ACTIVITY ANALYSIS OF SERVING A VOLLEYBALL FOR TEN YEAR OLD FEMALE WHO IS DEAF

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Activity Analysis of Coloring

Mariah Stump

Therapeutic Recreation: Professional Practicum I

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Activity Analysis: Coloring

 

Description:

Coloring is a leisure activity that involves creativity and imagination. Coloring can be an

individual or group activity. In order to color, the participant must have a coloring sheet, coloring

utensils, sharpener, and a hard surface. The coloring utensils can be crayons, colored pencils, or

markers. The goal of coloring is to bring color to the objects on the coloring sheets by shading

them with the coloring utensils. After choosing a coloring sheet, the participant must choose the

colors they feel will look best on the picture. If the coloring utensil is not sharp, they can use a

sharpener. Then the participant chooses a section to start and which color to use for that section.

They should start by coloring the inside edge of the section to help them stay in the lines. After

coloring the edge, they can color the center. They should continue to choose a section, choose a

color, shade the inside edge, and shade the center until the picture is fully colored (How).

 

Precautions/ Safety Issues:

Some people may want to take precaution if they are allergic to some of the chemicals in

crayons, colored pencils, or markers. They must avoid ingesting any of these coloring utensils.

Participants also need to avoid inhaling the smell of the markers. This could cause damage to the

brain, lungs, heart, liver, kidney, and peripheral nerves if it becomes a habit (Inhalants).

 

Special Considerations:

This activity is for people age 4 and up. Children younger than four have a hard time

staying in the lines, and may not benefit from the activity (Eye). Also, people that are blind may

be unable to do this activity unless adaptations are made.

 

Demands:

Although coloring is mainly a cognitive activity, it also has some physical, social, and

emotional demands. Some of the cognitive demands include deciding what picture to color and

which colors to use. Coloring is physically demanding, because the participant must have hand-

eye coordination in order to color in the lines. Sitting is the primary body position during

coloring, so the participant must also have sitting endurance. The dominant arm, wrist, hand, and

fingers are also involved, so the person must have the arm strength and stability needed to finish

the coloring page. Coloring is normally an individual activity, however, more than one person

 

 

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can participate at one time. Coloring in a group could make the activity socially demanding, if

the people choose to interact with one another. Coloring could make a person feel joyful,

relaxed, or frustrated. Joy or happiness could come from completing the coloring page. Coloring

has been shown to relieve stress, so participants may feel relaxed or laid back while participating

in this activity. Coloring can also be frustrating if the person has a hard time staying in the lines

or deciding which colors to use.

 

Task Analysis: Correct way to hold the coloring utensil

1. Locate the color desired

2. Stretch dominant arm towards the color

3. Keep thumb, pointer, and middle finger extended

4. Flex pinky and ring finger

5. Grasp the utensil in dominant hand with tip of thumb, pointer, and middle finger about

half an inch from the tip of the utensil with the tip pointed away from you

6. Lift dominant hand with utensil

7. With dominant or non-dominant hand, situate the utensil to make it rest on the space

between the thumb and pointer finger, while still holding the tip of the utensil with the tip

of your thumb, pointer, and middle finger.

 

Adaptations:

If someone has a hard time making decisions, a recreational therapist could only put out a

few colors. If there are several different shades of the same color lying out, the participant could

have a hard time deciding which shade to use. Only having the choice one shade of a color can

make the decision much easier, such as placing out one red, orange, yellow, green, blue, and

purple.

If someone has decreased fine motor skills, a recreational therapist could use larger

coloring utensils. Crayons, colored pencils, and markers are now made in many different sizes.

Using a larger size would help the participant have an easier time grasping the utensil.

If someone has gone through social isolation, a recreational therapist could use coloring

as a way to help them become more social. Coloring is normally an individual activity, but it can

be done in a group setting. The recreational therapist could encourage interaction between the

participants by having a group discussion after everyone has finished their coloring page. The

therapist could ask questions such as: Why did you choose this picture to color? Why did you

choose those colors? Why did you choose that coloring utensil?

 

 

 

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Activity Analysis Rating Form Activity: Coloring

PHYSICAL ASPECTS:

1. What is the primary body position required?

___ lying down X sitting ___ other: ______________

___ kneeling ___ standing

2. What body parts are required?

X arms ___ feet X upper torso

X hands ___ neck ___ lower torso

___ legs ___ head

3. What types of movement does the activity require?

___ bending ___ punching X reaching

X stretching ___ catching X grasping

___ standing ___ throwing ___ skipping/hopping

___ walking ___ hitting ___ running

4. What are the primary senses required for the activity?

X touch X sight ___ smell

___ taste ___ hearing

5. What is the amount of coordination and movement between body parts required by

the activity?

Much 1 2 3 4 5 Little

6. What is the degree of hand-eye coordination needed for the activity?

Much 1 2 3 4 5 Little

7. What is the degree of strength needed for the activity?

Much 1 2 3 4 5 Little

8. What is the degree of speed needed for the activity?

Much 1 2 3 4 5 Little

9. What is the degree of endurance needed for the activity?

Much 1 2 3 4 5 Little

10. What is the degree of energy needed for the activity?

Much 1 2 3 4 5 Little

11. What is the degree of flexibility needed for the activity?

Much 1 2 3 4 5 Little

 

 

 

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SOCIAL ASPECTS

1. What is the primary social interaction pattern required in the activity?

___ Intraindividual (action taking place within the mind or action involving the mind and a

part of the body; requires no contact with another person or external object)

X Extraindividual (action directed by a person toward an object; requires no contact with

another person)

___ Aggregate (action directed by a person toward an object while in the company of other

persons who also are directing actions toward objects; action is not directed toward each other;

no interaction required between participants)

 

___ Interindividual (action of a competitive nature directed by one person toward another)

 

___ Unilateral (action of a competitive nature among three or more persons, one of whom is

an antagonist or it; interaction is in simultaneous competitive relationship)

 

___ Multilateral (action of a competitive nature among three or more persons with no one

person as an antagonist)

 

___ Intragroup (action of a cooperative nature by two or more persons intent upon reaching

a mutual goal; action requires positive verbal or nonverbal interaction)

___ Intergroup (action of a competitive nature between two or more intragroups)

2. What is the minimum (fewest) number or maximum (greatest) number of people

required for the activity?

1 minimum number 1 maximum number

3. What clothing is needed to be socially appropriate? Shirt, Pants, Shoes

4. How much physical proximity is required by the activity?

Close 1 2 3 4 5 Distant

5. How much physical contact is required by the activity?

Much 1 2 3 4 5 Little

6. What degree of communication is required by the activity?

High 1 2 3 4 5 Low

7. What degree of noise is generated by the activity?

Much 1 2 3 4 5 Little

 

 

 

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COGNITiVE ASPECTS

1. How many rules are required in the activity?

Many 1 2 3 4 5 Few

2. How complex are the rules to understand?

Complex 1 2 3 4 5 Simple

3. What degree of strategy is required in the activity?

Much 1 2 3 4 5 Little

4. What degree of complexity is involved in scoring?

Much 1 2 3 4 5 Little

5. What degree of long-term memory is required in the activity?

Much 1 2 3 4 5 Little

6. What degree of short-term memory or immediate recall is required in the activity?

Much 1 2 3 4 5 Little

7. What degree of verbalization of thought process is required in the activity?

Much 1 2 3 4 5 Little

8. What degree of concentration is required in the activity?

Much 1 2 3 4 5 Little

9. What degree of concrete thinking is required by the activity?

Much 1 2 3 4 5 Little

10. What degree of abstract thinking is required by the activity?

Much 1 2 3 4 5 Little

11. To what degree are each of the following skills used in the activity?

Reading Much 1 2 3 4 5 Little

Writing Much 1 2 3 4 5 Little

Math Much 1 2 3 4 5 Little

Spelling Much 1 2 3 4 5 Little

12. To what degree does the participant need to identify or use the following?

Form and shape Much 1 2 3 4 5 Little

Colors Much 1 2 3 4 5 Little

Size Much 1 2 3 4 5 Little

Numbers Much 1 2 3 4 5 Little

Body parts Much 1 2 3 4 5 Little

Directionality Much 1 2 3 4 5 Little

 

 

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AFFECTIVE ASPECTS

1. To what degree does the participant have the opportunity or outlet to express the following?

Joy Much 1 2 3 4 5 Little

Guilt Much 1 2 3 4 5 Little

Pain Much 1 2 3 4 5 Little

Anger Much 1 2 3 4 5 Little

Fear Much 1 2 3 4 5 Little

Frustration Much 1 2 3 4 5 Little

2. To what degree must the participant control or inhibit the expression of the following?

Joy Much 1 2 3 4 5 Little

Guilt Much 1 2 3 4 5 Little

Pain Much 1 2 3 4 5 Little

Anger Much 1 2 3 4 5 Little

Fear Much 1 2 3 4 5 Little

Frustration Much 1 2 3 4 5 Little

ADMINISTRATiVE ASPECTS

1. What type of leadership style is required by the activity?

____ specific activity-skill ____ expertise supervisory

____ general activity-skill X expertise no specific leadership style needed

2. What type of equipment is needed for the activity?

X specific commercial product (specify: coloring page, hard surface, coloring utensils)

____ can be made (specify:_____________________ )

____ no equipment required

3. What type of facility is required by the activity?

____ specific natural environment (specify:_____________________ )

____ specific created environment (specify:_____________________ )

X no specific environment required

4. What is the duration of the activity?

____ set time

X natural end

____ continuous

5. What is the number of participants required for the activity?

____ any number can participate

X fixed number or multiple (specify: only one can color the same picture, but many can

color together with their own picture)

 

 

 

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References

 

Eye hand coordination. Therapy street for kids. March 17, 2012.

http://therapystreetforkids.com/EyeHandCoord.html

 

How to color in a coloring book. Wikihow. March 17, 2012.

http://www.wikihow.com/Color-in-a-Coloring-Book

 

Inhalants. National Inhalant Prevention Coalition. March 17, 2012.

http://www.inhalants.org/final_medical.htm