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Project Part 2. Review the relevant academic research literature (7 to 8 pages)

Once you have identified the relevant OB concepts, models, or theory that might apply to the problem you identified in step 1 above, you should conduct a brief review of the current academic literature relevant to this topic. You should start with the textbook references and snowball backwards or forwards from there. The best way to do this is to use Google Scholar to search for articles. You must provide an integrated summary of the current academic literature based on at least 5 academic articles. You must use academically rigorous articles that come from the approved list of journals I will provide to you or journals articles with my approval as the basis of your literature review. The purpose of the review is to develop and demonstrate an accurate, up-to-date, and integrative understanding of the evidence for the theory and how it works. That is, define the constructs, understand the logic of the relationship among constructs, and demonstrate a nuanced understanding of the situational context factors affecting when or for whom this academic theory is most likely to apply. Each article should be summarized in 1 page and the integrative summary should be 2 to 3 pages for a total of 7 – 8 double spaced pages for this section.

I currently work in a Chinese manufacturing company that mainly produces sugar. This large-scale multi-production company has more than 2,000 employees in China who work in shifts to ensure production efficiency. While working in a manufacturing company, organizational strategies are used while working on sugar production as a final product. The company has more than 200,000 acres of arable land and can purchase more than 16.2 million tons of main raw material sugarcane.

Any organization in the universe faces problems that affect the company positively but takes a high toll on negatively affecting the company. The pain often causes the organization not to execute its duties consecutively. These problems usually start at the grassroots level, where the employees are found. These kinds of problems are referred to as organizational behaviors. Organizational behaviors are the dynamic behavioral aspects that are set on display by groups of people in an organizational setting. Having worked in my company for two years, one of the main problems faced in my company is the difficulty in blending different personalities to become a working team.

The fellow employees in the company come from diverse social and cultural places, thus making it rare to find an organization with all employees having the same personalities. When these employees are assigned to work together, ideologies, beliefs, misconceptions, and self-control are always not the same, thus causing a dividing factor amongst them. Arguments may also occur when tasks are divided among individuals, as some will think the task distribution was not well conducted. This, therefore, causes bad blood between the employees.

On conduction of an interview, a coworker had the mentality that they are assigned tasks according to their social status in society. At this point, equity theory pops up to bringing forward the employee’s concern about equality amongst themselves. Research done by Tanner (2018) supports the theory that equity is one of the many aspects that need to be considered when working with a group. It allows people in a group to work uniformly and unified. When equality is not met, some employees think they deserve better treatment than others. Thus fairness is a virtue that needs to be instilled in any company or organization, and that will allow employees to adjust to working together. Employees are motivated when they both earn an equal amount of wages for the same work rather than finding out that the other earns more wage for the same amount of work done. This eventually demoralizes them. Therefore to motivate the employees and to maintain a unified working strategy for a group of workers, companies need to set forward equity strategies among employees.

The other topic contributing to making personality differences a problem is leadership styles and behavior theories. Most successful organizations and companies are at the top echelon due to their leaders who have made it possible for the companies to catapult to higher levels. Leaders are the ones that influence, motivate, demoralize, value change, and promote values and cultures in an organization. They are the final effectors and executioners in companies and organizations. Cognitive abilities allow for the leaders to relate well with the employees. Some leaders, on the other hand, don’t have these qualities, and instead of unifying their employees, they end up causing divisions in their companies, and they further this by not only choosing sides but by not finding a solution acceptable by all. Leaders need to implement leadership skills and styles that have a positive impact on the personalities of their own employees. They need to build trust among their employees, and thus, they will adjust to following instructions from their leaders. Leaders apply management styles like; accommodating style, in different style, sound style, dictatorial style, and status quo styles to ensure both the company and its employees are considered in any situation without having to bias on one side.

It’s a leader’s job to ensure employees that they need to adjust their personalities in order to work towards a common goal which is the growth of the company or organization. Adjustment in the employees’ personalities can be triggered if the leaders are supportive and participative towards the employees through motivation and awarding employees who work hard to benefit the company at large.

Theories suggest that leaders are not born but made through the behaviors they learn and sometimes copy from other leaders. This theory allows leaders to learn the different personalities of their employees and how to cope with them. Sometimes taking action requires the leaders to study personalities in order to acquire a positive response from those being addressed. This helps in team development, supporting and aligning employees’ objectively promoting commitment and contribution towards organizational benefit.

For example, a study by Wroblewski(2019) shows that Behavioral theories also ensures that leaders notice the different personalities and perception of different employees towards a common objective in order to deduce the best ideology to help solve a problem or execute an organizational objective among many other decision-making momentums. Therefore managers need to incorporate a different set of skills to allow blend and manage different employee personalities. Research by Hassan et al. (2015) indicated how Personalities further a part in agreeableness, openness, neuroticism extraversion, and organizational performance among employees. The linkage is also related to psychology because this relates to the study of people who work together to achieve a goal through the coordination of individual efforts. It seems plausible that Leadership styles moreover moderates the commitments of employees towards their leaders, thus aligning their personalities towards a common person. Leaders need to develop effective communication with their employees. This diverts their personality as a result of the empowerment and mentorship given to them by their leaders, urging them to be more robust a creative in their day-to-day activities in the company. Allowing such a practice encourages and implements changes to the employees as they undergo changes in our modern dynamic world, and thus this will enable them to be comfortable and to ensure they satisfy the needs of the company in which they work.

Students on a study tour to the sugar company where I am employed were required to collect data that will help to provide evidence of the nature and extent of personality difference as a problem in the company. After several interviews with various co-employees, they resorted to the companies archives, where they were allowed to peruse through the company record books for the purpose of finding out how personalities amongst employees affect the company. A computer-generated questionnaire was used to come up with the findings as it was distributed to 10 people in the company who filled the questionnaires.

This project is primarily set up to put forward a conceptualized report that will help organizations and companies to come up with ways to deal with the problem of different personalities among their employees. Questions that were in the questionnaire included: Is equity theory practiced in the company, does leadership skill affect your personality? Do the behavioral theories of leaders affect your personality? , what trends negatively affect your personality as an employee? , Do you think there’s any policy that can be implemented to make your personality comfortable in this company? Those were the questions that were made available in the questionnaire to help in the research study. This study also allowed employees to speak out their grievances anonymously to the companies’ administration as their names were in disguise.

On presentation of results after successfully conducting the study exercises, findings on the questionnaire indicated that employees’ personalities were not considered in decision-making processes made by leaders of the company. The employees also indicated that the styles implemented by the leaders had a toll on their personalities, and they need them to have a better approach towards them by finding out how to relate and coordinate with them without affecting their emotions and personalities in any way possible. One trend that affected employees negatively was the fact that some had to work extra hours without overtime pay; thus, this demoralizes the employee in the company. The survey also brought to light the fact that most companies set rules and regulations that run the companies without considering the employees’ causes disputes between the administration and its employees.

Though the difference in personalities was the main problem facing my company, other companies face different problems that need to be thoroughly researched by researchers in order to ensure the development methods on how to get rid of the for better working experiences in companies and organization across the world. They also urged the need to document surveys for the purpose of future reference to companies that will have similar problems. It was also concluded the agreeing was most effective to the personality of employees as it allowed employees to be more open after they dwell on a common objective. Peterson (2021) states that openness plays a role that ensures employees have an impact on the effectiveness of their companies regardless of the status they hold in the company or organization. It also allows employees to feel satisfied with their decisions; thus, this makes them more motivated and self-driven to ensure the company acquires the best while, on the other hand, their flexibility at work is not hindered in any circumstance. Openness also created a mutual relation between leaders and employees as they are capable of presenting their concerns without any pressure instilled in them and without fear of any consequences that may be implicated on them for presenting ideologies that the company tends to ignore. Openness begets agreeableness among employees who have the same perspective towards the same objective that they think will have the benefit to both the company and them.

Professor comment:

The OB problem is not clearly defined here. I think it is conflict and poor performance of teams, but you don’t provide specific examples of this.

Personality differences and leadership style can contribute to conflict in teams. Please note that it is not necessary for everyone to have the same personality in a team. Often what is called “personality conflict” is what OB calls affective conflict and can be managed with good conflict management strategies. Leadership is also important to create group cohesion and cooperation.

You do not need to review research for this Part 1 paper. That should be done in Part II. Please refer to the textbook for references on conflict in teams and leadership styles in teams.

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22. 1.22Herzberg, F.; B. Mausner; and B.B. Snyderman. The Motivation to Work. New York: John Wiley, 1959; Taylor, F. W. The Principles of Scientific Management. New York: Harper & Row, 1911.

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28. 1.28Rousseau, D.M.; J. Manning; and D. Denyer. “Evidence in Management and Organizational Science: Assembling the Field’s Full Eight of Scientific Knowledge Through Syntheses.” Academy of Management Annals 2 (2008), pp. 475–515; and Briner, R.B.; D. Denyer; and D.M. Rousseau. “Evidence-Based Management: Concept Cleanup Time?” Academy of Management Perspectives 23 (2009), pp. 19–32.

29. 1.29Hansen, F. “Merit-Pay Payoff?” Workforce Management, November 3, 2008, pp. 33–39.

30. 1.30Davenport, T.H. “Analytics 3.0.” Harvard Business Review, December, 2013.

31. 1.31Lewis, M. Moneyball. New York: Norton, 2003.

32. 1.32Fox, J. “The Moneyball Myth.” Bloomberg Businessweek, October 20, 2011, pp. 110–11.

33. 1.33Schwartz, J. “Net Loss.” Slate, February 28, 2013, 

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35. 2.2Corkery, M. “Wells Fargo Struggling in Aftermath of Fraud Scandal.” The New York Times, January 13, 2017. 

36. 2.3Shawel, T. “Homegrown Career Development.” HR Magazine, April 2011, pp. 36–38.

37. 2.4Campbell, J.P. “Modeling the Performance Prediction Problem in Industrial and Organizational Psychology.” In Handbook of Industrial and Organizational Psychology, Vol. 1, 2nd ed., ed. M.D. Dunnette and L.M. Hough. Palo Alto, CA: Consulting Psychologists Press, 1990, pp. 687–732; and Motowidlo, S.J.; W.C. Borman; and M.J. Schmit. “A Theory of Individual Differences in Task and Contextual Performance.” Human Performance 10 (1997), pp. 71–83.

38. 2.5Borman, W.C., and S.J. Motowidlo. “Expanding the Criterion Domain to Include Elements of Contextual Performance.” In Personnel Selection in Organizations, ed. N. Schmitt and W.C. Borman. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1993, pp. 71–98.

39. 2.6Ibid.

40. 2.7Occupational Information Network (O*NET) OnLine (n.d.), 

41. 2.8Weiss, H.M., and D.R. Ilgen. “Routinized Behavior in Organizations.” Journal of Behavioral Economics 24 (1985), pp. 57–67.

42. 2.9LePine, J.A.; J.A. Colquitt; and A. Erez. “Adaptability to Changing Task Contexts: Effects of General Cognitive Ability, Conscientiousness, and Openness to Experience.” Personnel Psychology 53 (2000), pp. 563–93.

43. 2.10CBC News. “Plane Fire at Pearson Airport: Flight 358.” Indepth website, August 8, 2005, 

44. 2.11Ilgen, D.R., and E.D. Pulakos. “Employee Performance in Today’s Organizations.” In The Changing Nature of Work Performance: Implications for Staffing, Motivation, and Development, ed. D.R. Ilgen and E.D. Pulakos. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1999, pp. 1–20.

45. Page 522.12Haneberg, L. “Training for Agility: Building the Skills Employees Need to Zig and Zag.” Training and Development, September 2011, pp. 51–56.

46. 2.13Associated Press. “Unemployed Find Old Jobs Now Require More Skills.” Gainesville Sun, October 11, 2010, p. 7A.

47. 2.14Pulakos, E.D.; S. Arad; M.A. Donovan; and K.E. Plamondon. “Adaptability in the Workplace: Development of a Taxonomy of Adaptive Performance.” Journal of Applied Psychology 85 (2000), pp. 612–24.

48. 2.15Amabile, T.M. “How to Kill Creativity.” Harvard Business Review 76 (1998), pp. 76–88.

49. 2.16“Bikini Trivia: History of the Bikini” (n.d.), http://www.everythingbikini.com/bikini-history.html.

50. 2.17Source: Florida, R. “ America’s Looming Creativity Crisis.” Harvard Business Review 82 (2004), pp. 122–36.

51. 2.18Grant, A.M., and J.W. Berry. “The Necessity of Others Is the Mother of Invention: Intrinsic and Prosocial Motivations, Perspective Taking, and Creativity.” Academy of Management Journal 54 (2011), pp. 73–96; and George, J.M. “Creativity in Organizations.” Academy of Management Annals, Vol. 1, ed. J.P. Walsh and A.P. Brief. New York: Erlbaum, 2007, pp. 439–77.

52. 2.19Baer, M. “Putting Creativity to Work: The Implementation of Creative Ideas in Organizations.” Academy of Management Journal 55 (2012), pp. 1102–19.

53. 2.20Liker, J.K., and D. P. Meier. Toyota Talent: Developing Your People the Toyota Way. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2007.

54. 2.21Ibid.

55. 2.22O’Reilly III, C.A., and J. Pfeffer. Hidden Value: How Great Companies Achieve Extraordinary Results with Ordinary People. Boston: Harvard Business School Press, 2000.

56. 2.23Freidberg, K., and J. Freidberg. Nuts! Southwest Airlines’ Crazy Recipe for Business and Personal Success. Austin, TX: Bard Press, 1996.

57. 2.24Source: Kaplan, M.D.G. “What are you, a comedian?” USA 
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58. 2.25Krell, E. “All for Incentives, Incentives for All.” HR Magazine, January 2011, pp. 35–38.

59. 2.26Aguinis, H.; E. O’Boyle, Jr.; E. Gonzalez-Mule; and H. Joo. “Cumulative Advantage: Conductors and Insulators of Heavy-Tailed Productivity Distributions and Productivity Stars.” Personnel Psychology 69 (2016), pp. 3–66; and Call, M.L.; A.J. Nyberg; and S.M.B. Thatcher. “Stargazing: An Integrative Conceptual Review, Theoretical Reconciliation, and Extension for Star Employee Research.” Journal of Applied Psychology 100 (2015), pp. 623–40.

60. 2.27Ibid.

61. 2.28Borman and Motowidlo, “Expanding the Criterion Domain.”

62. 2.29Organ, D.W. Organizational Citizenship Behavior: The Good Soldier Syndrome. Lexington, MA: Lexington Books, 1988.

63. 2.30Coleman, V.I., and W.C. Borman. “Investigating the Underlying Structure of the Citizenship Performance Domain.” Human Resource Management Review 10 (2000), pp. 25–44.

64. 2.31Ibid.

65. 2.32Lanaj, K.; R.E. Johnson; and M. Wang. “When Lending a Hand Depletes the Will: The Daily Costs and Benefits of Helping.” Journal of Applied Psychology 100 (2016), pp. 1097–110.

66. Page 532.33MacMillan, P. The Performance Factor: Unlocking the Secrets of Teamwork. Nashville, TN: Broadman & Holman, 2001.

67. 2.34LePine, J.A.; R.F. Piccolo; C.L. Jackson; J.E. Mathieu; and J.R. Saul. “A Meta-Analysis of Teamwork Process: Towards a Better Understanding of the Dimensional Structure and Relationships with Team Effectiveness Criteria.” Personnel Psychology 61 (2008), pp. 273–307.

68. 2.35Coleman and Borman, “Investigating the Underlying Structure.”

69. 2.36Liang, J.; C.I. Farh; and J.L. Farh. “Psychological Antecedents of Promotive and Prohibitive Voice: A Two-Wave Examination.” Academy of Management Journal 55 (2012), pp. 71–92; Morrison, E.W. “Employee Voice Behavior: Integration and Directions for Future Research.” Academy of Management Annals (5) 2011, pp. 373–412; Morrison, E.W. “Employee Voice and Silence.” Annual Review of Organizational Psychology and Organizational Behavior (1) 2014, pp. 173–97; and Van Dyne, L., and J.A. LePine. “Helping and Voice Extra-Role Behaviors: Evidence of Construct and Predictive Validity.” Academy of Management Journal 41 (1998), pp. 108–19.

70. 2.37Bashshur, M.R., and O. Burak. “When Voice Matters: A Multilevel Review of the Impact of Voice in Organizations.” Journal of Management (41) 2015, pp. 1530–54; and Chamberlin, M.; D.W. Newton; and J.A. LePine. “A Meta-Analysis of Voice and Its Promotive and Prohibitive Forms: Identification of Key Associations, Distinctions, and Future Research Directions.” Personnel Psychology 70 (2017), pp. 11–71.

71. 2.38Burris, E.R. “The Risks and Rewards of Speaking Up: Managerial Responses to Employee Voice.” Academy of Management Journal 55 (2012), pp. 851–75; Liu, W.; S. Tangirala; W. Lam; Z. Chen; R.T. Jia; and X. Huang. “How and When Peers’ Positive Mood Influence Employees’ Voice.” Journal of Applied Psychology 100 (2015), pp. 976–89; and Van Dyne, L., and J.A. LePine. “Helping and Voice Extra-Role Behavior: Evidence of Construct and Predictive Validity.” Academy of Management Journal 41 (1998), pp. 108–19.

72. 2.39Motowidlo, S.J. “Some Basic Issues Related to Contextual Performance and Organizational Citizenship Behavior in Human Resource Management.” Human Resource Management Review 10 (2000), pp. 115–26.

73. 2.40Podsakoff, N.P; S.W. Whiting; P.M. Podsakoff; and B.D. Blume. “Individual- and Organizational-Level Consequences of Organizational Citizenship Behaviors: A Meta-Analysis.” Journal of Applied Psychology 94 (2009), pp. 122–41; and Podsakoff, P.M.; S.B. MacKenzie; J.B. Paine; and D.G. Bachrach. “Organizational Citizenship Behaviors: A Critical Review of the Theoretical and Empirical Literature and Suggestions for Future Research.” Journal of Management 26 (2000), pp. 513–63.

74. 2.41Podsakoff, P.M.; M. Ahearne; and S.B. MacKenzie. “Organizational Citizenship Behavior and the Quantity and Quality of Work Group Performance.” Journal of Applied Psychology 82 (1997), pp. 262–70.

75. 2.42Walz, S.M., and B.P. Neihoff. “Organizational Citizenship Behaviors and Their Effect on Organizational Effectiveness in Limited-Menu Restaurants.” In Academy of Management Best Papers Proceedings, ed. J.B. Keys and L.N. Dosier. Statesboro, GA: College of Business Administration at Georgia Southern University, 1996, pp. 307–11.

76. Page 542.43Dalal, R.S.; H. Lam; H.M. Weiss; E.R. Welch; and C.L. Hulin. “A Within-Person Approach to Work Behavior and Performance: Concurrent and Lagged Citizenship-Counterproductivity Associations, and Dynamic Relationships with Affect and Overall Job Performance.” Academy of Management Journal 52 (2009), pp. 1051–66; and Koopman, J.; K. Lanaj; and B.A. Scott. “Integrating the Bright and Dark Sides of OCB: A Daily Investigation of the Benefits and Costs of Helping Others.” Academy of Management Journal 59 (2016), pp. 414–35.

77. 2.44Bolino, M.C.; H.H. Hsiung; Harvey, J.; and J.A. LePine. “‘Well, I’m Tired of Tryin’!’ Organizational Citizenship Behavior and Citizenship Fatigue.” Journal of Applied Psychology 100 (2015), pp. 56–74.

78. 2.45Allen, T.D., and M.C. Rush. “The Effects of Organizational Citizenship Behavior on Performance Judgments: A Field Study and a Laboratory Experiment.” Journal of Applied Psychology 83 (1998), pp. 247–60; Avila, R.A.; E.F. Fern; and O.K. Mann. “Unraveling Criteria for Assessing the Performance of Sales People: A Causal Analysis.” Journal of Personal Selling and Sales Management 8 (1988), pp. 45–54; Lowery, C.M., and T.J. Krilowicz. “Relationships among Nontask Behaviors, Rated Performance, and Objective Performance Measures.” Psychological Reports 74 (1994), pp. 571–78; MacKenzie, S.B.; P.M. Podsakoff; and R. Fetter. “Organizational Citizenship Behavior and Objective Productivity as Determinants of Managerial Evaluations of Salespersons’ Performance.” Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes 50 (1991), pp. 123–50; MacKenzie, S.B.; P.M. Podsakoff; and R. Fetter. “The Impact of Organizational Citizenship Behavior on Evaluation of Sales Performance.” Journal of Marketing 57 (1993), pp. 70–80; MacKenzie, S.B.; P.M. Podsakoff; and J.B. Paine. “Effects of Organizational Citizenship Behaviors and Productivity on Evaluation of Performance at Different Hierarchical Levels in Sales Organizations.” Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science 27 (1999), pp. 396–410; Motowidlo, S.J., and J.R. Van Scotter. “Evidence That Task Performance Should Be Distinguished from Contextual Performance.” Journal of Applied Psychology 79 (1994), pp. 475–80; Podsakoff, P.M., and S.B. MacKenzie. “Organizational Citizenship Behaviors and Sales Unit Effectiveness.” Journal of Marketing Research 3 (February 1994), pp. 351–63; and Van Scotter, J.R., and S.J. Motowidlo. “Interpersonal Facilitation and Job Dedication as Separate Facets of Contextual Performance.” Journal of Applied Psychology 81 (1996), pp. 525–31.

79. 2.46Rotundo, M., and P.R. Sackett. “The Relative Importance of Task, Citizenship, and Counterproductive Performance to Global Ratings of Job Performance: A Policy Capturing Approach.” Journal of Applied Psychology 87 (2002), pp. 66–80.

80. 2.47Allen and Rush, “The Effects of Organizational Citizenship Behavior on Performance Judgments”; Kiker, D.S., and S.J. Motowidlo. “Main and Interaction Effects of Task and Contextual Performance on Supervisory Reward Decisions.” Journal of Applied Psychology 84 (1999), pp. 602–9; and Park, O.S., and H.P Sims Jr. “Beyond Cognition in Leadership: Prosocial Behavior and Affect in Managerial Judgment.” Working Paper, Seoul National University and Pennsylvania State University, 1989.

81. Page 552.48Marcus, B.; O.A. Taylor; S. E. Hastings; A. Strum; and O. Weigelt. “The Structure of Counterproductive Work Behavior: A Review, a Structural Meta-Analysis, and a Primary Study.” Journal of Management (42), pp. 203–33; and Robinson, S.L., and R.J. Bennett. “A Typology of Deviant Workplace Behaviors: A Multidimensional Scaling Study.” Academy of Management Journal 38 (1995), pp. 555–72.

82. 2.49Cellitti, D.R. “MCA DiscoVision: The Record That Plays Pictures,” June 25, 2002, 

83. 2.50Hollweg, L. “Inside the Four Walls of the Restaurant: The Reality and Risk of Counter-Productive Behaviors,” 2003, 

84. 2.51Wang, M.; H. Liao; Y. Zhan; and J. Shi. “Daily Customer Mistreatment and Employee Sabotage Against Customers: Examining Emotion and Resource Perspectives.” Academy of Management Journal 54 (2011), p. 31.

85. 2.52Harper, D. “Spotlight Abuse—Save Profits.” Industrial Distribution 79 (1990), pp. 47–51.

86. 2.53Hollinger, R.C., and L. Langton. 2004 National Retail Security Survey. Gainesville: University of Florida, Security Research Project, Department of Criminology, Law and Society, 2005.

87. 2.54Andersson, L.M., and C.M. Pearson. “Tit for Tat? The Spiraling Effect of Incivility in the Workplace.” Academy of Management Review 24 (1999), pp. 452–71.

88. 2.55Ibid.

89. 2.56Armour, S. “Managers Not Prepared for Workplace Violence.” USA Today, July 19, 2004, 

90. 2.57Daniel, T.A. “Tough Boss or Workplace Bully?” HR Magazine, June 2009, pp. 83–86.

91. 2.58Baillien, E.; N. De Cuyper; and H. De Witte. “Job Autonomy and Workload as Antecedents of Workplace Bullying: A Two-Wave Test of Karasek’s Job Demand Control Model for Targets and Perpetrators.” Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology 84 (2010), pp. 191–208.

92. 2.59Cowie, H.; P. Naylor; I. Rivers; P.K. Smith; and B. Pereira. “Measuring Workplace Bullying.” Aggression and Violent Behavior 7 (2002), pp. 35–51; Baillien et al. “Job Autonomy and Workload as Antecedents of Workplace Bullying”; and Einarsen, S.S.; B. Matthisen; and L.J. Hauge. “Bullying and Harassment at Work.” In The Oxford Handbook of Personnel Psychology, ed. S. Cartwright and C.L. Cooper. London: Sage, 2009, pp. 464–95.

93. 2.60Ibid.

94. 2.61PBS. “Isolated Incidents?” Online Newshour, April 26, 1996, http://www.pbs.org/newshour/bb/-business/april96/mitsubishi_4-26.html.

95. 2.62Sackett, P.R. “The Structure of Counterproductive Work Behaviors: Dimensionality and Performance with Facets of Job Performance.” International Journal of Selection and Assessment 10 (2002), pp. 5–11.

96. Page 562.63Foulk, T.; A. Woolum; and A. Erez. “Catching Rudeness Is Like Catching a Cold: The Contagion Effects of Low-Intensity Negative Behaviors.” Journal of Applied Psychology 100 (2016), pp. 50–67; Lee, K.Y.; E. Kim; D.P. Bhave; and M.K. Duffy. “Why Victims of Undermining at Work Become Perpetrators of Undermining: An Integrated Model.” Journal of Applied Psychology 100 (2016), pp. 915–24; Rosen, C.C.; J. Koopman; A.S. Gabriel; and R.E. Johnson. “Why Strikes Back? A Daily Investigation of When and Why Incivility Begets Incivility.” Journal of Applied Psychology 101 (2016), pp. 1620–34.

97. 2.64Ferris, D.L.; M. Yan; V.K.G. Lim; Y. Chen; and S. Fatimah. “An Approach-Avoidance Framework of Workplace Aggression.” Academy of Management Journal 59 (2016), pp. 1777–800; Lian, H.; D.L. Ferris; R. Morrison; and D.J. Brown. “Blame it on the Supervisor or the Subordinate? Reciprocal Relations Between Abusive Supervision and Organizational Deviance.” Journal of Applied Psychology 99 (2014), pp. 651–64; and Liang, L.H.; H. Lian; D.J. Brown; D.L. Ferris; S. Hanig; and L.M. Keeping. “Why Are Abusive Supervisors Abusive? A Dual-System Self-Control Model.” Academy of Management Journal 59 (2016), pp. 13–85.

98. 2.65Frazier, M.L., and W.M. Bowler. “Voice Climate, Supervisor Undermining, and Work Outcomes: A Group-Level Examination.” Journal of Management (41) 2015, pp. 841–63.

99. 2.66Sackett, P.R., and C.J. DeVore. “Counterproductive Behaviors at Work.” In Handbook of Industrial, Work, and Organizational Psychology, Vol. 1, ed. N. Anderson; D.S. Ones; H.K. Sinangil; and C. Viswesvaran. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, 2001, pp. 145–51.

100. 2.67Bolino, M.C., and A.M. Grant. “The Bright Side of Being Prosocial at Work, and the Dark Side, Too: A Review and Agenda for Research on Other-Oriented Motives, Behavior, and Impact on Organizations.” Academy of Management Annals 10 (2016), pp. 599–670; Umphress, E.E., and J.B. Bingham. “When Employees Do Bad Things for Good Reasons: Examining Unethical Pro-Organizational Behaviors.” Organization Science 22 (2011), pp. 621–40; Umphress, E.E.; J.B. Bingham; and M.S. Mitchell. “Unethical Behavior in the Name of the Company: The Moderating Effect of Organizational Identification and Positive Reciprocity Beliefs on Unethical Pro-Organizational Behavior.” Journal of Applied Psychology 95 (2010), pp. 769–80.

101. 2.68Drucker, P.F. “The Age of Social Transformation.” The Atlantic Monthly 274 (1994), pp. 53–80.

102. 2.69U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics. “Tomorrow’s Jobs” (n.d.), http://stats.bls.gov/oco/oco2003.htm.

103. 2.70Allen, D. Getting Things Done. New York: Penguin Books, 2001.

104. 2.71U.S. Census Bureau. “Welcome to the Service Annual Survey,” March 30, 2009, 

105. 2.72Hecker, D. “Occupational Employment Projections to 2012.” Monthly Labor Review 127 (2004), pp. 80–105, 

106. Page 572.73Green, H. “How Amazon Aims to Keep You Clicking.” BusinessWeek, March 2, 2009, pp. 34–40.

107. 2.74Ibid.

108. 2.75McGregor, J. “Behind the List.” BusinessWeek, March 2, 2009, p. 32.

109. 2.76DeNisi, A.S., and K.R. Murphy. “Performance Appraisal and Performance Management: 100 Years of Progress?” Journal of Applied Psychology (2017), pp. 1–13.

110. 2.77Drucker, P.F. The Practice of Management. New York: Harper and Brothers, 1954.

111. 2.78Shaw, D.G.; C.E. Schneier; and R.W. Beatty. “Managing Performance with a Behaviourally Based Appraisal System.” In Applying Psychology in Business: The Handbook for Managers and Human Resource Professionals, ed. J.W Jones; B.D. Steffy; and D.W. Bray. Lexington, MA: Lexington Books, 2001, pp. 314–25.

112. 2.79Pulakos, E.D. “Behavioral Performance Measures.” In Applying Psychology in Business: The Handbook for Managers and Human Resource Professionals, ed. J.W. Jones; B.D. Steffy; and D.W. Bray. Lexington, MA: Lexington Books, 2001, pp. 307–13.

113. 2.80“Fortune Selects Henry Ford Businessman of the Century,” November 1, 1999, 

114. 2.81Source: Welch, J.F. Jr. Jack, “Straight from the Gut,” New York: Warner Books, 2001, p. 158.

115. 2.82Ibid.

116. 2.83Johnson, G. “Forced Ranking: The Good, the Bad, and the Alternative.” Training Magazine, May 2004, pp. 24–34.

117. 2.84M. Nisen. “How Millennials Forced GE to Scrap Performance Reviews.” The Atlantic, August 18, 2015, 

118. 2.85McGregor, J. “Job Review in 140 Keystrokes: Social Networking-Style Systems Lighten up the Dreaded Performance Evaluation.” BusinessWeek, March 29, 2009, p. 58.

119. 2.86Ibid.

120. 2.87Ibid.

121. 2.88Nisen, M. “How Millennials Forced GE to Scrap Performance Reviews.” The Atlantic (from the archive of partner QUARTZ), August 18, 2015, 
; Silverman, R. “GE Re-Engineers Performance Reviews, Pay Practices.” The Wall Street Journal, June 8, 2016, 
; and Silverman, R. “GE Does Away with Employee Ratings.” The Wall Street Journal, July 26, 2016, https://www.wsj.com/article_email/ge-does-away-with-employee-ratings-1469541602-lMyQjAxMTA2ODI2NzEyODcyWj.

Shepherd, L. “Focusing Knowledge Retention on Millennials.” Workforce Management, August 2010, p . 6.

123. 3.2Allen, D.G.; P.C. Bryant; and J.M. Vardaman. “Retaining Talent: Replacing Misconceptions with Evidence-Based Strategies.” Academy of Management Perspectives 24 (2010), pp. 48–64.

124. 3.3Meyer, J.P., and N.J. Allen. Commitment in the Workplace. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, 1997; and Mowday, R.T.; R.M. Steers; and L.W. Porter. “The Measurement of Organizational Commitment.” Journal of Vocational Behavior 14 (1979), pp. 224–47.

125. 3.4Hulin, C.L. “Adaptation, Persistence, and Commitment in Organizations.” In Handbook of Industrial and Organizational Psychology, Vol. 2, ed. M.D. Dunnette and L.M. Hough. Palo Alto, CA: Consulting Psychologists Press, 1991, pp. 445–506.

126. 3.5Allen, N.J., and J.P. Meyer. “The Measurement and Antecedents of Affective, Continuance and Normative Commitment to the Organization.” Journal of Occupational Psychology 63 (1990), pp. 1–18; Meyer, J.P., and N.J. Allen. “A Three-Component Conceptualization of Organizational Commitment.” Human Resource Management Review 1 (1991), pp. 61–89; and Meyer and Allen, Commitment in the Workplace.

127. 3.6Ibid.

128. 3.7Ibid.

129. 3.8Meyer and Allen, Commitment in the Workplace.

130. 3.9Mowday et al., “The Measurement of Organizational Commitment.”

131. 3.10Ashforth, B.E.; S.H. Harrison; and K.G. Corley. “Identification in Organizations: An Examination of Four Fundamental Questions.” Journal of Management 34 (2008), pp. 325–74.

132. 3.11Ibid.

133. 3.12Meyer, J.P.; D.J. Stanley; L. Herscovitch; and L. Topolnytsky. “Affective, Continuance, and Normative Commitment to the Organization: A Meta-Analysis of Antecedents, Correlates, and Consequences.” Journal of Vocational Behavior 61 (2002), pp. 20–52.

134. 3.13Mathieu, J.E., and D.M. Zajac. “A Review and Meta-Analysis of the Antecedents, Correlates, and Consequences of Organizational Commitment.” Psychological Bulletin 108 (1990), pp. 171–94.

135. 3.14Johns, G. “The Psychology of Lateness, Absenteeism, and Turnover.” In Handbook of Industrial, Work, and Organizational Psychology, ed. N. Anderson; D.S. Ones; H.K. Sinangil; and C. Viswesvaran. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, 2001, pp. 232–52.

136. 3.15Ibid.

137. 3.16Flint, J. “Analyze This.” Bloomberg Businessweek, February 21–27, 2011, pp. 82–83.

138. 3.17Ladika, S. “Socially Evolved.” Workforce Management, September 2010, pp. 18–22.

139. 3.18Kanter, R.M. “Commitment and Social Organization: A Study of Commitment Mechanisms in Utopian Communities.” American Sociological Review 33 (1968), pp. 499–517.

140. 3.19Stebbins, R.A. Commitment to Deviance: The Nonprofessional Criminal in the Community. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1970.

141. 3.20Becker, H.S. “Notes on the Concept of Commitment.” American Journal of Sociology 66 (1960), pp. 32–42.

142. Page 843.21Rusbult, C.E., and D. Farrell. “A Longitudinal Test of the Investment Model: The Impact of Job Satisfaction, Job Commitment, and Turnover of Variations in Rewards, Costs, Alternatives, and Investments.” Journal of Applied Psychology 68 (1983), pp. 429–38.

143. 3.22Meyer and Allen, Commitment in the Workplace.

144. 3.23Meyer et al., “Affective, Continuance, and Normative Commitment.”

145. 3.24Mitchell, T.R.; B.C. Holtom; T.W. Lee; C.J. Sablynski; and M. Erez. “Why People Stay: Using Job Embeddedness to Predict Voluntary Turnover.” Academy of Management Journal 44 (2001), pp. 1102–21.

146. 3.25Felps, W.; T.R. Mitchell; D.R. Hekman; T.W. Lee; B.C. Holtom; and W.S. Harman. “Turnover Contagion: How Coworkers’ Job Embeddedness and Job Search Behaviors Influence Quitting.” Academy of Management Journal 52 (2009), pp. 545–61; and Hom, P.W.; A.S. Tsui; J.B. Wu; T.W. Lee; A.Y. Zhang; P.P. Fu; and L. Li. “Explaining Employment Relationships with Social Exchange and Job Embeddedness.” Journal of Applied Psychology 94 (2009), pp. 277–97.

147. 3.26Burton, J.P.; B.C. Holtom; C.J. Sablynski; T.R. Mitchell; and T.W. Lee. “The Buffering Effects of Job Embeddedness on Negative Shocks.” Journal of Vocational Behavior 76 (2010), pp. 42–51.

148. 3.27Ramesh, A., and M.J. Gelfand. “Will They Stay or Will They Go? The Role of Job Embeddedness in Predicting Turnover in Individualistic and Collectivistic Cultures.” Journal of Applied Psychology 95 (2010), pp. 807–23.

149. 3.28Ng, T.W.H., and D.C. Feldman. “Organizational Embeddedness and Occupational Embeddedness across Career Stages.” Journal of Vocational Behavior 70 (2007), pp. 336–51.

150. 3.29Levering, R., and M. Moskowitz. “The 100 Best Companies to Work For.” Fortune, January 24, 2005, pp. 64–94.

151. 3.30Allen and Meyer, “The Measurement and Antecedents of Affective, Continuance and Normative Commitment to the Organization”; Meyer and Allen, “A Three-Component Conceptualization”; and Meyer and Allen, Commitment in the Workplace.

152. 3.31Wiener, Y. “Commitment in Organizations: A Normative View.” Academy of Management Review 7 (1982), pp. 418–28.

153. 3.32Meyer and Allen, “A Three-Component Conceptualization.”

154. 3.33Rodell, J.B. “Finding Meaning through Volunteering: Why Do Employees Volunteer and What Does It Mean for Their Jobs?” Academy of Management Journal 56 (2013), pp. 1274–94.

155. 3.34Rodell, J.B., and J.W. Lynch. “Perceptions of Employee Volunteering: Is It ‘Credited’ or ‘Stigmatized’ by Colleagues?” Academy of Management Journal 56 (2016), pp. 611–35.

156. 3.35Grow, B. “The Debate over Doing Good.” BusinessWeek, August 15, 2005, pp. 76–78.

157. 3.36Ibid.

158. 3.37Rafter, M.V. “Appealing to Workers’ Civic Side.” Workforce Management, August 2010, p . 3.

159. 3.38Frauenheim, E. “The Manager Question.” Workforce Management, April 2010, pp. 19–24.

160. 3.39Hirschman, A.O. Exit, Voice, and Loyalty: Responses to Decline in Firms, Organizations, and States. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1970; and Farrell, D. “Exit, Voice, Loyalty, and Neglect as Responses to Job Dissatisfaction: A Multidimensional Scaling Study.” Academy of Management Journal 26 (1983), pp. 596–607.

161. Page 853.40Hirschman, Exit, Voice, and Loyalty; Farrell, “Exit, Voice, Loyalty, and Neglect”; and Rusbult, C.E.; D. Farrell; C. Rogers; and A.G. Mainous III. “Impact of Exchange Variables on Exit, Voice, Loyalty, and Neglect: An Integrating Model of Responses to Declining Job Satisfaction.” Academy of Management Journal 31 (1988), pp. 599–627.

162. 3.41Ibid.

163. 3.42Ibid.

164. 3.43Farrell, “Exit, Voice, Loyalty, and Neglect”; and Rusbult et al., “Impact of Exchange Variables.”

165. 3.44Withey, M.J., and W.H. Cooper. “Predicting Exit, Voice, Loyalty, and Neglect.” Administrative Science Quarterly 34 (1989), pp. 521–39; and Burris, E.R.; J.R. Detert; and D.S. Chiaburu. “Quitting Before Leaving: The Mediating Effects of Psychological Attachment and Detachment on Voice.” Journal of Applied Psychology 93 (2008), pp. 912–22.

166. 3.45Griffeth, R.W.; S. Gaertner; and J.K. Sager. “Taxonomic Model of Withdrawal Behaviors: The Adaptive Response Model.” Human Resource Management Review 9 (1999), pp. 577–90.

167. 3.46Ibid.

168. 3.47Ibid.

169. 3.48Ibid.

170. 3.49Cherrington, D. The Work Ethic. New York: AMACOM, 1980.

171. 3.50Hulin, C.L.; M. Roznowski; and D. Hachiya. “Alternative Opportunities and Withdrawal Decisions: Empirical and Theoretical Discrepancies and an Integration.” Psychological Bulletin 97 (1985), pp. 233–50.

172. 3.51Fisher, A. “Turning Clock-Watchers into Stars.” Fortune, March 22, 2004, p . 60.

173. 3.52Hulin et al., “Alternative Opportunities and Withdrawal Decisions.”

174. 3.53Lim, V.K.G. “The IT Way of Loafing on the Job: Cyberloafing, Neutralizing, and Organizational Justice.” Journal of Organizational Behavior 23 (2002), pp. 675–94.

175. 3.54Jackson, M. “May We Have Your Attention, Please?” BusinessWeek, June 23, 2008, p . 55.

176. 3.55Spitznagel, E. “Any Given Monday.” Bloomberg Businessweek, September 13–19, 2010, pp. 81–83.

177. 3.56Gerdes, L. “Nothin’ But Net.” BusinessWeek, March 26, 2007, p . 16.

178. 3.57Source: Lim, Vivien KG. “The IT way of loafing on the job: cyberloafing, neutralizing and organizational justice.” Journal of Organizational Behavior 23.5 (2002): 675–694.

179. 3.58Hulin et al., “Alternative Opportunities and Withdrawal Decisions.”

180. 3.59Koslowsky, M.; A. Sagie; M. Krausz; and A.D. Singer. “Correlates of Employee Lateness: Some Theoretical Considerations.” Journal of Applied Psychology 82 (1997), pp. 79–88.

181. 3.60Blau, G. “Developing and Testing a Taxonomy of Lateness Behavior.” Journal of Applied Psychology 79 (1994), pp. 959–70.

182. 3.61Muchinsky, P.M. “Employee Absenteeism: A Review of the Literature.” Journal of Vocational Behavior 10 (1977), pp. 316–40; and Harrison, D.A. “Time for Absenteeism: A 20-Year Review of Origins, Offshoots, and Outcomes.” Journal of Management 24 (1998), pp. 305–50.

183. Page 863.62Fichman, M. “Motivational Consequences of Absence and Attendance: Proportional Hazard Estimation of a Dynamic Motivation Model.” Journal of Applied Psychology 73 (1988), pp. 119–34.

184. 3.63Martocchio, J.J., and D.I. Jimeno. “Employee Absenteeism as an Affective Event.” Human Resource Management Review 13 (2003), pp. 227–41.

185. 3.64Nicholson, N., and G. Johns. “The Absence Climate and the Psychological Contract: Who’s in Control of Absence?” Academy of Management Review 10 (1985), pp. 397–407.

186. 3.65Spitznagel, E. “The Sick-Day Bounty Hunters.” Bloomberg Businessweek, December 6–12, 2010, pp. 93–95.

187. 3.66Lucas, S. “The Shock and Awe of IKEA’s Employee Spying Program.” Inc., December, 2013.

188. 3.67Ibid.

189. 3.68Campion, M.A. “Meaning and Measurement of Turnover: Comparison of Alternative Measures and Recommendations for Research.” Journal of Applied Psychology 76 (1991), pp. 199–212.

190. 3.69Lee, T.W., and T.R. Mitchell. “An Alternative Approach: The Unfolding Model of Voluntary Employee Turnover.” Academy of Management Review 19 (1994), pp. 51–89; Lee, T.W., and T.R. Mitchell. “An Unfolding Model of Voluntary Employee Turnover.” Academy of Management Journal 39 (1996), pp. 5–36; Lee, T.W.; T.R. Mitchell; B.C. Holtom; L.S. McDaniel; and J.W. Hill. “The Unfolding Model of Voluntary Turnover: A Replication and Extension.” Academy of Management Journal 42 (1999), pp. 450–62; and Lee, T.H.; B. Gerhart; I. Weller; and C.O. Trevor. “Understanding Voluntary Turnover: Path-Specific Job Satisfaction Effects and the Importance of Unsolicited Job Offers.” Academy of Management Journal 51 (2008), pp. 651–71.

191. 3.70Mobley, W. “Intermediate Linkages in the Relationship Between Job Satisfaction and Employee Turnover.” Journal of Applied Psychology 62 (1977), pp. 237–40; and Hom, P.W.; R. Griffeth; and C.L. Sellaro. “The Validity of Mobley’s (1977) Model of Employee Turnover.” Organizational Behavior and Human Performance 34 (1984), pp. 141–74.

192. 3.71Lee and Mitchell, “An Alternative Approach”; Lee and Mitchell, “An Unfolding Model of Voluntary Employee Turnover”; Lee and Mitchell, “The Unfolding Model of Voluntary Turnover”; and Porter, L.W., and R.M. Steers. “Organizational, Work, and Personal Factors in Employee Turnover and Absenteeism.” Psychological Bulletin 80 (1973), pp. 151–76.

193. 3.72Johns, “The Psychology of Lateness, Absenteeism, and Turnover.”

194. 3.73Rosse, J.G. “Relations among Lateness, Absence, and Turnover: Is There a Progression of Withdrawal?” Human Relations 41 (1988), pp. 517–31.

195. 3.74Mitra, A.; G.D. Jenkins Jr.; and N. Gupta. “A Meta-Analytic Review of the Relationship Between Absence and Turnover.” Journal of Applied Psychology 77 (1992), p . 879–89; Koslowsky et al., “Correlates of Employee Lateness”; and Griffeth, R.W.; P.W. Hom; and S. Gaertner. “A Meta-Analysis of Antecedents and Correlates of Employee Turnover: Update, Moderator Tests, and Research Implications for the Next Millennium.” Journal of Management 26 (2000), pp. 463–88.

196. Page 873.75Koslowsky et al., “Correlates of Employee Lateness.”

197. 3.76Burns, C.; K. Barton; and S. Kerby. “The State of Diversity in Today’s Workforce.” Center for American Progress, July 2012.

198. 3.77Ibid.

199. 3.78Coy, P. “Old. Smart. Productive.” BusinessWeek, June 27, 2005, pp. 78–86.

200. 3.79Fisher, A. “Holding on to Global Talent.” BusinessWeek, October 31, 2005, p . 202.

201. 3.80Fisher, “Holding on to Global Talent.”

202. 3.81Morris, J.R.; W.F. Cascio; and C.E. Young. “Downsizing after All These Years: Questions and Answers about Who Did It, How Many Did It, and Who Benefited from It.” Organizational Dynamics 27 (1999), pp. 78–87.

203. 3.82Ibid.

204. 3.83Devine, K.; T. Reay; L. Stainton; and R. Collins-Nakai. “Downsizing Outcomes: Better a Victim Than a Survivor?” Human Resource Management 42 (2003), pp. 109–24.

205. 3.84Ibid.

206. 3.85Conlin, M. “When the Laid-Off Are Better Off.” BusinessWeek, November 2, 2009, p . 65.

207. 3.86Rousseau, D.M. “Psychological and Implied Contracts in Organizations.” Employee Responsibilities and Rights Journal 2 (1989), pp. 121–39.

208. 3.87Rousseau, D.M. “New Hire Perceptions of Their Own and Their Employer’s Obligations: A Study of Psychological Contracts.” Journal of Organizational Behavior 11 (1990), pp. 389–400; Robinson, S.L.; M.S. Kraatz; and D.M. Rousseau. “Changing Obligations and the Psychological Contract: A Longitudinal Study.” Academy of Management Journal 37 (1994), pp. 137–52; and Robinson, S.L., and E.W. Morrison. “Psychological Contracts and OCB: The Effect of Unfulfilled Obligations on Civic Virtue Behavior.” Journal of Organizational Behavior 16 (1995), pp. 289–98.

209. 3.88Ibid.

210. 3.89Robinson, S.L. “Violating the Psychological Contract: Not the Exception but the Norm.” Journal of Organizational Behavior 15 (1994), pp. 245–59; Robinson, S.L. “Trust and Breach of the Psychological Contract.” Administrative Science Quarterly 41 (1996), pp. 574–99; Zhao, H.; S.J. Wayne; B.C. Glibkowski; and J. Bravo. “The Impact of Psychological Contract Breach on Work-Related Outcomes: A Meta-Analysis.” Personnel Psychology 60 (2007), pp. 647–80; and Bal, P.M.; A.H. De Lange; P.G.W. Jansen; and M.E.G. Van der Velde. “Psychological Contract Breach and Job Attitudes: A Meta-Analysis of Age as a Moderator.” Journal of Vocational Behavior 72 (2008), pp. 143–58.

211. 3.90Eisenberger, R.; R. Huntington; S. Hutchison; and D. Sowa. “Perceived Organizational Support.” Journal of Applied Psychology 71 (1986), pp. 500–507.

212. 3.91Rhoades, L., and R. Eisenberger. “Perceived Organizational Support.” Journal of Applied Psychology 87 (2002), pp. 698–714; and Allen, D.G.; L.M. Shore; and R.W. Griffeth. “The Role of Perceived Organizational Support and Supportive Human Resources Practices in the Turnover Process.” Journal of Management 29 (2003), pp. 99–118.

213. 3.92Rhoades and Eisenberger, “Perceived Organizational Support.”

214. 3.93Dessler, G. “How to Earn Your Employees’ Commitment.” Academy of Management Executive 13 (1999), pp. 58–67.

215. Page 883.94Levering and Moskowitz, “In Good Company.”

216. 3.95Fisher, A. “How You Can Do Better on Diversity.” BusinessWeek, November 15, 2005, p . 60; and Fisher, “Holding on to Global Talent.”

217. 3.96Shaw, J.D.; J.E. Delery; G.D. Jenkins Jr.; and N. Gupta. “An Organization-Level Analysis of Voluntary and Involuntary Turnover.” Academy of Management Journal 41 (1998), pp. 511–25.

218. 3.97Dessler, “How to Earn Your Employees’ Commitment.”

219. 3.98Levering and Moskowitz, “In Good Company.”

220. 3.99Fisher, “Holding on to Global Talent”; and Fisher, A. “How to Keep your Stars from Leaving.” BusinessWeek, July 26, 2005, p . 44.

221. 3.100Cappelli, P. “Managing without Commitment.” Organizational Dynamics 28 (2000), pp. 11–24.

222. 3.101Byrnes, N. “Star Search.” BusinessWeek, October 10, 2005, pp. 68–78.

223. 3.102Ibid.

Locke, E.A. “The Nature and Causes of Job Satisfaction.” In Handbook of Industrial and Organizational Psychology, ed. M. Dunnette. Chicago: Rand McNally, 1976, pp. 1297–1350.

2. 4.2“Americans’ Job Satisfaction Falls to Record Low.” Associated Press, January 5, 2010, 



3. 4.3Locke, “The Nature and Causes of Job Satisfaction”; Rokeach, M. The Nature of Human Values. New York: Free Press, 1973; Schwartz, S.H. “Universals in the Content and Structure of Values: Theoretical Advances and Empirical Tests in 20 Countries.” In Advances in Experimental Social Psychology, Vol. 25, ed. M. Zanna. New York: Academic Press, 1992, pp. 1–65; and Edwards, J.R., and D.M. Cable. “The Value of Value Congruence.” Journal of Applied Psychology 94 (2009), pp. 654–77.

4. 4.4Dawis, R.V. “Vocational Interests, Values, and Preferences.” In Handbook of Industrial and Organizational Psychology, Vol. 2, ed. M.D. Dunnette and L.M. Hough. Palo Alto, CA: Consulting Psychologists Press, 1991, pp. 834–71; and Cable, D.M., and J.R. Edwards. “Complementary and Supplementary Fit: A Theoretical and Empirical Integration.” Journal of Applied Psychology 89 (2004), pp. 822–34.

5. 4.5Locke, “The Nature and Causes of Job Satisfaction.”

6. 4.6Judge, T.A., and A.H. Church. “Job Satisfaction: Research and Practice.” In Industrial and Organizational Psychology: Linking Theory with Practice, ed. C.L. Cooper and E.A. Locke. Oxford, UK: Blackwell, 2000, pp. 166–98.

7. 4.7Locke, “The Nature and Causes of Job Satisfaction.”

8. 4.8Smith, P.C.; L.M. Kendall; and C.L. Hulin. The Measurement of Satisfaction in Work and Retirement. Chicago: Rand McNally, 1969.

9. 4.9Lawler, E.E. Pay and Organizational Effectiveness: A Psychological View. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1971.

10. 4.10Locke, “The Nature and Causes of Job Satisfaction.”

11. 4.11Moskowitz, M.; R. Levering; and C. Tkaczyk. “100 Best Companies to Work For.” Fortune, February 7, 2011, pp. 91–101.

12. Page 1174.12Smith et al., “The Measurement of Satisfaction.”

13. 4.13Locke, “The Nature and Causes of Job Satisfaction.”

14. 4.14Tkaczyk, C. “Nordstrom.” Fortune, October 18, 2010, p. 37.

15. 4.15Smith et al., “The Measurement of Satisfaction.”

16. 4.16Source: Locke, “The Nature and Causes of Job Satisfaction.”

17. 4.17Burchell, M., and J. Robin. The Great Workplace: How to Build It, How to Keep It, and Why It Matters. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 2011.

18. 4.18John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

19. 4.19Smith et al., “The Measurement of Satisfaction.”

20. 4.20Burchell and Robin, The Great Workplace.

21. 4.21Smith et al., “The Measurement of Satisfaction.”

22. 4.22Murphy, R.M. “Happy Campers.” Fortune, April 25, 2011.

23. 4.23Source: Fortune Media IP Limited.

24. 4.24Ironson, G.H.; P.C. Smith; M.T. Brannick; W.M. Gibson; and K.B. Paul. “Construction of a Job in General Scale: A Comparison of Global, Composite, and Specific Measures.” Journal of Applied Psychology 74 (1989), pp. 193–200; Russell, S.S.; C. Spitzmuller; L.F. Lin; J.M. Stanton; P.C. Smith; and G.H. Ironson. “Shorter Can Also Be Better: The Abridged Job in General Scale.” Educational and Psychological Measurement 64 (2004), pp. 878–93; Bowling, N.A., and Hammond, G.D. “A Meta-Analytic Examination of the Construct Validity of the Michigan Organizational Assessment Questionnaire Job Satisfaction Subscale.” Journal of Vocational Behavior 73 (2008), pp. 63–77; and Judge, T.A.; R.F. Piccolo; N.P. Podsakoff; J.C. Shaw; and B.L. Rich. “The Relationship between Pay and Job Satisfaction: A Meta-Analysis.” Journal of Vocational Behavior 77 (2010), pp. 157–67.

25. 4.25Taylor, F.W. The Principles of Scientific Management. New York: Wiley, 1911; and Gilbreth, F.B. Motion Study: A Method for Increasing the Efficiency of the Workman. New York: Van Nostrand, 1911.

26. 4.26Hackman, J.R., and E.E. Lawler III. “Employee Reactions to Job Characteristics.” Journal of Applied Psychology 55 (1971), pp. 259–86.

27. 4.27Hackman, J.R., and G.R. Oldham. Work Redesign. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley, 1980.

28. 4.28Ibid.

29. 4.29Ibid.

30. 4.30Hackman, J.R., and G.R. Oldham. “Motivation through the Design of Work: Test of a Theory.” Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes 16 (1976), pp. 250–79.

31. 4.31Hackman and Oldham, Work Redesign.

32. 4.32Turner, A.N., and P.R. Lawrence. Industrial Jobs and the Worker. Boston: Harvard University Graduate School of Business Administration, 1965.

33. 4.33Hackman and Lawler, “Employee Reactions to Job Characteristics.”

34. 4.34Source: Berns, G. Satisfaction: The Science of Finding True Fulfillment. New York: Henry Holt, 2005, p. xiv.

35. 4.35Hackman and Oldham, Work Redesign.

36. 4.36Turner and Lawrence, Industrial Jobs and the Worker.

37. 4.37Hackman and Oldham, Work Redesign.

38. 4.38Grant, A.M. “The Significance of Task Significance: Job Performance Effects, Relational Mechanisms, and Boundary Conditions.” Journal of Applied Psychology 93 (2008), pp. 108–24.

39. Page 1184.39Hackman and Oldham, Work Redesign.

40. 4.40Turner and Lawrence, Industrial Jobs and the Worker.

41. 4.41Breaugh, J.A. “The Measurement of Work Autonomy.” Human Relations 38 (1985), pp. 551–70.

42. 4.42Hackman and Oldham, Work Redesign.

43. 4.43Humphrey, S.E.; J.D. Nahrgang; and F.P. Morgeson. “Integrating Motivational, Social, and Contextual Work Design Features: A Meta-Analytic Summary and Theoretical Extension of the Work Design Literature.” Journal of Applied Psychology 92 (2007), pp. 1332–56; and Fried, Y., and G.R. Ferris. “The Validity of the Job Characteristics Model: A Review and Meta-Analysis.” Personnel Psychology 40 (1987), pp. 287–322.

44. 4.44Hackman and Oldham, Work Redesign.

45. 4.45Loher, B.T.; R.A. Noe; N.L. Moeller; and M.P. Fitzgerald. “A Meta-Analysis of the Relation of Job Characteristics to Job Satisfaction.” Journal of Applied Psychology 70 (1985), pp. 280–89.

46. 4.46Campion, M.A., and C.L. McClelland. “Interdisciplinary Examination of the Costs and Benefits of Enlarged Jobs: A Job Design Quasi-Experiment.” Journal of Applied Psychology 76 (1991), pp. 186–98.

47. 4.47Ibid.

48. 4.48Wrzesniewski, A., and J.E. Dutton. “Crafting a Job: Revisioning Employees as Active Crafters of Their Work.” Academy of Management Review 26 (2001), pp. 179–201; and Tims, M.; A.B. Bakker; and D. Derks. “Development and Validation of the Job Crafting Scale.” Journal of Vocational Behavior 80 (2012), pp. 173–86.

49. 4.49Morris, W.N. Mood: The Frame of Mind. New York: Springer-Verlag, 1989.

50. 4.50Watson, D., and A. Tellegen. “Toward a Consensual Structure of Mood.” Psychological Bulletin 98 (1985), pp. 219–35; Russell, J.A. “A Circumplex Model of Affect.” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 39 (1980), pp. 1161–78; and Larsen, R.J., and E. Diener. “Promises and Problems with the Circumplex Model of Emotion.” In Review of Personality and Social Psychology: Emotion, Vol. 13, ed. M.S. Clark. Newbury Park, CA: Sage, 1992, pp. 25–59.

51. 4.51Ibid.

52. 4.52Moskowitz et al., “100 Best Companies to Work For.”

53. 4.53Ibid.

54. 4.54Csikszentmihalyi, M. Finding Flow: The Psychology of Engagement with Everyday Life. New York: Basic Books, 1997; Csikszentmihalyi, M. Flow: The Psychology of Optimal Experience. New York: Harper-Perennial, 1990; and Csikszentmihalyi, M. Beyond Boredom and Anxiety. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1975.

55. 4.55Quinn, R.W. “Flow in Knowledge Work: High Performance Experience in the Design of National Security Technology.” Administrative Science Quarterly 50 (2005), pp. 610–41; Jackson, S.A., and H.W. Marsh. “Development and Validation of a Scale to Measure Optimal Experience: The Flow State Scale.” Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology 18 (1996), pp. 17–35; and Bakker, A.B. “The Work-Related Flow Inventory: Construction and Initial Validation of the WOLF.” Journal of Vocational Behavior 72 (2008), pp. 400–14.

56. 4.56Weiss, H.M., and R. Cropanzano. “Affective Events Theory: A Theoretical Discussion of the Structure, Causes, and Consequences of Affective Experiences at Work.” In Research in Organizational Behavior, Vol. 18, ed. B.M. Staw and L.L. Cummings. Greenwich, CT: JAI Press, 1996, pp. 1–74.

57. Page 1194.57Source: Weiss, H.M., and K.E. Kurek, “Dispositional Influences on Affective Experiences at Work.” In Personality and Work: Reconsidering the Role of Personality in Organizations, ed. M.R. Barrick and A.M. Ryan. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 2003, pp. 121–49.

58. 4.58Weiss and Cropanzano, “Affective Events Theory.”

59. 4.59Lazarus, R.S. Emotion and Adaptation. New York: Oxford University Press, 1991.

60. 4.60Hochschild, A.R. The Managed Heart: Commercialization of Human Feeling. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1983; and Rafaeli, A., and R.I. Sutton. “The Expression of Emotion in Organizational Life.” Research in Organizational Behavior 11 (1989), pp. 1–42.

61. 4.61Hatfield, E.; J.T. Cacioppo; and R.L. Rapson. Emotional Contagion. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1994.

62. 4.62Ashkanasy, N.M.; C.E.J. Hartel; and C.S. Daus. “Diversity and Emotion: The New Frontiers in Organizational Behavior Research.” Journal of Management 28 (2002), pp. 307–38.

63. 4.63Judge, T.A.; C.J. Thoreson; J.E. Bono; and G.K Patton. “The Job Satisfaction–Job Performance Relationship: A Qualitative and Quantitative Review.” Psychological Bulletin 127 (2001), pp. 376–407.

64. 4.64Baas, M.; C.K.W. De Dreu; and B.A. Nijstad. “A Meta-Analysis of 25 Years of Mood—Creativity Research: Hedonic Tone, Activation, or Regulatory Focus.” Psychological Bulletin 134 (2008), pp. 779–806; and Lyubomirsky, S.; L. King; and E. Diener. “The Benefits of Frequent Positive Affect: Does Happiness Lead to Success?” Psychological Bulletin 131 (2005), pp. 803–55.

65. 4.65Brief, A.P., and H.M. Weiss. “Organizational Behavior: Affect in the Workplace.” Annual Review of Psychology 53 (2002), pp. 279–307.

66. 4.66Isen, A.M., and R.A. Baron. “Positive Affect as a Factor in Organizational Behavior.” Research in Organizational Behavior 13 (1991), pp. 1–53.

67. 4.67Tsai, W.C.; C.C. Chen; and H.L. Liu. “Test of a Model Linking Employee Positive Moods and Task Performance.” Journal of Applied Psychology 92 (2007), pp. 1570–83.

68. 4.68Beal, D.J.; H.M. Weiss; E. Barros; and S.M. MacDermid. “An Episodic Process Model of Affective Influences on Performance.” Journal of Applied Psychology 90 (2005), pp. 1054–68; and Miner, A.G., and T.M. Glomb. “State Mood, Task Performance, and Behavior at Work: A Within-Persons Approach.” Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes 112 (2010), pp. 43–57.

69. 4.69Locke, “The Nature and Causes of Job Satisfaction.”

70. 4.70Riketta, M. “The Causal Relation between Job Attitudes and Job Performance: A Meta-Analysis of Panel Studies.” Journal of Applied Psychology 93 (2008), pp. 472–81.

71. 4.71LePine, J.A.; A. Erez; and D.E. Johnson. “The Nature and Dimensionality of Organizational Citizenship Behavior: A Critical Review and Meta-Analysis.” Journal of Applied Psychology 87 (2002), pp. 52–65.

72. 4.72Lyubomirsky et al., “The Benefits of Frequent Positive Affect”; and Dalal, R.S.; H. Lam; H.M. Weiss; E.R. Welch; and C.L. Hulin. “A Within-Person Approach to Work Behavior and Performance: Concurrent and Lagged Citizenship-Counterproductivity Associations, and Dynamic Relationships with Affect and Overall Job Performance.” Academy of Management Journal 52 (2009), pp. 1051–66.

73. Page 1204.73Dalal, R.S. “A Meta-Analysis of the Relationship between Organizational Citizenship Behavior and Counterproductive Work Behavior.” Journal of Applied Psychology 90 (2005), pp. 1241–55.

74. 4.74Yang, J., and J.M. Diefendorff. “The Relations of Daily Counterproductive Workplace Behavior with Emotions, Situational Antecedents, and Personality Moderators: A Diary Study in Hong Kong.” Personnel Psychology 62 (2009), pp. 259–95; and Dalal et al., “A Within-Person Approach to Work Behavior and Performance.”

75. 4.75Cooper-Hakim, A., and C. Viswesvaran. “The Construct of Work Commitment: Testing an Integrative Framework.” Psychological Bulletin 131 (2005), pp. 241–59; Harrison, D.A.; D. Newman; and P.L. Roth. “How Important Are Job Attitudes? Meta-Analytic Comparisons of Integrative Behavioral Outcomes and Time Sequences.” Academy of Management Journal 49 (2006), pp. 305–25; and Meyer, J.P.; D.J. Stanley; L. Herscovitch; and L. Topolnytsky. “Affective, Continuance, and Normative Commitment to the Organization: A Meta-Analysis of Antecedents, Correlates, and Consequences.” Journal of Vocational Behavior 61 (2002), pp. 20–52.

76. 4.76Ibid.

77. 4.77Tait, M.; M.Y. Padgett; and T.T. Baldwin. “Job and Life Satisfaction: A Reexamination of the Strength of the Relationship and Gender Effects as a Function of the Date of the Study.” Journal of Applied Psychology 74 (1989), pp. 502–507; Judge, T.A., S. Watanabe. “Another Look at the Job Satisfaction–Life Satisfaction Relationship.” Journal of Applied Psychology 78 (1993), pp. 939–48; and Erdogan, B.; T.N. Bauer; D.M. Truxillo; and L.R. Mansfield. “Whistle While You Work: A Review of the Life Satisfaction Literature.” Journal of Management 38 (2012), pp. 1038–83.

78. 4.78Kahneman, D.; A.B. Krueger; D.A. Schkade; N. Schwarz; and A.A. Stone. “A Survey Method for Characterizing Daily Life Experience: The Day Reconstruction Method.” Science 306 (2004), pp. 1776–80.

79. 4.79Kahneman, D., and A. Deaton. “High Income Improves Evaluation of Life but Not Emotional Well-Being.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 107 (2010), pp. 16489–93.

80. 4.80Saari, L.M., and T.A. Judge. “Employee Attitudes and Job Satisfaction.” Human Resource Management 43 (2004), pp. 395–407.

81. 4.81Kinicki, A.J.; F.M. McKee-Ryan; C.A. Schriesheim; and K.P. Carson. “Assessing the Construct Validity of the Job Descriptive Index: A Review and Meta-Analysis.” Journal of Applied Psychology 87 (2002), pp. 14–32; Hanisch, K.A. “The Job Descriptive Index Revisited: Questions about the Question Mark.” Journal of Applied Psychology 77 (1992), pp. 377–82; and Jung, K.G.; A. Dalessio; and S.M. Johnson. “Stability of the Factor Structure of the Job Descriptive Index.” Academy of Management Journal 29 (1986), pp. 609–16.

82. Page 1214.82Ironson et al., “Construction”; and Russell et al., “Shorter Can Also Be Better.”

83. 4.83Balzer, W.K.; J.A. Kihn; P.C. Smith; J.L. Irwin; P.D. Bachiochi; C. Robie; E.F. Sinar; and L.F. Parra. “Users’ Manual for the Job Descriptive Index (JDI; 1997 version) and the Job in General Scales.” In Electronic Resources for the JDI and JIG, ed. J.M. Stanton and C.D. Crossley. Bowling Green, OH: Bowling Green State University, 2000.

84. 4.84Ibid.

85. 4.85Ibid.

86. 4.86Saari and Judge, “Employee Attitudes.”

87. 5.1Miller, J., and M. Miller. “Get a Life!” Fortune, November 28, 2005, pp. 109–24, 


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88. 5.2Sauter, S.; L. Murphy; M. Colligan; N. Swanson; J. Hurrell Jr.; F. Scharf Jr.; R. Sinclair; P. Grubb; L. Goldenhar; T. Alterman; J. Johnston; A. Hamilton; and J. Tisdale. Stress at Work, DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 99-101. Cincinnati, OH: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, 1999.

89. 5.3Johnson, S.R., and L.D. Eldridge. Employee-Related Stress on the Job: Sources, Consequences, and What’s Next, Technical Report #003. Rochester, NY: Genesee Survey Services Inc., 2004.

90. 5.4Lazarus, R.S., and S. Folkman. Stress, Appraisal, and Coping. New York: Springer, 1984.

91. 5.5Bliese, P.D.; J.R. Edwards; and S. Sonnentag. “Stress and Well-Being at Work: A Century of Empirical Trends Reflecting Theoretical and Societal Influences.” Journal of Applied Psychology 102 (2017), pp. 389–402.

92. 5.6Lazarus and Folkman, Stress, Appraisal, and Coping.

93. 5.7Ibid.

94. 5.8LePine, M.A.; Y. Zhang; E.R. Crawford; and B.L. Rich. “Turning Their Pain to Gain: Charismatic Leader Influence on Follower Stress Appraisal and Job Performance.” Academy of Management Journal 59 (2016), pp. 1036–59.

95. 5.9LePine, J.A.; M.A. LePine; and C.L. Jackson. “Challenge and Hindrance Stress: Relationships with Exhaustion, Motivation to Learn, and Learning Performance.” Journal of Applied Psychology 89 (2004), pp. 883–91; LePine, J.A.; N.P. Podsakoff; and M.A. LePine. “A Meta-Analytic Test of the Challenge Stressor–Hindrance Stressor Framework: An Explanation for Inconsistent Relationships among Stressors and Performance.” Academy of Management Journal 48 (2005), pp. 764–75; and Podsakoff, N.P.; J.A. LePine; and M.A. LePine. “Differential Challenge Stressor–Hindrance Stressor Relationships with Job Attitudes, Turnover Intentions, Turnover, and Withdrawal Behavior: A Meta-Analysis.” Journal of Applied Psychology 92 (2007), pp. 438–54.

96. 5.10Rodell, J.B., and T.A. Judge. “Can ‘Good’ Stressors Spark ‘Bad’ Behaviors? The Mediating Role of Emotions in the Links of Challenge and Hindrance Stressors with Citizenship and Counterproductive Behaviors.” Journal of Applied Psychology 94 (2009), pp. 1438–51.

97. 5.11Cavanaugh, M.A.; W.R. Boswell; M.V. Roehling; and J.W. Boudreau. “An Empirical Examination of Self-Reported Work Stress among U.S. Managers.” Journal of Applied Psychology 85 (2000), pp. 65–74.

98. Page 1525.12LePine, J.A.; M.A. LePine; and J.R. Saul. “Relationships among Work and Non-Work Challenge and Hindrance Stressors and Non-Work and Work Criteria: A Theory of Cross-Domain Stressor Effects.” In Research in Occupational Stress and Well Being, ed. P.L. Perrewé and D.C. Ganster. San Diego: JAI Press/Elsevier, 2006, pp. 35–72.

99. 5.13Kahn, R.; D. Wolfe; R. Quinn; J. Snoek; and R.A. Rosenthal. Organizational Stress: Studies in Role Conflict and Ambiguity. New York: Wiley, 1964; and Pearce, J. “Bringing Some Clarity to Role Ambiguity Research.” Academy of Management Review 6 (1981), pp. 665–74.

100. 5.14Kahn et al., Organizational Stress; Rizzo, J.R.; R.J. House; and S.I. Lirtzman. “Role Conflict and Ambiguity in Complex Organizations.” Administrative Science Quarterly 15 (1970), pp. 150–63; and Ritter, K.J.; R.A. Matthews; M.T. Ford; and A.A. Henderson. “Understanding Role Stressors and Job Satisfaction Over Time Using Adaptation Theory.” Journal of Applied Psychology 101 (2016), pp. 1655–69.

101. 5.15Ibid.

102. 5.16Kahn et al., Organizational Stress.

103. 5.17Narayanan, L.; S. Menon; and P. Spector. “Stress in the Workplace: A Comparison of Gender and Occupations.” Journal of Organizational Behavior 20 (1999), pp. 63–74.

104. 5.18Miller and Miller, “Get a Life!”

105. 5.19Chamerlain, K., and S. Zika. “The Minor Events Approach to Stress: Support for the Use of Daily Hassles.” British Journal of Psychology 18 (1990), pp. 469–81.

106. 5.20Mandel, M. “The Real Reasons You’re Working So Hard . . . and What You Can Do about It.” BusinessWeek, October 3, 2005, pp. 60–67, 


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107. 5.21Kahn et al., Organizational Stress.

108. 5.22O’Connor, A. “Cracking under Pressure? It’s Just the Opposite for Some; Sick of Work—Last of Three Articles: Thriving under Stress.” The New York Times, Section A, Column 5, September 10, 2004, p. 1, 


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109. 5.23Schaubroeck, J.; D.C. Ganster; and B.E. Kemmerer. “Job Complexity, ‘Type A’ Behavior, and Cardiovascular Disorder: A Prospective Study.” Academy of Management Journal 37 (1994), pp. 426–39.

110. 5.24McCall, M.W.; M.M. Lombardo; and A.M. Morrison. The Lessons of Experience: How Successful Executives Develop on the Job. Lexington, MA: Lexington Books, 1988.

111. 5.25Edwards, J.R., and R.V. Harrison. “Job Demands and Worker Health: Three-Dimensional Reexamination of the Relationships between Person-Environment Fit and Strain.” Journal of Applied Psychology 78 (1993), pp. 628–48; and French, J.R.P. Jr.; R.D. Caplan; and R.V. Harrison. The Mechanisms of Job Stress and Strain. New York: Wiley, 1982.

112. 5.26Abrahm, S. “From Wall Street to Control Tower.” The New York Times, March 20, 2010, 



113. 5.27Neufeld, S. “Work-Related Stress: What You Need to Know” (n.d.), http://healthyplace.healthology.com/focus_article.asp?f5mentalhealth&c5work_related_stress.

114. 5.28Hoobler, J.M.; S.J. Wayne; and G. Lemmon. “Bosses’ Perceptions of Family–Work Conflict and Women’s Promotability: Glass Ceiling Effects.” Academy of Management Journal 52 (2009), pp. 939–57.

115. Page 1535.29Crouter, A. “Spillover from Family to Work: The Neglected Side of the Work–Family Interface.” Human Relations 37 (1984), pp. 425–42; and Rice, R.W.; M.R. Frone; and D.B. McFarlin. “Work and Nonwork Conflict and the Perceived Quality of Life.” Journal of Organizational Behavior 13 (1992), pp. 155–68.

116. 5.30Dahm, P.C.; T.M. Glomb; C. Flaherty Manchester; and S. Leroy. “Work-Family Conflict and Self-Discrepant Time Allocation at Work.” Journal of Applied Psychology 100 (2015), pp. 767–92; Netemeyer, R.G.; J.S. Boles; and R. McMurrian. “Development and Validation of Work–Family Conflict and Family–Work Conflict Scales.” Journal of Applied Psychology 81 (1996), pp. 400–10; and Shockley, K.M., and T.D. Allen. “Deciding Between Work and Family: An Episodic Approach.” Personnel Psychology 68 (2015), pp. 283–318.

117. 5.31Wayne, J.H.; M.M. Butts; W.J. Casper; and T.D. Allen. “In Search of Balance: A Conceptual and Empirical Integration of Multiple Meanings of Work–Family Balance.” Personnel Psychology 70 (2017), pp. 167–210.

118. 5.32Nohe, C.; L.L. Meier; K. Sonntag; and A. Michel. “The Chicken or the Egg? A Meta-Analysis of Panel Studies of the Relationship Between Work–Family Conflict and Strain.” Journal of Applied Psychology 100 (2015), pp. 522–36.

119. 5.33Ng, T.W.H., and D.C. Feldman. “The Effects of Organizational and Community Embeddedness on Work-to-Family and Family-to-Work Conflict.” Journal of Applied Psychology 97 (2012), pp. 1233–51.

120. 5.34Cohen, S.; D.A. Tyrrell; and A.P. Smith. “Negative Life Events, Perceived Stress, Negative Affect, and Susceptibility to the Common Cold.” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 64 (1993), pp. 131–40.

121. 5.35Holmes, T.H., and R.H. Rahe. “The Social Readjustment Rating Scale.” Journal of Psychosomatic Research 11 (1967), pp. 213–18; and U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Office of the Surgeon General. “Mental Health: A Report of the Surgeon General” (n.d.), 



122. 5.36Frauenheim, E., and J. Marquez. “Reducing the Fear Factor.” Workforce Management, November 18, 2008, pp. 17–22.

123. 5.37LePine et al., “Relationships among Work and Non-Work Challenge and Hindrance Stressors and Non-Work and Work Criteria.”

124. 5.38Lazarus and Folkman, Stress, Appraisal, and Coping.

125. 5.39Folkman, S.; R.S. Lazarus; C. Dunkel-Schetter; A. Delongis; and R.J. Gruen. “Dynamics of a Stressful Encounter: Cognitive Appraisal, Coping, and Encounter Outcomes.” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 50 (1986), pp. 992–1003.

126. 5.40Latack, J.C., and S.J. Havlovic. “Coping with Job Stress: A Conceptual Evaluation Framework for Coping Measures.” Journal of Organizational Behavior 13 (1992), pp. 479–508.

127. 5.41Ibid.

128. 5.42Latack and Havlovic, “Coping with Job Stress.”

129. 5.43Kahn et al., Organizational Stress; and Lazarus and Folkman, Stress, Appraisal, and Coping.

130. 5.44Latack and Havlovic, “Coping with Job Stress.”

131. 5.45Ibid.

132. Page 1545.46Lazarus, R.S. “Progress on a Cognitive–Motivational–Relational Theory of Emotion.” American Psychologist 46 (1991), pp. 819–34.

133. 5.47Daniels, C. “The Last Taboo: It’s Not Sex. It’s Not Drinking. It’s Stress—and It’s Soaring.” Fortune, October 28, 2002, pp. 136–44, 


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134. 5.48Miller and Miller, “Get a Life!”

135. 5.49Selye, H. The Stress of Life. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1976.

136. 5.50Cannon, W.B. “Stresses and Strains of Homeostasis.” American Journal of Medical Science 189 (1935), pp. 1–14; and Goldstein, D.L. Stress, Catecholamines, & Cardiovascular Disease. New York: Oxford University Press, 1995.

137. 5.51Kahn, R.L., and P. Byosiere. “Stress in Organizations.” In Handbook of Industrial and Organizational Psychology, Vol. 4, ed. M.D. Dunette; J.M.R. Hough; and H.C. Triandis. Palo Alto, CA: Consulting Psychologists Press, 1992, pp. 517–650.

138. 5.52Defrank, R.S., and J.M. Ivancevich. “Stress on the Job: An Executive Update.” Academy of Management Executive 12 (1998), pp. 55–66; and Haran, C. “Do You Know Your Early Warning Stress Signals?” 2005, http://abcnews.go.com/Health/Healthology/story?id=421825.

139. 5.53Stöppler, M.C. “High Pressure Work Deadlines Raise Heart Attack Risk,” http://stress.about.com/od/heartdissease/a/deadline.htm (accessed October 1, 2005).

140. 5.54Leitner, K., and M.G. Resch. “Do the Effects of Job Stressors on Health Persist over Time? A Longitudinal Study with Observational Stress Measures.” Journal of Occupational Health Psychology 10 (2005), pp. 18–30.

141. 5.55Gonzalez-Mule, E.; and B. Cockburn. “Worked to Death: The Relationships of Job Demands and Job Control with Mortality.” Personnel Psychology 70 (2017), pp. 73–112.

142. 5.56Defrank and Ivancevich, “Stress on the Job”; and Haran, “Do You Know?”

143. 5.57Pines, A., and D. Kafry. “Occupational Tedium in the Social Services.” Social Work 23 (1978), pp. 499–507.

144. 5.58ESPN.com. “Mentally Tired Favre Tells Packers His Playing Career Is Over,” March 4, 2008, 



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146. 5.60Defrank and Ivancevich, “Stress on the Job.”

147. 5.61Friedman, M., and R.H. Rosenman. Type A Behavior and Your Heart. New York: Knopf, 1974.

148. 5.62Ganster, D.C. “Type A Behavior and Occupational Stress. Job Stress: From Theory to Suggestion.” Journal of Organizational Behavior Management 8 (1987), pp. 61–84.

149. 5.63Friedman and Rosenman, Type A Behavior; and Yarnold, P.R., and F.B. Bryant. “A Note on Measurement Issues in Type A Research: Let’s Not Throw Out the Baby with the Bath Water.” Journal of Personality Assessment 52 (1988), pp. 410–19.

150. 5.64Abush, R., and E.J. Burkhead. “Job Stress in Midlife Working Women: Relationships among Personality Type, Job Characteristics, and Job Tension.” Journal of Counseling Psychology 31 (1984), pp. 36–44; Dearborn, M.J., and J.E. Hastings. “Type A Personality as a Mediator of Stress and Strain in Employed Women.” Journal of Human Stress 13 (1987), pp. 53–60; and Howard, J.H.; D.A. Cunningham; and P.A. Rechnitzer. “Role Ambiguity, Type A Behavior, and Job Satisfaction: Moderating Effects on Cardiovascular and Biochemical Responses Associated with Coronary Risk.” Journal of Applied Psychology 71 (1986), pp. 95–101.

151. Page 1555.65Debus, M.E.; Sonnentag, S.; W. Deutsch; and F.W. Nussbeck. “Making Flow Happen: The Effects of Being Recovered on Work-Related Flow between and within Days.” Journal of Applied Psychology 99 (2014), pp. 713–22; Meijman, T.F., and G. Mulder. “Psychological Aspects of Workload.” In Handbook of Work and Organizational Psychology: Vol 2. Work Psychology, P.J.D. Drenth and H. Theirry, eds. Hove, England: Psychology Press, 1998, pp. 5–33; Sonnentag, S. “Work, Recovery Activities, and Individual Well-Being: A Diary Study.” Journal of Occupational Health Psychology 6 (2001), pp. 196–210; Sonnentag, S. “Recovery, Work Engagement and Proactive Behaivor: A New Look at the Interface between Nonwork and Work.” Journal of Applied Psychology 88 (2003), pp. 518–28; Sonnentag, S.; E.J. Mojza.; E. Demerouti; and A.B. Bakker. “Reciprocal Relations between Recovery and Work Engagement: The Moderating Role of Job Stressors.” Journal of Applied Psychology 97 (2012), pp. 842–53; and Sonnentag, S., and F.R. H. Zijlstra. “Job Characteristics and Off-Job Activities as Predictors of Need for Recovery, Well-Being, and Fatigue.” Journal of Applied Psychology 91 (2006), pp. 330–50.

152. 5.66Brummelhuis, L.l., and A.B. Bakker. “Staying Engaged during the Week: The Effect of Off-Job Activities on Next Day Work Engagement.” Journal of Occupational Health Psychology 17 (2012), pp. 445–55.

153. 5.67Barnes, C.M.; S. Ghumman; and B.A. Scott. “Sleep and Organizational Citizenship Behavior: The Mediating Role of Job Satisfaction.” Journal of Occupational Health Psychology 18 (2013), pp. 116–26;Litwiller, B.; L. Anderson Snyder; W.D. Taylor; and L.M. Steele. “The Relationship between Sleep and Work: A Meta-Analysis.” Journal of Applied Psychology 201 (2017), pp. 682–99; Wagner, D.T.; and C.M Barnes; V.K.G. Lim; and D.L. Ferris. “Lost Sleep and Cyberloafing: Evidence from Laboratory and a Daylight Saving Time Quasi-Experiment.” Journal of Applied Psychology 97 (2012), pp. 1068–76.

154. 5.68Cooper, C.L.; P.J. Dewe; and M.P. O’Driscoll. Organizational Stress. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, 2001.

155. 5.69Fusilier, M.R.; D.C. Ganster; and B.T. Mayes. “Effects of Social Support, Role Stress, and Locus of Control on Health.” Journal of Management 13 (1987), pp. 517–28.

156. 5.70Nahum-Shani, I., and P.A. Bamberger. “Explaining the Variable Effects of Social Support on Work-Based Stressor-Strain Relations: The Role of Perceived Pattern of Support Exchange.” Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes 114 (2011), pp. 49–63.

157. 5.71Zhang, Y.; J.A. LePine; B. R. Buckman; and F. Wei. “It’s Not Fair . . . Or Is It? The Role of Justice and Leadership in Explaining Work Stressor–Job Performance Relationships.” Academy of Management Journal 57 (2014), pp. 675–97.

158. 5.72Jayaratne, S.; T. Tripodi; and W.A. Chess. “Perceptions of Emotional Support, Stress, and Strain by Male and Female Social Workers.” Social Work Research and Abstracts 19 (1983), pp. 19–27; Kobasa, S. “Commitment and Coping in Stress among Lawyers.” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 42 (1982), pp. 707–17; and LaRocco, J.M., and A.P. Jones. “Co-Worker and Leader Support as Moderators of Stress–Strain Relationships in Work Situations.” Journal of Applied Psychology 63 (1978), pp. 629–34.

159. Page 1565.73Kahn and Byosiere, “Stress in Organizations.”

160. 5.74Nohe, C.; L.L. Meier; K. Sonntag; and A. Michel. “The Chicken or the Egg? A Meta-Analysis of Panel Studies of the Relationship between Work-Family Conflict and Strain.” Journal of Applied Psychology 100 (2015), pp. 522–36.

161. 5.75LePine et al., “A Meta-Analytic Test.”

162. 5.76Cohen, S. “After Effects of Stress on Human Performance and Social Behavior: A Review of Research and Theory.” Psychological Bulletin 88 (1980), pp. 82–108; and Crawford, E.R.; J.A. LePine; and B.L. Rich. “Linking Job Demands and Resources to Employee Engagement and Burnout: A Theoretical Extension and Meta-Analytic Test.” Journal of Applied Psychology 95 (2010), pp. 834–48.

163. 5.77Meier, L.L., and P.E. Spector. “Reciprocal Effects of Work Stressors and Counterproductive Work Behavior: A Five Wave Longitudinal Study.” Journal of Applied Psychology 98 (2013), pp. 529–39.

164. 5.78Podsakoff et al., “Differential Challenge Stressor–Hindrance Stressor Relationships.”

165. 5.79Bedeian, A.G., and A. Armenakis. “A Path-Analytic Study of the Consequences of Role Conflict and Ambiguity.” Academy of Management Journal 24 (1981), pp. 417–24; and Schaubroeck, J.; J.L. Cotton; and K.R. Jennings. “Antecedents and Consequences of Role Stress: A Covariance Structure Analysis.” Journal of Organizational Behavior 10 (1989), pp. 35–58.

166. 5.80LePine et al., “A Meta-Analytic Test”; and Podsakoff et al., “Differential Challenge Stressor–Hindrance Stressor Relationships.”

167. 5.81Crawford, LePine, and Rich, “Linking Job Demands and Resources to Employee Engagement and Burnout.”

168. 5.82Ibid.

169. 5.83Cavanaugh, M.A.; W.R. Boswell; M.V. Roehling; and J.W. Boudreau. “An Empirical Examination of Self-Reported Work Stress Among U.S. Managers.” Journal of Applied Psychology 85 (2000), pp. 65–74.

170. 5.84Boswell, W.R.; J.B. Olson-Buchanan; and M.A. LePine. “The Relationship Between Work-Related Stress and Work Outcomes: The Role of Felt-Challenge and Psychological Strain.” Journal of Vocational Behavior 64 (2004), pp. 165–81.

171. 5.85LePine et al., “Challenge and Hindrance Stress.”

172. 5.86Myers, L. “Transforming Presenteeism into Productivity” Workspan, July 2009, pp. 40–43.

173. 5.87Miller, S. “Most Employees Underestimate Health Impact on Productivity.” HR Magazine, June 2009, p. 20.

174. 5.88Burke, M.E. “2005 Benefits Survey Report.” Alexandria, VA: Society of Human Resource Management Research Department, 2005.

175. 5.89Perkins, A. “Medical Costs: Saving Money by Reducing Stress.” Harvard Business Review 72 (1994), p. 12.

176. 5.90Sauter, S.; L. Murphy; M. Colligan; N. Swanson; J. Hurrell Jr.; F. Scharf Jr.; R. Sinclair; P. Grubb; L. Goldenhar; T. Alterman; J. Johnston; A. Hamilton; and J. Tisdale. “Is Your Boss Making You Sick?” (n.d.), 



177. Page 1575.91Defrank and Ivancevich, “Stress on the Job.”

178. 5.92Noyce, J. “Help Employees Manage Stress to Prevent Absenteeism, Errors.” Minneapolis–St. Paul Business Journal, August 22, 2003, 


; and Burke, “2005 Benefits Survey Report.”

179. 5.93Hoffman, J. “Napping Gets a Nod at the Workplace.” Bloomberg Businessweek, August 26, 2010, 


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180. 5.94Defrank and Ivancevich, “Stress on the Job”; and Cooper, C.L. “The Costs of Stress at Work.” The Safety & Health Practitioner 19 (2001), pp. 24–26.

181. 5.95Rafter, M. V. “The Yawning of a New Era.” Workforce Management, December 2010, pp. 3–4.

182. 5.96Hengchen, D.; K.L. Milkman; D. A. Hofmann; and B. R. Staats. “The Impact of Time at Work and Time off from Work on Rule Compliance: The Case of Hand Hygiene in Health Care.” Journal of Applied Psychology 100 (2015), pp. 846–62.

183. 5.97Burke, “2005 Benefits Survey Report.”

184. 5.98Miller and Miller, “Get a Life!”

185. 5.99Ibid.; and Cunningham, C.R., and S.S. Murray. “Two Executives, One Career.” Harvard Business Review 83 (February 2005), pp. 125–31.

186. 5.100Sahadi, J. “The World’s Best Perk.” CNNMoney.com, June 13, 2006, 



187. 5.101Ibid.

188. 5.102Ibid.

189. 5.103Milligan. S. “Greetings from Unlimited Vacationland.” HR Magazine, March (2015), pp. 28–36.

190. 5.104LePine et al., “A Meta-Analytic Test”; and Podsakoff et al., “Differential Challenge Stressor–Hindrance Stress Relationships.”

191. 5.105Hakanen, J.J.; M.C.W. Peeters; and R. Perhoniemi. “Enrichment Processes and Gain Spirals at Work and at Home: A 3-Year Cross-Lagged Panel Study.” Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology 84 (2011), pp. 8–30; and Sonnentag, S., and M. Frese. “Stress in Organizations.” In Comprehensive Handbook of Psychology: Vol. 12, Industrial and Organizational Psychology, ed. W.C. Borman; D.R. Ilgen, and R.J. Klimoski. New York: Wiley, 2003, pp. 453–91.

192. 5.106Vuori, J.; S. Toppinen-Tanner; and P. Mutanen. “Impacts of Resource-Building Group Intervention on Career Management and Mental Health in Work Organizations: Randomized Controlled Field Trial.” Journal of Applied Psychology 97 (2012), pp. 273–86.

193. 5.107Allen, T.D.; R.C. Johnson; K.M. Kiburz; and K.M. Shockley. “Work-Family Conflict and Flexible Work Arrangements: Deconstructing Flexibility.” Personnel Psychology 66 (2013), pp. 345–76.

194. 5.108Hunter, E.M., and C. Wu. “Give Me a Better Break: Choosing Workday Break Activities to Maximize Resource Recovery.” Journal of Applied Psychology 101 (2016), pp. 302–11.

195. Page 1585.109Burke, “2005 Benefits Survey Report.”

196. 5.110Spieler, I.; S. Scheibe; C. Stamov-Roßnagel; and A. Kappas. “Help or Hindrance? Day-Level Relationships Between Flextime Use, Work–Nonwork Boundaries, and Affective Well-Being.” Journal of Applied Psychology 102 (2017), pp. 67–87.

197. 5.111Defrank and Ivancevich, “Stress on the Job”; and Austin, N.K. “Work–Life Paradox.” Incentive 178 (2004), p. 18.

198. 5.112Butts, M.B.; W.J. Casper; and T.S. Yang. “How Important Are Work-Family Support Policies? A Meta-Analytic Investigation of Their Effects on Employee Outcomes.” Journal of Applied Psychology 98 (2013), pp. 1–25.

199. 5.113Goudreau, J. “Back to the Stone Age? New Yahoo CEO Marissa Mayer Bans Working from Home.” Forbes, 


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200. 5.114Leslie, L.M.; C. Flaherty Manchester; T.Y. Park; and S.A. Mehng. “Flexible Work Practices: A Source of Career Premiums or Penalties?” Academy of Management Journal 55 (2012), pp. 1407–28.

201. 5.115Mandeville, A.; J. Halbesleben; and M. Whitman. “Misalignment and Misperception in Preferences to Utilize Family-Friendly Benefits: Implications for Benefit Utilization and Work–Family Conflict.” Personnel Psychology 69 (2016), pp. 859–929.

202. 5.116Murphy, L.R. “Stress Management in Work Settings: A Critical Review of Health Effects.” American Journal of Health Promotion 11 (1996), pp. 112–35.

203. 5.117Neufeld, Work-Related Stress.

204. 5.118Haran, “Do You Know?”

205. 5.119Ibid.

206. 5.120Daniels, “The Last Taboo.”

207. 5.121Frauenheim and Marquez, “Reducing the Fear Factor.”

208. 5.122Sonnentag and Frese, “Stress in Organizations.”

209. 5.123Neufeld, Work-Related Stress.

210. 5.124Atkinson. W. “Turning Stress into Strength.” HR Magazine, January 2011, pp. 49–52.

211. 5.125Ibid.; Burke, “2005 Benefits Survey Report.”

212. 5.126Kvamme, N. “Humana’s Freewheelin’ Program Proves to Be Good for Business.” Workspan, August 2008, pp. 75–78.

213. 5.127Doheny, K. “Going the Extra Mile.” Workforce Management, January 19, 2009, pp. 27–28.

214. 5.128Toker, S., and M. Biron. “Job Burnout and Depression: Unraveling Their Temporal Relationship and Considering the Role of Physical Activity.” Journal of Applied Psychology 97 (2012), pp. 699–770.

215. 5.129Sohre, K. “What Are These Companies Doing about Health Care Management That You Aren’t?” Workspan, March 2010, pp. 22–26.

216. Page 1876.1Steers, R.M.; R.T. Mowday; and D. Shapiro. “The Future of Work Motivation.” Academy of Management Review 29 (2004), pp. 379–87; Latham, G.P. Work Motivation: History, Theory, Research, and Practice. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, 2006.

217. 6.2Latham, G.P., and C.C. Pinder. “Work Motivation Theory and Research at the Dawn of the Twenty-First Century.” Annual Review of Psychology 56 (2005), pp. 485–516.

218. 6.3Maier, N.R.F. Psychology in Industry, 2nd ed. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1955.

219. 6.4Kahn, W.A. “Psychological Conditions of Personal Engagement and Disengagement at Work.” Academy of Management Journal 33 (1990), pp. 692–724.

220. 6.5Rich, B.L.; J.A. LePine; and E.R. Crawford. “Job Engagement: Antecedents and Effects on Job Performance.” Academy of Management Journal 52 (2009), pp. 617–35; Schaufeli, W.B.; M. Salanova; V. Gonzalez-Roma; and A.B. Bakker. “The Measurement of Engagement and Burnout: A Two Sample Confirmatory Factor Analytic Approach.” Journal of Happiness Studies 3 (2002), pp. 71–92; and Macy, W.H., and B. Schneider. “The Meaning of Employee Engagement.” Industrial and Organizational Psychology 1 (2008), pp. 3–30.

221. 6.6Ibid.; and Rothbard, N.P. “Enriching or Depleting? The Dynamics of Engagement in Work and Family Roles.” Administrative Science Quarterly 46 (2001), pp. 655–84.

222. 6.7Harter, J.K.; F.L. Schmidt; and T.H. Hayes. “Business-Unit-Level Relationship between Employee Satisfaction, Employee Engagement, and Business Outcomes: A Meta-Analysis.” Journal of Applied Psychology 87 (2002), pp. 268–79.

223. 6.8O’Boyle, E., and J. Harter. “State of the American Workplace.” Gallup, June 29, 2013, 



224. 6.9Woolley, S. “New Priorities for Employers.” Bloomberg Businessweek, September 13–19, 2010, p. 54.

225. 6.10Bakker, A.B., and D. Xanthopoulou. “The Crossover of Daily Work Engagement: Test of an Actor-Partner Interdependence Model.” Journal of Applied Psychology 94 (2009), pp. 1562–71.

226. 6.11Vroom, V.H. Work and Motivation. New York: Wiley, 1964.

227. 6.12Ibid.; see also Thorndike, E.L. “The Law of Effect.” American Journal of Psychology 39 (1964), pp. 212–22; Hull, C.L. Essentials of Behavior. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1951; Postman, L. “The History and Present Status of the Law of Effect.” Psychological Bulletin 44 (1947), pp. 489–563.

228. 6.13Bandura, A. “Self-Efficacy: Toward a Unifying Theory of Behavioral Change.” Psychological Review 84 (1977), pp. 191–215.

229. 6.14Brockner, J. Self-Esteem at Work. Lexington, MA: Lexington Books, 1988.

230. 6.15Bandura, “Self-Efficacy.”

231. 6.16Ibid.

232. 6.17Ibid.

233. 6.18Gist, M.E., and T.R. Mitchell. “Self-Efficacy: A Theoretical Analysis of Its Determinants and Malleability.” Academy of Management Review 17 (1992), pp. 183–211.

234. 6.19Vroom, Work and Motivation.

235. Page 1886.20Pinder, C.C. Work Motivation. Glenview, IL: Scott, Foresman, 1984.

236. 6.21Stillings, J., and L. Snyder. “Up Front: The Stat.” BusinessWeek, July 4, 2005, p. 12.

237. 6.22Henneman, T. “Cracks in the Ice.” Workforce Management, November 2010, pp. 30–36.

238. 6.23Source: Henneman, T. “Cracks in the Ice.” Workforce Management, November 2010, pp. 30–36.

239. 6.24Vroom, Work and Motivation.

240. 6.25Pinder, Work Motivation.

241. 6.26Landy, F.J., and W.S. Becker. “Motivation Theory Reconsidered.” In Research in Organizational Behavior, Vol. 9, ed. B.M. Staw and L.L. Cummings. Greenwich, CT: JAI Press, 1987, pp. 1–38; Naylor, J.C.; D.R. Pritchard; and D.R. Ilgen. A Theory of Behavior in Organizations. New York: Academic Press, 1980.

242. 6.27Maslow, A.H. “A Theory of Human Motivation.” Psychological Review 50 (1943), pp. 370–96; Alderfer, C.P. “An Empirical Test of a New Theory of Human Needs.” Organizational Behavior and Human Performance 4 (1969), pp. 142–75.

243. 6.28Ibid.; see also Deci, E.L., and R.M. Ryan. “The ‘What’ and ‘Why’ of Goal Pursuits: Human Needs and the Self-Determination of Behavior.” Psychological Inquiry 11 (2000), pp. 227–68; Cropanzano, R.; Z.S. Byrne; D.R. Bobocel; and D.R. Rupp. “Moral Virtues, Fairness Heuristics, Social Entities, and Other Denizens of Organizational Justice.” Journal of Vocational Behavior 58 (2001), pp. 164–209; Williams, K.D. “Social Ostracism.” In Aversive Interpersonal Behaviors, ed. R.M. Kowalski. New York: Plenum Press, 1997, pp. 133–70; Thomas, K.W., and B.A. Velthouse. “Cognitive Elements of Empowerment: An ‘Interpretive’ Model of Intrinsic Task Motivation.” Academy of Management Review 15 (1990), pp. 666–81.

244. 6.29Deci and Ryan, “The ‘What’ and ‘Why’”; Naylor et al., A Theory of Behavior in Organizations.

245. 6.30Ibid.

246. 6.31
Workforce Management.

247. 6.32Speizer, I. “Incentives Catch on Overseas, but Value of Awards Can Too Easily Get Lost in Translation.” Workforce, November 21, 2005, pp. 46–49.

248. 6.33Huff, “Motivating the World”; Speizer, “Incentives Catch on Overseas.”

249. 6.34Rynes, S.L.; B. Gerhart; and K.A. Minette. “The Importance of Pay in Employee Motivation: Discrepancies between What People Say and What They Do.” Human Resource Management 43 (2004), pp. 381–94; Rynes, S.L.; K.G. Brown; and A.E. Colbert. “Seven Common Misconceptions about Human Resource Practices: Research Findings versus Practitioner Beliefs.” Academy of Management Executive 16 (2002), pp. 92–102.

250. 6.35Rynes et al., “The Importance of Pay.”

251. 6.36Ibid.

252. 6.37Mitchell, T.R., and A.E. Mickel. “The Meaning of Money: An Individual Differences Perspective.” Academy of Management Review 24 (1999), pp. 568–78.

253. 6.38Tang, T.L. “The Meaning of Money Revisited.” Journal of Organizational Behavior 13 (1992), pp. 197–202; Mickel, A.E., and L.A. Barron. “Getting ‘More Bang for the Buck.’” Journal of Management Inquiry 17 (2008), pp. 329–38.

254. 6.39Tang, T.L. “The Development of a Short Money Ethic Scale: Attitudes toward Money and Pay Satisfaction Revisited.” Personality and Individual Differences 19 (1995), pp. 809–16.

255. 6.40Tang, “The Meaning of Money Revisited.”

256. 6.41Ibid.; Tang, “The Development of a Short Money Ethic Scale.”

257. 6.42Tang, “The Development of a Short Money Ethic Scale.”

258. Page 1896.43Vroom, Work and Motivation; Lawler III, E.E., and J.L. Suttle. “Expectancy Theory and Job Behavior.” Organizational Behavior and Human Performance 9 (1973), pp. 482–503.

259. 6.44Locke, E.A. “Toward a Theory of Task Motivation and Incentives.” Organizational Behavior and Human Performance 3 (1968), pp. 157–89.

260. 6.45Locke, E.A.; K.N. Shaw; L.M. Saari; and G.P. Latham. “Goal Setting and Task Performance: 1969–1980.” Psychological Bulletin 90 (1981), pp. 125–52.

261. 6.46Locke, E.A., and G.P. Latham. A Theory of Goal Setting and Task Performance. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1990.

262. 6.47Ibid.

263. 6.48Ibid.

264. 6.49Ibid.; see also Locke, E.A., and G.P. Latham. “Building a Practically Useful Theory of Goal Setting and Task Motivation: A 35-Year Odyssey.” American Psychologist 57 (2002), pp. 705–17; Latham, G.P. “Motivate Employee Performance through Goal-Setting.” In Blackwell Handbook of Principles of Organizational Behavior, ed. E.A. Locke. Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2000, pp. 107–19.

265. 6.50Locke and Latham, A Theory of Goal Setting.

266. 6.51Locke et al., “Goal Setting and Task Performance.”

267. 6.52Ibid.; Locke and Latham, A Theory of Goal Setting; and Locke and Latham, “Building a Practically Useful Theory.”

268. 6.53Wood, R.E.; A.J. Mento; and E.A. Locke. “Task Complexity as a Moderator of Goal Effects: A Meta-Analysis.” Journal of Applied Psychology 72 (1987), pp. 416–25.

269. 6.54Ibid.

270. 6.55Barrett, A. “Cracking the Whip at Wyeth.” BusinessWeek, February 6, 2006, pp. 70–71.

271. 6.56Hollenbeck, J.R., and H.J. Klein. “Goal Commitment and the Goal-Setting Process: Problems, Prospects, and Proposal for Future Research.” Journal of Applied Psychology 72 (1987), pp. 212–20; see also Locke et al., “Goal Setting and Task Performance.”

272. 6.57Klein, H.J.; M.J. Wesson; J.R. Hollenbeck; and B.J. Alge. “Goal Commitment and the Goal-Setting Process: Conceptual Clarification and Empirical Synthesis.” Journal of Applied Psychology 84 (1999), pp. 885–96; Donovan, J.J., and D.J. Radosevich. “The Moderating Role of Goal Commitment on the Goal Difficulty–Performance Relationship: A Meta-Analytic Review and Critical Reanalysis.” Journal of Applied Psychology 83 (1998), pp. 308–15.

273. 6.58Hollenbeck and Klein, “Goal Commitment and the Goal-Setting Process”; Klein et al., “Goal Commitment”; Locke, E.A.; G.P Latham; and M. Erez. “The Determinants of Goal Commitment.” Academy of Management Review 13 (1988), pp. 23–29; Latham, G.P. “The Motivational Benefits of Goal-Setting.” Academy of Management Executive 18 (2004), pp. 126–29.

274. 6.59Shaw, K.N. “Changing the Goal Setting Process at Microsoft.” Academy of Management Executive 18 (2004), pp. 139–42.

275. 6.60Ibid.

276. 6.61Adams, J.S., and W.B. Rosenbaum. “The Relationship of Worker Productivity to Cognitive Dissonance about Wage Inequities.” Journal of Applied Psychology 46 (1962), pp. 161–64.

277. 6.62Adams, J.S. “Inequity in Social Exchange.” In Advances in Experimental Social Psychology, Vol. 2, ed. L. Berkowitz. New York: Academic Press, 1965, pp. 267–99; Homans, G.C. Social Behaviour: Its Elementary Forms. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1961.

278. 6.63Ibid.

279. 6.64Adams, “Inequality in Social Exchange.”

280. Page 1906.65Ibid.

281. 6.66Greenberg, J. “Employee Theft as a Reaction to Underpayment Inequity: The Hidden Cost of Paycuts.” Journal of Applied Psychology 75 (1990), pp. 561–68; Greenberg, J. “Stealing in the Name of Justice: Informational and Interpersonal Moderators of Theft Reactions to Underpayment Inequity.” Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes 54 (1993), pp. 81–103.

282. 6.67Adams, “Inequality in Social Exchange.”

283. 6.68Scholl, R.W.; E.A. Cooper; and J.F. McKenna. “Referent Selection in Determining Equity Perceptions: Differential Effects on Behavioral and Attitudinal Outcomes.” Personnel Psychology 40 (1987), pp. 113–24.

284. 6.69Ibid.

285. 6.70Ibid.; see also Finn, R.H., and S.M. Lee. “Salary Equity: Its Determination, Analysis, and Correlates.” Journal of Applied Psychology 56 (1972), pp. 283–92.

286. 6.71Scholl et al., “Referent Selection.”

287. 6.72Sulkowicz, K. “CEO Pay: The Prestige, the Peril.” BusinessWeek, November 20, 2006, p. 18.

288. 6.73Silver-Greenberg, J., and A. Leondis. “How Much Is a CEO Worth?” Bloomberg Businessweek, May 10–16, 2010, pp. 70–71.

289. 6.74Colella, A.; R.L. Paetzold; A. Zardkoohi; and M. Wesson. “Exposing Pay Secrecy.” Academy of Management Review 32 (2007), pp. 55–71.

290. 6.75Ibid.

291. 6.76Thomas, K.W., and B.A. Velthouse. “Cognitive Elements of Empowerment: An ‘Interpretive’ Model of Intrinsic Task Motivation.” Academy of Management Review 15 (1990), pp. 666–81.

292. 6.77Hackman, J.R., and G.R. Oldham. Work Redesign. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley, 1980.

293. 6.78Thomas and Velthouse, “Cognitive Elements of Empowerment”; Spreitzer, G.M. “Psychological Empowerment in the Workplace: Dimensions, Measurement, and Validation.” Academy of Management Journal 38 (1995), pp. 1442–65; Deci, E.L., and R.M. Ryan. Intrinsic Motivation and Self-Determination in Human Behavior. New York: Plenum, 1985; and Hackman and Oldham, Work Redesign.

294. 6.79Thomas, K.W. Intrinsic Motivation at Work: Building Energy and Commitment. San Francisco: Berrett-Koehler, 2000.

295. 6.80Ibid.

296. 6.81Bunderson, J.S., and J.A. Thompson. “The Call of the Wild: Zookeepers, Callings, and the Double-Edged Sword of Deeply Meaningful Work.” Administrative Science Quarterly 54 (2009), pp. 32–57; Duffy, R.D., and W.E. Sedlacek. “The Presence of and Search for a Calling: Connections to Career Development.” Journal of Vocational Behavior 70 (2007), pp. 590–601; Hagmaier, T., and A.E. Abele. “The Multidimensionality of Calling: Conceptualization, Measurement and a Bicultural Perspective.” Journal of Vocational Behavior 81 (2012). pp. 39–51.

297. 6.82Thomas and Velthouse, “Cognitive Elements of Empowerment”; Spreitzer, “Psychological Empowerment.”

298. 6.83Thomas, Intrinsic Motivation at Work.

299. 6.84Thomas and Velthouse, “Cognitive Elements of Empowerment”; Spreitzer, “Psychological Empowerment.”

300. 6.85Thomas, Intrinsic Motivation at Work.

301. 6.86Thomas and Velthouse, “Cognitive Elements of Empowerment.”

302. 6.87Thomas, Intrinsic Motivation at Work.

303. 6.88Ibid.

304. Page 1916.89Gerdes, L. “Get Ready for a Pickier Workforce.” BusinessWeek, September 18, 2006, p. 82.

305. 6.90Hamm, S. “Young and Impatient in India.” BusinessWeek, January 28, 2008, pp. 45–48.

306. 6.91Stajkovic, A.D., and F. Luthans. “Self-Efficacy and Work-Related Performance: A Meta-Analysis.” Psychological Bulletin 124 (1998), pp. 240–61.

307. 6.92Wood et al., “Task Complexity as a Moderator.”

308. 6.93Van Eerde, W., and H. Thierry. “Vroom’s Expectancy Models and Work-Related Criteria: A Meta-Analysis.” Journal of Applied Psychology 81 (1996), pp. 575–86.

309. 6.94Cohen-Charash, Y., and P.E. Spector. “The Role of Justice in Organizations: A Meta-Analysis.” Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes 86 (2001), pp. 287–321; Colquitt, J.A.; D.E. Conlon; M.J. Wesson; C.O.L.H. Porter; and K.Y. Ng. “Justice at the Millennium: A Meta-Analytic Review of 25 Years of Organizational Justice Research.” Journal of Applied Psychology 86 (2001), pp. 425–45.

310. 6.95Ibid.

311. 6.96Ibid.

312. 6.97Ibid.

313. 6.98Lawler III, E.E. Rewarding Excellence: Pay Strategies for the New Economy. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 2000; Gerhart, B.; S.L. Rynes; and I.S. Fulmer. “Pay and Performance: Individuals, Groups, and Executives.” Academy of Management Annals 3 (2009), pp. 251–315.

314. 6.99Ibid.; see also Durham, C.C., and K.M. Bartol. “Pay for Performance.” In Handbook of Principles of Organizational Behavior, ed. E.A. Locke. Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2000, pp. 150–65; Gerhart, B.; H.B. Minkoff; and R.N. Olsen. “Employee Compensation: Theory, Practice, and Evidence.” In Handbook of Human Resource Management, ed. G.R. Ferris, S.D. Rosen, and D.T. Barnum. Malden, MA: Blackwell, 1995, pp. 528–47.

315. 6.100Ibid.

316. 6.101Gerhart et al., “Pay and Performance”; and Cohen, K. “The Pulse of the Profession: 2006–2007 Budget Survey.” Workspan, September 2006, pp. 23–26.

317. 6.102Hansen, F. “Merit-Pay Payoff?” Workforce Management, November 3, 2008, pp. 33–39.

318. 6.103Ibid.

319. 6.104Latham, G., and S. Latham. “Overlooking Theory and Research in Performance Appraisal at One’s Peril: Much Done, More to Do.” In Industrial and Organizational Psychology: Linking Theory with Practice, ed. C.L. Cooper and E.A. Locke. Oxford, UK: Blackwell, 2000, pp. 199–215.

320. 6.105Ibid.

321. 6.106Sulkowicz, K. “Straight Talk at Review Time.” BusinessWeek, September 10, 2007, p. 16.

322. 6.107McGregor, J. “The Struggle to Measure Performance.” BusinessWeek, January 9, 2006, pp. 26–28.

323. 6.108Scullen, S.E.; P.K. Bergey; and L. Aiman-Smith. “Forced Distribution Rating Systems and the Improvement of Workforce Potential: A Baseline Simulation.” Personnel Psychology 58 (2005), pp. 1–32.

324. 6.109Shepherd, L. “Getting Personal.” Workforce Management, September 2010, pp. 24–29.

325. 6.110Ibid.

326. 6.111Pyrillis, R. “The Reviews Are In.” Workforce Management, May 2011, pp. 20–25.

Rindova, V.P.; I.O. Williamson; A.P. Petkova; and J.M. Sever. “Being Good or Being Known: An Empirical Examination of the Dimensions, Antecedents, and Consequences of Organizational Reputation.” Academy of Management Journal 48 (2005), pp. 1033–49.

328. 7.2Frauenheim, E. “Does Reputation Matter?” Workforce Management, November 20, 2006, pp. 22–26.

329. 7.3Ibid.

330. 7.4Mayer, R.C.; J.H. Davis; and F.D. Schoorman. “An Integrative Model of Organizational Trust.” Academy of Management Review 20 (1995), pp. 709–34; Rousseau, D.M.; S.B. Sitkin; R.S. Burt; and C. Camerer. “Not So Different After All: A Cross-Discipline View of Trust.” Academy of Management Review 23 (1998), pp. 393–404.

331. 7.5Kiley, D., and B. Helm. “The Great Trust Offensive.” BusinessWeek, September 29, 2008, pp. 38–41.

332. 7.6Source: Gerald A. Daquila

333. 7.7Greenberg, J. “A Taxonomy of Organizational Justice Theories.” Academy of Management Review 12 (1987), pp. 9–22.

334. 7.8Lind, E.A. “Fairness Heuristic Theory: Justice Judgments as Pivotal Cognitions in Organizational Relations.” In Advances in Organizational Justice, ed. J. Greenberg and R. Cropanzano. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 2001, pp. 56–88; Van den Bos, K. “Fairness Heuristic Theory: Assessing the Information to Which People Are Reacting Has a Pivotal Role in Understanding Organizational Justice.” In Theoretical and Cultural Perspectives on Organizational Justice, ed. S. Gilliland, D. Steiner, and D. Skarlicki. Greenwich, CT: Information Age, 2001, pp. 63–84; Van den Bos, K.; E.A. Lind; and H.A.M. Wilke. “The Psychology of Procedural and Distributive Justice Viewed from the Perspective of Fairness Heuristic Theory.” In Justice in the Workplace, Vol. 2, ed. R. Cropanzano. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum, 2001, pp. 49–66.

335. 7.9Treviño, L.K.; G.R. Weaver; and S.J. Reynolds. “Behavioral Ethics in Organizations: A Review.” Journal of Management 32 (2006), pp. 951–90.

336. 7.10McAllister, D.J. “Affect- and Cognition-Based Trust as Foundations for Interpersonal Cooperation in Organizations.” Academy of Management Journal 38 (1995), pp. 24–59.

337. 7.11Ibid.

338. 7.12Mayer et al., “An Integrative Model”; Rotter, J.B. “A New Scale for the Measurement of Interpersonal Trust.” Journal of Personality 35 (1967), pp. 651–65; Rotter, J.B. “Generalized Expectancies for Interpersonal Trust.” American Psychologist 26 (1971), pp. 443–52; Rotter, J.B. “Interpersonal Trust, Trustworthiness, and Gullibility.” American Psychologist 35 (1980), pp. 1–7.

339. Page 2227.13Rosenberg, M. “Misanthropy and Political Ideology.” American Sociological Review 21 (1956), pp. 690–95; Wrightsman Jr., L.S. “Measurement of Philosophies of Human Nature.” Psychological Reports 14 (1964), pp. 743–51.

340. 7.14Mayer et al., “An Integrative Model.”

341. 7.15Jones, W.H.; L.L. Couch; and S. Scott. “Trust and Betrayal: The Psychology of Getting Along and Getting Ahead.” In Handbook of Personality Psychology, ed. R. Hogan, J.S. Johnson, and S.R. Briggs. San Diego, CA: Academic Press, 1997, pp. 465–82.

342. 7.16Source: Stack, L.C. “Trust.” In Dimensionality of Personality, ed. H. London and J.E. Exner Jr. New York: Wiley, 1978, pp. 561–99.

343. 7.17Webb, W.M., and P. Worchel. “Trust and Distrust.” In Psychology of Intergroup Relations, ed. S. Worchel and W.G. Austin. Chicago: Nelson-Hall, 1986, pp. 213–28; Erickson, E.H. Childhood and Society, 2nd ed. New York: Norton, 1963.

344. 7.18Stack, “Trust.”

345. 7.19Source: World Values Survey

346. 7.20Mayer et al., “An Integrative Model.”

347. 7.21McAllister, “Affect- and Cognition-Based Trust as Foundations for Interpersonal Cooperation in Organizations”; Lewicki, R.J., and B.B. Bunker. “Developing and Maintaining Trust in Work Relationships.” In Trust in Organizations: Frontiers of Theory and Research, ed. R.M. Kramer and T.R. Tyler. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, 1996, pp. 114–39.

348. 7.22Mayer et al., “An Integrative Model.”

349. 7.23Ibid.; Gabarro, J.J. “The Development of Trust, Influence, and Expectations.” In Interpersonal Behavior: Communication and Understanding in Relationships, ed. G. Athos and J.J. Gabarro. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1978, pp. 290–303.

350. 7.24Mayer et al., “An Integrative Model.”

351. 7.25Ibid.

352. 7.26Source: Marquez, J. “Kindness Pays . . . Or Does It?” Workforce Management, June 25, 2007, pp. 41–49.

353. 7.27Source: Marquez, J. “Kindness Pays . . . Or Does It?” Workforce Management, June 25, 2007, pp. 41–49.

354. 7.28Mayer et al., “An Integrative Model.”

355. 7.29Wright, T.A., and J. Goodstein. “Character Is Not ‘Dead’ in Management Research: A Review of Individual Character and Organizational-Level Virtue.” Journal of Management 33 (2007), pp. 928–58; Gabarro, “The Development of Trust, Influence, and Expectations.”

356. 7.30Mayer et al., “An Integrative Model”; Simons, T. “Behavioral Integrity: The Perceived Alignment between Managers’ Words and Deeds as a Research Focus.” Organization Science 13 (2002), pp. 18–35; Dineen, B.R.; R.J. Lewicki; and E.C. Tomlinson. “Supervisory Guidance and Behavioral Integrity: Relationships with Employee Citizenship and Deviant Behavior.” Journal of Applied Psychology 91 (2006), pp. 622–35.

357. 7.31Dineen et al., “Supervisory Guidance”; Bates, S. “Poll: Employees Skeptical about Management Actions.” HR Magazine, June 2002, p. 12.

358. 7.32Lencioni, P. “The Power of Saying ‘We Blew It.’” Bloomberg Businessweek, February 22, 2010, p. 84.

359. Page 2237.33Penenberg, A.L. “Doctor Love.” Fast Company, July/August 2010, pp. 78–83, 113.

360. 7.34Naquin, C. E.; T.R. Kurtzerg; and L.Y. Belkin. “The Finer Points of Lying Online: E-mail Versus Pen and Paper.” Journal of Applied Psychology 95 (2010), pp. 387–94.

361. 7.35Stead, D. “. . . And I Invented Velcro.” BusinessWeek, August 4, 2008, p. 15.

362. 7.36Penenberg, “Doctor Love.”

363. 7.37McAllister, “Affect- and Cognition-Based Trust”; Lewicki and Bunker, “Developing and Maintaining Trust”; Lewis, J.D., and A. Weigert. “Trust as a Social Reality.” Social Forces 63 (1985), pp. 967–85.

364. 7.38McAllister, “Affect- and Cognition-Based Trust.”

365. 7.39Lind, “Fairness Heuristic Theory: Assessing”; Van den Bos, “Fairness Heuristic Theory: Justice”; Van den Bos et al., “The Psychology of Procedural and Distributive Justice.”

366. 7.40Adams, J.S. “Inequity in Social Exchange.” In Advances in Experimental Social Psychology, Vol. 2, ed. L. Berkowitz. New York: Academic Press, 1965, pp. 267–99; Leventhal, G.S. “The Distribution of Rewards and Resources in Groups and Organizations.” In Advances in Experimental Social Psychology, Vol. 9, ed. L. Berkowitz and W. Walster. New York: Academic Press, 1976, pp. 91–131.

367. 7.41Leventhal, “The Distribution of Rewards.”

368. 7.42Ibid.

369. 7.43Leventhal, G.S. “What Should Be Done with Equity Theory? New Approaches to the Study of Fairness in Social Relationships.” In Social Exchange: Advances in Theory and Research, ed. K. Gergen, M. Greenberg, and R. Willis. New York: Plenum Press, 1980, pp. 27–55; Thibaut, J., and L. Walker. Procedural Justice: A Psychological Analysis. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum, 1975.

370. 7.44Folger, R. “Distributive and Procedural Justice: Combined Impact of ‘Voice’ and Improvement on Experienced Inequity.” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 35 (1977), pp. 108–19.

371. 7.45Colquitt, J.A.; D.E. Conlon; M.J. Wesson; C.O.L.H. Porter; and K.Y. Ng. “Justice at the Millennium: A Meta-Analytic Review of 25 Years of Organizational Justice Research.” Journal of Applied Psychology 86 (2001), pp. 425–45.

372. 7.46Tyler, T.R.; K.A. Rasinski; and N. Spodick. “Influence of Voice on Satisfaction with Leaders: Exploring the Meaning of Process Control.” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 48 (1985), pp. 72–81; Earley, P.C., and E.A. Lind. “Procedural Justice and Participation in Task Selection: The Role of Control in Mediating Justice Judgments.” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 52 (1987), pp. 1148–60; Lind, E.A.; R. Kanfer; and P.C. Earley. “Voice, Control, and Procedural Justice: Instrumental and Noninstrumental Concerns in Fairness Judgments.” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 59 (1990), pp. 952–59; Korsgaard, M.A., and L. Roberson. “Procedural Justice in Performance Evaluation: The Role of Instrumental and Non-Instrumental Voice in Performance Appraisal Discussions.” Journal of Management 21 (1995), pp. 657–69.

373. 7.47Leventhal, “What Should Be Done with Equity Theory?”

374. 7.48Kolhatkar, S. “Emasculation Nation.” Bloomberg Businessweek, September 17–23, 2012, pp. 102–3.

375. 7.49Coy, P., and E. Dwoskin. “Shortchanged.” Bloomberg Businessweek, June 25–July 1, 2012, pp. 6–7.

376. Page 2247.50Source: Morris. “How Corporate America Is Betraying Women.” Fortune, January 10, 2005, pp. 64–74.

377. 7.51Hansen, F. “Race and Gender Still Matter.” Workforce Management, September 11, 2006, p. 12.

378. 7.52Source: Hansen, F. “Merit-Pay Payoff?” Workforce Management, November 3, 2008, pp. 33–39.

379. 7.53Taylor III, A. “No Test Dummies.” Fortune, June 11, 2007, pp. 49–52.

380. 7.54Leonard, D. “Who’s Afraid of Steve Jobs?” Bloomberg Businessweek, July 26–August 1, 2010, pp. 58–63.

381. 7.55Brockner, J., and B.M. Wiesenfeld. “An Integrative Framework for Explaining Reactions to Decisions: Interactive Effects of Outcomes and Procedures.” Psychological Bulletin 120 (1996), pp. 189–208.

382. 7.56Ibid.

383. 7.57Colquitt et al., “Justice at the Millennium”; Cohen-Charash, Y., and P.E. Spector. “The Role of Justice in Organizations: A Meta-Analysis.” Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes 86 (2001), pp. 278–321.

384. 7.58Bies, R.J., and J.F. Moag. “Interactional Justice: Communication Criteria of Fairness.” In Research on Negotiations in Organizations, Vol. 1, ed. R.J. Lewicki, B.H. Sheppard, and M.H. Bazerman. Greenwich, CT: JAI Press, 1986, pp. 43–55; Greenberg, J. “The Social Side of Fairness: Interpersonal and Informational Classes of Organizational Justice.” In Justice in the Workplace: Approaching Fairness in Human Resource Management, ed. R. Cropanzano. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum, 1993, pp. 79–103.

385. 7.59Bies, R.J. “Interactional (In)justice: The Sacred and the Profane.” In Advances in Organizational Justice, ed. J. Greenberg and R. Cropanzano. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 2001, pp. 85–108.

386. 7.60Tepper, B.J. “Consequences of Abusive Supervision.” Academy of Management Journal 43 (2000), pp. 178–90.

387. 7.61Schat, A.C.H.; M.R. Frone; and E.K. Kelloway. “Prevalence of Workplace Aggression in the U.S. Workforce: Findings from a National Study.” In Handbook of Workplace Violence, ed. E.K. Kelloway, J. Barling, and J.J. Hurrell. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, 2006, pp. 47–89.

388. 7.62Tepper, B.J.; M.K. Duffy; C.A. Henle; and L.S. Lambert. “Procedural Injustice, Victim Precipitation, and Abusive Supervision.” Personnel Psychology 28 (2006), pp. 101–23.

389. 7.63Tepper, B.J. “Abusive Supervision in Work Organizations: Review, Synthesis, and Research Agenda.” Journal of Management 33 (2007), pp. 261–89.

390. 7.64Mitchell, M.S., and M.L. Ambrose. “Abusive Supervision and Workplace Deviance and the Moderating Effects of Negative Reciprocity Beliefs.” Journal of Applied Psychology 92 (2007), pp. 1159–68; Tepper, B.J.; C.A. Henle; L.S. Lambert; R.A. Giacalone; and M.K. Duffy. “Abusive Supervision and Subordinates’ Organizational Deviance.” Journal of Applied Psychology 93 (2008), pp. 721–32; Tepper, B.J.; J.C. Carr; D.M. Breaux; S. Geider; C. Hu; and W. Hua. “Abusive Supervision, Intentions to Quit, and Employees’ Workplace Deviance: A Power/Dependence Analysis.” Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes 109 (2009), pp. 156–67.

391. 7.65Miner, A.G.; T.M. Glomb; and C. Hulin. “Experience Sampling Mode and Its Correlates at Work.” Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology 78 (2005), pp. 171–93.

392. Page 2257.66Gilliland, S.W.; L. Benson; and D.H. Schepers. “A Rejection Threshold in Justice Evaluations: Effects on Judgment and Decision-Making.” Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes 76 (1998), pp. 113–31.

393. 7.67Hauser, S.G. “The Degeneration.” Workforce Management, January 2011, pp. 16–21.

394. 7.68Source: Susan G. Hauser, “The Degeneration of Decorum,” Workforce Management, January 16, 2011, pp. 16–18, 20–21.

395. 7.69Bies and Moag, “Interactional Justice”; Greenberg, “The Social Side of Fairness.”

396. 7.70Folger, R., and D.P. Skarlicki. “Fairness as a Dependent Variable: Why Tough Times Can Lead to Bad Management.” In Justice in the Workplace: From Theory to Practice, ed. R. Cropanzano. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum, 2001, pp. 97–118.

397. 7.71Marquez, J.; E. Frauenheim; and M. Schoeff Jr. “Harsh Reality.” Workforce Management, June 22, 2009, pp. 18–23.

398. 7.72Shaw, J.C.; R.E. Wild; and J.A. Colquitt. “To Justify or Excuse?: A Meta-Analysis of the Effects of Explanations.” Journal of Applied Psychology 88 (2003), pp. 444–58.

399. 7.73Orey, M. “Fear of Firing.” BusinessWeek, April 23, 2007, pp. 52–62.

400. 7.74Greenberg, J. “Employee Theft as a Reaction to Underpayment Inequity: The Hidden Cost of Paycuts.” Journal of Applied Psychology 75 (1990), pp. 561–68.

401. 7.75Colquitt et al., “Justice at the Millennium”; Cohen-Charash and Spector, “The Role of Justice.”

402. 7.76Treviño et al., “Behavioral Ethics”; Tenbrunsel, A.E., and K. Smith-Crowe. “Ethical Decision Making: Where We’ve Been and Where We’re Going.” Academy of Management Annals 2 (2008), pp. 545–607.

403. 7.77Donaldson, T., and T.W. Dunfee. “Toward a Unified Conception of Business Ethics: Integrative Social Contracts Theory.” Academy of Management Review 19 (1994), pp. 252–84.

404. 7.78Treviño et al., “Behavioral Ethics.”

405. 7.79Kaptein, M. “Developing a Measure of Unethical Behavior in the Workplace: A Stakeholder Perspective.” Journal of Management 34 (2008), pp. 978–1008.

406. 7.80Covey, S.M.R. The Speed of Trust: The One Thing That Changes Everything. New York: Free Press, 2006.

407. 7.81Treviño et al., “Behavioral Ethics.”

408. 7.82Near, J.P., and M.P. Miceli. “Organizational Dissidence: The Case of Whistle-Blowing.” Journal of Business Ethics 4 (1985), pp. 1–16.

409. 7.83Rehg, M.T.; M.P. Miceli; J.P. Near; and J.R. Van Scotter. “Antecedents and Outcomes of Retaliation Against Whistleblowers: Gender Differences and Power Relationships.” Organization Science 19 (2008), pp. 221–40.

410. 7.84Miceli, M.P.; J.P. Near; and T.M. Dworkin. “A Word to the Wise: How Managers and Policy-Makers Can Encourage Employees to Report Wrongdoing.” Journal of Business Ethics 86 (2009), pp. 379–96.

411. 7.85Rest, J.R. Moral Development: Advances in Research and Theory. New York: Praeger, 2006.

412. 7.86Tomlinson, E.C. “Teaching the Interactionist Model of Ethics.” Journal of Management Education 33 (2009), pp. 142–65; Treviño, L.K., and M.E. Brown. “Managing to be Ethical: Debunking Five Business Ethics Myths.” Academy of Management Executive 18 (2004), pp. 69–83.

413. 7.87Treviño, L.K. “Ethical Decision Making in Organizations: A Person-Situation Interactionist Model.” Academy of Management Review 11 (1996), pp. 601–17; Kish-Gephart, J.J.; D.A. Harrison; and L.K. Treviño. “Bad Apples, Bad Cases, and Bad Barrels: Meta-Analytic Evidence about Sources of Unethical Decisions at Work.” Journal of Applied Psychology 95 (2010), pp. 1–31.

414. Page 2267.88Rest, Moral Development.

415. 7.89Butterfield, K.D.; L.K. Treviño; and G.R. Weaver. “Moral Awareness in Business Organizations: Influence of Issue-Related and Social Context Factors.” Human Relations 53 (2000), pp. 981–1017.

416. 7.90Berfield, S. “Steal This Look.” Bloomberg Businessweek, January 24–30, 2011, pp. 90–96.

417. 7.91Source: Berfield, S. “Steal This Look.” Bloomberg Businessweek, January 24–30, 2011, pp. 90–96.

418. 7.92Jones, T.M. “Ethical Decision Making by Individuals in Organizations: An Issue-Contingent Model.” Academy of Management Review 16 (1991), pp. 366–95.

419. 7.93Singhapakdi, A.; S.J. Vitell; and K.L. Kraft. “Moral Intensity and Ethical Decision-Making of Marketing Professionals.” Journal of Business Research 36 (1996), pp. 245–55.

420. 7.94Jones, “Ethical Decision Making by Individuals in Organizations.”

421. 7.95Reynolds, S.J. “Moral Attentiveness: Who Pays Attention to the Moral Aspects of Life?” Journal of Applied Psychology 93 (2008), pp. 1027–41.

422. 7.96Porter, J. “Using Ex-Cons to Scare MBAs Straight.” BusinessWeek, May 5, 2008, p. 58.

423. 7.97Source: Porter, J. “Using Ex-Cons to Scare MBAs Straight.” Businessweek, May 5, 2008, p. 58.

424. 7.98Rest, Moral Development.

425. 7.99Kohlberg, L. “Stage and Sequence: The Cognitive Developmental Approach to Socialization.” In Handbook of Socialization Theory, ed. D.A. Goslin. Chicago: Rand McNally, 1969, pp. 347–480; Kohlberg, L. “The Claim to Moral Adequacy of a Highest Stage of Moral Judgment.” Journal of Philosophy 70 (1973), pp. 630–46.

426. 7.100Rest, J. Manual for the Defining Issues Test. Minneapolis, MN: Center for the Study of Ethical Development, 1986; Loviscky, G.E.; L.K. Treviño; and R.R. Jacobs. “Assessing Managers’ Ethical Decision-Making: An Objective Measure of Managerial Moral Judgment.” Journal of Business Ethics 73 (2007), pp. 263–85.

427. 7.101Kohlberg, “Stage and Sequence”; Kohlberg, “The Claim to Moral Adequacy.”

428. 7.102Ibid.

429. 7.103Treviño et al., “Behavioral Ethics”

430. 7.104Kohlberg, “Stage and Sequence”; Kohlberg, “The Claim to Moral Adequacy.”

431. 7.105Treviño et al., “Behavioral Ethics”; Rest, J.; D. Narvaez; M.J. Bebeau; and S.J. Thoma. Postconventional Moral Thinking: A Neo-Kohlbergian Approach. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum, 1999.

432. 7.106Crane and Matten, Business Ethics. New York: Oxford University Press, 2007.

433. 7.107Ibid.

434. 7.108Rest, Moral Development.

435. 7.109Kaptein, M. “Developing and Testing a Measure for the Ethical Culture of Organizations: The Corporate Ethics Virtues Model.” Journal of Organizational Behavior 29 (2008), pp. 923–47; Schminke, M.; M.L. Ambrose; and D.O. Neubaum. “The Effect of Leader Moral Development on Ethical Climate and Employee Attitudes.” Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes 97 (2005), pp. 135–51; Treviño, “Ethical Decision Making in Organizations.”

436. Page 2277.110Schweitzer, M.E.; L. Ordòñez; and B. Douma. “Goal Setting as a Motivator of Unethical Behavior.” Academy of Management Journal 47 (2004), pp. 422–32.

437. 7.111Aquino, K., and A. Reed II. “The Self-Importance of Moral Identity.” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 83 (2002), pp. 1423–40.

438. 7.112Ibid.

439. 7.113Reynolds, S.J., and T.L. Ceranic. “The Effects of Moral Judgment and Moral Identity on Moral Behavior: An Empirical Examination of the Moral Individual.” Journal of Applied Psychology 92 (2007), pp. 1610–24.

440. 7.114Schminke, M.; M.L. Ambrose; and T.W. Noel. “The Effects of Ethical Frameworks on Perceptions of Organizational Justice.” Academy of Management Journal 40 (1997), pp. 1190–1207; Wendorf, C.A.; S. Alexander; and I.J. Firestone. “Social Justice and Moral Reasoning: An Empirical Integration of Two Paradigms in Psychological Research.” Social Justice Research 15 (2002), pp. 19–39.

441. 7.115Mayer, R.C., and M.B. Gavin. “Trust in Management and Performance: Who Minds the Shop While the Employees Watch the Boss?” Academy of Management Journal 48 (2005), pp. 874–88.

442. 7.116Blau, P. Exchange and Power in Social Life. New York: Wiley, 1964; Shore, L.M.; L.E. Tetrick; P. Lynch; and K. Barksdale. “Social and Economic Exchange: Construct Development and Validation.” Journal of Applied Social Psychology 36 (2006), pp. 837–67.

443. 7.117Ibid.

444. 7.118Dirks, K.T., and D.L. Ferrin. “Trust in Leadership: Meta-Analytic Findings and Implications for Research and Practice.” Journal of Applied Psychology 87 (2002), pp. 611–28.

445. 7.119Ibid.

446. 7.120Carroll, A.B. “A Three-Dimensional Model of Corporate Social Performance.” Academy of Management Review 4 (1979), pp. 497–505; Carroll, A.B. “The Pyramid of Corporate Social Responsibility: Toward the Moral Management of Organizational Stakeholders.” Business Horizons 34 (1991), pp. 39–48; Carroll, A.B. “The Four Faces of Corporate Citizenship.” Business and Society Review 100 (1998), pp. 1–7; Carroll, A.B. “Corporate Social Responsibility—Evolution of a Definitional Construct.” Business and Society 38 (1999), pp. 268–95.

447. 7.121Carroll, “The Pyramid.”

448. 7.122Weber, J. “The New Ethics Enforcers.” BusinessWeek, February 13, 2006, pp. 76–77.

449. 7.123Carroll, “The Pyramid.”

450. 7.124Schoeff, M., Jr. “J. M. Smuckers Co.” Workforce Management, March 13, 2006, p. 19.

451. 7.125Carroll, “The Pyramid.”

452. 7.126Grow, B.; S. Hamm; and L. Lee. “The Debate Over Doing Good.” BusinessWeek, August 15, 2005, pp. 76–78.

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