Access International Business Institute The Race Aspect of Poverty Essay

Question Description

Write a five page (1500 words) essay which incorporates the assigned readings. The essay should be presented typed in Times New Roman 12-point fontdouble spaced. Be sure to use DIRECT QUOTES AND CITATIONS from the books to fully support your arguments. Failure to draw from all three works will significantly weaken your paper and your grade.

Readings: 1) Michael Harrington, The Other America

2) Students for a Democratic Society, Port Huron Statemen Found in Foner, Voices of Freedom

3) Eric Foner, Give Me Liberty

*Have to use ALL THREE books that are listed, please cite them correctly

*Port Huron Statement should be on page 288 in the book “Voices of Freedom”

*Essay needs to be FIVE FULL PAGES

Question: After reading Harrington’s The Other America and the Port Huron Statement, consider the challenges that are laid down by both authors. Review Harrington’s arguments about the causes of poverty and his call for solutions. Choose one of his specific concerns (housing, race, health care, the elderly, etc.) related to your chosen topic. Engage the following questions using Harrington and the Port Huron Statement.

How does Harrington challenge Americans to consider your chosen aspect of poverty? In what ways are his descriptions of the problem supported or challenged in the documents you have read? In what ways do the authors of the Port Huron Statement expand upon Harrington’s arguments? What do they add to the debate? What are the solutions that Harrington and others offer to the problem? How well are they addressed in the legislation of the Great Society? What are the challenges that remain in their eyes? Finally, how well do you think your specific issue was tackled and how would the response have satisfied Harrington would be with the response?

GIVE ME LIBERTY! AN AMERICAN HISTORY SEAGULL FIFTH EDITION Volume 2: From 1865 ★ ERIC FONER Bn ★ W . W . N O R T O N & C O M PA N Y NEW YORK . LONDON Saskatoon M i s sou r . R. en G re . o tle it eR ch h C ll g i de an Gr Rio H Pe c o s R . D A C S. i a R. mb lu E E S n le AS et AL Be DR MEXICO A RA M Coo SIER k In l Co G N A R S E G N S A A C R Kl T a m e n to R. Sa c r A O C l ne an A i ta un Odes S Mo El Paso N im P Llano Estacado I okw T R. Can Albuquerque A la A Santa Fe T su E te Colorado Springs N Ku s k R U R E O N A AL IE a I Queen Charlotte Islands rni 200 400 kilometers N 400 miles lifo 0 200 Ca 0 R Kodi ak Island Alexander Archipelago T EN ID CC E O ADR A M SIERR Mulege Gulf of Alaska O Pe Juneau f lf o a ns F sk tai Gu Ala sM oun I a ds n ni Elia S. P l at Hermosillo Vizcaíno Bay L Se Ale an n Isl utia Iliamna Lake St . R. NEW MEXICO Ciudad Juárez A ing Bristol Bay Anchorage Ke nai Peni nsul a Steamboat Springs Tucson C Ber Kuskokwim Bay CANADA E R. DESERT A Nuni vak Island KA Fairbanks RANG do Phoenix R. tte Pueblo J ns G i la la Lake Powell A ALASKA Norton Sound ean on Y uk R. E Oc S e ward Pe n in su l a G R A N fic BR O O K S SONORAN San Diego do .P Cheyenne P L AT E A U ra ARIZONA Salton Escondido Sea B North Slope Kotzebue Sound St . Lawrence Island i Pa c Beaufort Sea Chukchi Sea Flagstaff Long Beach Tijuana O Pasadena Oceanside ra Black Hills Denver CO LO R A D O Lake Mead o 100 kilometers Ch a n n e l Los Angeles I s l a n ds lo . COLORADO R Moab ol 100 miles 0 Oxnard N Glenwood Springs C 0 UTAH r ou Casper Laramie Salt Lake City tt l e Hawaii Great Salt Lake Las Vegas Lancaster Santa Barbara eF WYOMING St. George DESERT Po i n t Con ce pt i o n Hilo + Mauna Loa L Pocatello Great Salt Lake Desert Death Valley MOJAVE Bakersfield + Mauna Kea ake R. U Li HAWAII ha nel kR . M ha A . ui an G eR Pacific Ocean Ch Reg B i g h o r n R. he Kahoolawe E B A S I N CALIFORNIA Maui Lanai Y O iC Qu ‘A l ow s t o n e R Ye l Jackson . R Fresno A A D iw T y Sn V Ka Salinas n Honolulu San Jose Monterey Bay Monterey h Molokai E Oahu K L ha N C ai qu i ha au K l A iC ne R ah Kauai n t P R lak Nihau Lake Tahoe . i R. IDAHO G R E A T NEVADA Carson City R MONTANA Idaho Falls A Oakland oa Sa n J Ka u San Francisco Helena I A Reno ur Billings w Sacramento l M Missoula o iss B St. Croix Po i n t Rey es e nn o lm M U.S. Virgin Islands Caribbean Sea n R. Boise E 50 kilometers Sa L U R. Ca pe Me n d o c i no St. John 50 miles 0 Walla Walla ama t h R . Tortola Mi l Coeur d’Alene a k e R. Sn S I 0 m bia R. OREGON tte Atlantic Ocean PUERTO RICO W i l l a me Cape B l a nco St. Thomas Salem R. Portland 300 kilometers Eugene San Juan Co l u w 150 Spokane WASHINGTON C 0 300 miles o r o e r t t B i 150 C O 0 Tacoma Olympia Sa h e wan ska t c O Seattle Bo Fuca Cape D i s a ppo i n t m e nt Calgary R Vancouver Str .o f Cape Ju a Victoria n de Flattery PHYSICAL/POLITICAL MAP OF THE UNITED STATES en ay R. Ko o t Va n co u v e r Island ny R. James Bay P R A S C D E L T I D Missin N E A L N U H N T C N A a O Apalachee Bay A n ea M Oc lan tic Charleston Jacksonville FLORIDA s R . Cap e Can a v eral Orlando Gr an Tampa de AL Matamoros Lake Okeechobee Fort Lauderdale Th e Eve rg lade s Key West Miami ys Cap e Sable Ke NT Monterrey Brownsville G u l f o f Me x i c o da Corpus Christi Laredo C Nuevo Laredo Flo ri M of lf Gu I Pensacola Cape Sa n B l a s I . e nc .L St U O A E M T A N L P A I i o R. N P m Savannah ah a R. 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Boston R. O es T Buffalo T NH C o n n e c t i cut N rio Ont a NEW YORK Albany ake H u dso n R . Lincoln E Wichita ssa Lake St. Clair Detroit Lansing Chicago Cedar Rapids Des Moines De s M oi n C i R. tte R. Omaha L Augusta Wh i t e M tn s NVT Watertown Port Huron n Burlington Montpelier R. . up R s our Pla Mis A Lo Pe n Québec Lake Champlain are w L IOWA L nadia Milwaukee y N i a g a ra Fal l s MICHIGAN Sioux City aw n N io b r a ra R . Lake Winnebago ul St . J Montréal R re Ad i r o n d a c k M o u n ta i ns Toronto a R. Oshkosh on s i n i s c Madison W ia i Sioux Falls Green Bay Traverse City on i pp Ba ur s eo rg R. WISCONSIN G k nsul St. Paul M iss is Minneapolis ta La R. Ottawa H so Huron NEBRASKA S N Ottawa e ne er eni r P in Upp la Peninsu we M R. Pierre A Sault Ste. Marie Duluth Lo enn e I E I H Isle Royal e MINNESOTA es R. SOUTH DAKOTA D up Lake S erior Fargo Jam Bismarck International Falls G S of hn . sR he N or th Red R . o f t uri NORTH DAKOTA Che y A Winnipeg Lake of the Woods So Williston . iR t a h oo c hat e R. an oin a N n ib Lake Michig As si ib R CANADA l l e R. a A pe C Ap gina b Al Nassau BAHAMAS in e POLITICAL MAP of the WORLD Arcti c O cea n Scale at equator 750 1,500 miles 0 0 El l esmere Isl and Queen Elizabeth Islands 750 1,500 kilometers Greenland (Denmark) Baffin Bay Banks I sland Beaufort Sea Am Chukchi Sea unds Ba Vi ctori a I sland en Gulf ffin an Jan May e n (N or way) d Foxe Basin RUSSIA D Alaska (U.S.) Hu Bering Sea slan ian I ds on Hudson Bay Gulf of Alaska Aleut Isl en m ar k ra St it Norw S ICELAND Reykjavik St r Faroe Islands (D e nm ar k) ait Labrador Sea CANADA Nor Sea UNITED N KINGDOM IRELAND ds No rt h Atl a n t i c O c e an Ottawa Montréal London Celtic Sea nel han hC lis g En P FRAN Toronto Chicago San Francisco Los Angeles Nort h Pac i f i c O c e an Hawaii (U.S.) Gulf of Mexico BAHAMAS HAITI CUBA DOMINICAN REPUBLIC Pue r to R ico (U. S . ) BELIZE JAMAICA Galapagos I slands (Ecuador) Quito ST. KITTS AND NEVIS DOMINICA ST. LUCIA ST. VINCENT AND THE GRENADINES BARBADOS TRINIDAD AND TOBAGO Nouakchott CAPE VERDE GUINEA-BISSAU GUINEA SIERRA LEONE GUYANA LIBERIA French Guiana (Fr.) OR OC CO ALGER MAURITANIA SENEGAL GAMBIA MALI BURKINA CÔTE D’IVOIRE (Ivory Coast) Gulf of Gui EQUATOR SURINAME ECUADOR M BEN IN TO GO A GH AN Caribbean Sea GUATEMALA EL SALVADOR HONDURAS Caracas NICARAGUA VENEZUELA COSTA RICA Bogotá PANAMA COLOMBIA SÃO TOMÉ AND PR KIRIBATI Marquesas I sland s (Fr.) Asce nsion (U. K. ) PERU SAMOA Apia Cana r y Islands (Sp. ) Western Sahara (Mor.) Nassau Havana B Algier Rabat Made ira Islands (Por. ) Be r m uda (U. K. ) Mexico City Kiritimati (Kiribati) Ph o e nix I sl a nds Lisbon Azor e s (Por. ) Dallas MEXICO SPAIN Madrid PORTUGAL New York Washington, D.C. UNITED STATES S ou th Pacif i c O cea n Pago Pago Co FIJI ok Nuku’alofa TONGA Isl Papeete an ds French Poly nesia (Fr.) BOLIVIA Sucre PARAGUAY Asunción Ea ster Island (C hi le) THE POLES 3 0° 180° 0 ° ° 120 90° Arctic Ocean 1,500 miles ARGENTINA Montevideo Tr istan D a Cunha Gr oup (U. K. ) Falk land I slands (U. K. ) EUROPE Atlantic Ocean 3 0° 0 1,500 kilometers Buenos Aires CHILE 30° 0° So u t h Atl an t i c O c e an URUGUAY 90° °E 150 °W Santiago Rio de Janeiro ASIA 60° 150 Indian Ocean °E 120 NORTH AMERICA 90° ° 120 Southern Ocean 150 60°N 75°N 90° 60° 75°S ANTARCTICA Pacific Ocean °W ° 120 60° SOUTH AMERICA 150 Pacific Ocean 60°S Southern Ocean Juan Fernande z Archipelago (Chi l e) 60° 30° Atlantic Ocean 180° St. He le na (U. K. ) Brasília La Paz P i tcai rn Islands (U.K.) Adamstown 0° BRAZIL Lima S out h Ge orgia S out h S andwic h I sland s Scotia Sea S outh S he tland I sland s S outh O r k ne y Island s So u t h e r n O c e Arc t i c O c e an Franz J osef La nd S evernaya Ze m lya Ze m N e w S ibe r ian Islands lya Laptev Sea Kara Sea East Siberian Sea No va ya Sva lbard (No rway) Barents Sea Wrange l Island wegian Sea N EDE RUSSIA Bering Sea Stockholm ESTONIA Baltic Sea LATVIA LITHUANIA RUS. DENMARK BELARUS Berlin POLAND GERMANY BEL. CZECH LUX. REP. UKRAINE Paris SLOVAKIA AUSTRIA MOLDOVA HUNGARY NCE SWITZ. SL. ROMANIA CROATIA KAZAKHSTAN Aral Sea Ca B.H. SERBIA UZ sp Black Sea ITALY MONT. BULGARIA GEORGIA MAC. Rome ALBANIA ARMENIA GREECE TURKEY Me d i t AZERBAIJAN err an Tunis ian Tripoli IRAQ ia rs N’Djamena SUDAN ETHIOPIA O BANGLADESH Dhaka INDIA Andaman Island s (Indi a) (Yem en) SRI LANKA MALDIVES SE Y Chagos Archipelago (U.K.) LES COMOROS Gaborone Johannesburg Maseru SOUTH AFRICA South China Sea Manila THAILAND Gulf of Thailand Philippine Sea VIETNAM CAMBODIA PALAU BRUNEI MALAYSIA SINGAPORE Guam (U. S . ) PHILIPPINES MARSHALL ISLANDS FEDERATED STATES OF MICRONESIA Celebes Sea Born e o KIRIBATI NAURU Jakarta Java Sea Java INDONESIA EAST TIMOR Arafura Sea PAPUA NEW GUINEA SOLOMON ISLANDS Coral Sea ne UE Nor the r n Mar iana Islands (U. S . ) TUVALU Timor Sea an IQ Pretoria zam MO biq ZA ZIMBABWE NAMIBIA BOTSWANA TAIWAN LAOS l MALAWI No rt h Pac i f i c O c e an JAPAN Tokyo Tim or Indi a n O cea n Ch ZAMBIA Sea of Japan SOUTH KOREA ra BURUNDI EL CH Antananarivo MADAGASCAR Réuni on (Fr. ) New Cale donia (Fr. ) AUSTRALIA N o r fol k Island (Aus. ) LESOTHO Sydney Great Australian Bight FIJI VANUATU MAURITIUS SWAZILAND Canberra, A.C.T. South Pacific Ocean Ke r m adec Islands (N . Z. ) Tasman Sea NEW ZEALAND Tasm ania Prince Ed ward I slands (So. Africa) Islands East China Sea MYANMAR Bay of Bengal Di ego Garcia ANGOLA Cape Town Thimphu n IA AL M S O Mogadishu TANZANIA Dar es Salaam Luanda MB NG KENYA NEPAL Nairobi DEMOCRATIC REP. OF CONGO Windhoek f fO utian Isl ril at CO RWANDA Muscat BHUTAN Kathmandu m ean GABON New Delhi Yellow Sea Su RÍNCIPE Gul DJIBOUTI UGANDA RIAL GUINEA Islamabad Arabian Sea Socotra e Ad Adis Ababa CENTRAL AFRICAN REP. ue CAMEROON YEMEN Mo inea ERITREA Seoul CHINA PAKISTAN BAHRAIN G u lf SAUDI QATAR ARABIA UNITED ARAB EMIRATES Beijing TAJIKISTAN n a Khartoum NIGERIA N Ku NORTH KOREA KYRGYZSTAN AN e dS CHAD MONGOLIA Lake Balkhash AN Ale Ulan Bator OM EGYPT Re NIGER IS TA IS T Kabul AFGHANISTAN IRAN Pe KUWAIT LIBYA K M EN BEK JORDAN Cairo RIA TUR Tehrān SYRIA CYPRUS LEBANON ISRAEL n Se a S ea ea TUNISIA Lake Baikal Astana Barcelona rs Sea of Okhotsk Moscow ds AY NETH. SW RW NO rth a FINLAND Oslo an s S outh Island Crozet Island s Frenc h Southern an d Antarctic La nds (Fr. ) Ke rguélen Islands Heard Island and McDonald Islands (Aus.) So u t h e r n O c e an Nor t h Island W. W. Norton & Company has been independent since its founding in 1923, when William Warder Norton and Mary D. Herter Norton first published lectures delivered at the People’s Institute, the adult education division of New York City’s Cooper Union. The firm soon expanded its program beyond the Institute, publishing books by celebrated academics from America and abroad. By midcentury, the two major pillars of Norton’s publishing program—trade books and college texts—were firmly established. In the 1950s, the Norton family transferred control of the company to its employees, and today—with a staff of four hundred and a comparable number of trade, college, and professional titles published each year—W. W. Norton & Company stands as the largest and oldest publishing house owned wholly by its employees. Copyright © 2017, 2014, 2011, 2008, 2005 by Eric Foner All rights reserved Printed in Canada Editor: Steve Forman Associate Editor: Scott Sugarman Project Editor: Jennifer Barnhardt Editorial Assistants: Travis Carr, Kelly Rafey Managing Editor, College: Marian Johnson Managing Editor, College Digital Media: Kim Yi Production Manager: Sean Mintus Media Editor: Laura Wilk Media Project Editor: Rachel Mayer Media Associate Editor: Michelle Smith Media Assistant Editor: Chris Hillyer Marketing Manager, History: Sarah England Bartley Associate Design Director: Hope Miller Goodell Designer: Lisa Buckley Photo Editor: Stephanie Romeo Permissions Manager: Megan Schindel Permissions Specialist: Bethany Salminen Composition: Jouve Illustrations: Mapping Specialists, Ltd. Manufacturing: Transcontinental Permission to use copyrighted material is included on page A-81. The Library of Congress has cataloged an earlier edition as follows: Names: Foner, Eric, 1943– author. Title: Give me liberty!: an American history / Eric Foner. Description: Fifth edition. | New York: W. W. Norton & Company, 2016 | Includes bibliographical references and index. Identifiers: LCCN 2016018497 | ISBN 9780393283167 (hardcover) Subjects: LCSH: United States—History. | United States—Politics and government. | Democracy—United States—History. | Liberty—History. Classification: LCC E178 .F66 2016 | DDC 973—dc23 LC record available at https://lccn.loc.gov/2016018497 ISBN this edition: 978-0-393-61565-4 W. W. Norton & Company, Inc., 500 Fifth Avenue, New York, NY 10110-0017 wwnorton.com W. W. Norton & Company Ltd., 15 Carlisle Street, London W1D 3BS 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ★ For my mother, Liza Foner (1909–2005), an accomplished artist who lived through most of the twentieth century and into the twenty-first ★ C O N T E N TS ★ ★ List of Maps, Tables, and Figures xii About the Author xv Preface xvi Acknowledgments xxiii 15 ★ “ W H AT I S F R E E D O M ? ” : R E C O N ST R U CT I O N , 1 8 6 5 – 1 8 7 7 564 The Meaning of Freedom 566 ★ Voices of Freedom From Petition of Committee in Behalf of the Freedmen to Andrew Johnson (1865), and From A Sharecropping Contract (1866) … 576 ★ The Making of Radical Reconstruction 579 ★ Radical Reconstruction in the South 16 ★ 590 ★ The Overthrow of Reconstruction 594 A M E R I CA ’ S G I L D E D AG E , 1 8 7 0 – 1 8 9 0 603 The Second Industrial Revolution 605 ★ The Transformation of the West 613 ★ Voices of Freedom From Speech of Chief Joseph of the Nez Percé Indians, in Washington, D.C. (1879), and From Letter by Saum Song Bo, American Missionary (October 1885) … 622 ★ Politics in a Gilded Age 629 ★ Freedom in the Gilded Age 634 ★ Labor and the Republic 17 ★ 639 F R E E D O M ’ S B O U N DA R I E S , AT H O M E A N D A B R OA D , 1 8 9 0 – 1 9 0 0 649 The Populist Challenge 651 ★ The Segregated South 659 ★ Redrawing the Boundaries 669 ★ Voices of Freedom From Booker T. Washington, Address at the Atlanta Cotton Exposition (1895), and From W. E. B. Du Bois, “Of Mr. Booker T. Washington and Others” (1903) viii ★ … 674 ★ Becoming a World Power 677 18 ★ THE PROGRESSIVE ERA, 1900–1916 691 An Urban Age and a Consumer Society 694 ★ Varieties of Progressivism 703 ★ Voices of Freedom From Charlotte Perkins Gilman, Women and Economics (1898), and From John Mitchell, “The Workingman’s Conception of Industrial Liberty” (1910) 710 ★ The Politics of Progressivism Presidents 19 ★ … 715 ★ The Progressive 724 SA F E F O R D E M O C R ACY: T H E U N I T E D STAT E S A N D WO R L D WA R I , 1 9 1 6 – 1 9 2 0 734 An Era of Intervention 737 ★ America and the Great War 742 ★ The War at Home 746 ★ Who Is an American? 755 ★ Voices of Freedom From Woodrow Wilson, War Message to Congress (1917), and From Eugene V. Debs, Speech to the Jury before Sentencing under the Espionage Act (1918) 20 ★ … 756 ★ 1919 767 F R O M B U S I N E S S C U LT U R E TO G R E AT D E P R E S S I O N : T H E T W E N T I E S , 1 9 2 0 – 1 9 3 2 779 The Business of America 782 ★ Business and Government 789 ★ Voices of Freedom From Lucian W. Parrish, Speech in Congress on Immigration (1921), and From Majority Opinion, Justice James C. McReynolds, in Meyer v. Nebraska (1923) … 792 ★ The Birth of Civil Liberties 795 ★ The Culture Wars 799 ★ The Great Depression 21 ★ 810 THE NEW DEAL, 1932–1940 818 The First New Deal 821 ★ The Grassroots Revolt 830 ★ The Second New Deal 835 ★ A Reckoning with Liberty 838 ★ Voices of Freedom From Franklin D. Roosevelt, “Fireside Chat” (1934), and From John Steinbeck, The Harvest Gypsies: On the Road to the Grapes of Wrath (1938) … 842 ★ The Limits of Change 845 ★ A New Conception of America 852 22 ★ F I G H T I N G F O R T H E F O U R F R E E D O M S : WO R L D WA R I I , 1 9 4 1 – 1 9 4 5 861 Fighting World War II 864 ★ The Home Front 873 Visions of Postwar Freedom 880 ★ The American C O N T E N T S ★ ix Dilemma 884 ★ Voices of Freedom From League of United Latin American Citizens, “World War II and Mexican Americans” (1945), and From Charles H. Wesley, “The Negro Has Always Wanted the Four Freedoms,” in What the Negro Wants (1944) the War 23 ★ … 888 ★ The End of 898 T H E U N I T E D STAT E S A N D T H E C O L D WA R , 1 9 4 5 – 1 9 5 3 905 Origins of the Cold War 908 ★ The Cold War and the Idea of Freedom 917 ★ The Truman Presidency 922 ★ The Anticommunist Crusade 927 ★ Voices of Freedom From Joseph R. McCarthy, Speech at Wheeling (1950), and From Margaret Chase Smith, Speech in the Senate (1950) 24 ★ … A N A F F L U E N T S O C I E T Y, 1 9 5 3 – 1 9 6 0 The Golden Age 936 940 942 ★ The Eisenhower Era 957 ★ The Freedom Movement 968 ★ Voices of Freedom From Martin Luther King Jr., Speech at Montgomery, Alabama (December 5, 1955), …

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