46:37.

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