Analyzing Disease Frequency

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Analyzing Disease
Frequency

(500 words minimum)

When
epidemiologists measure disease frequency, they analyze the incidence and
prevalence of a disease. Incidence is the number of new cases of a disease in a
particular population during a specific time period. This measure is useful when
public health officials and epidemiologists are looking at the first occurrence
of a disease. It is also important when comparing populations to determine
disease risk.

For
each problem, answer the following questions:

  • Name the appropriate measure of disease frequency
    that should be used in each scenario and justify its use (why that particular
    measure is the appropriate one).
    1. The percentage of elderly men who are diagnosed with
      prostate cancer by age 80.
    2. The number of mothers who die during the first year
      after giving birth due to complications from the birthing
      process.
    3. On the last day of the school year, the number of
      freshman college students who are at least 15 pounds heavier than when they
      started the school
      year.
  • Calculate the appropriate disease frequency rate.
    Show your work.
    1. The cumulative incidence rate in a population of
      100,000 people where 9 new cases of disease were reported within 1
      year.
    2. The prevalence of a chronic disease on November 1st
      where 9 initial cases were found in September with an additional 45 cases
      reported in October of a small city with a population of 75,000
      people.
    3. The relative risk of death from exposure A if the
      mortality rate in the exposed group is 60 deaths per 1000 person-years and the
      mortality rate in the unexposed group is 20 per 1000
      person-years.

The prevalence of a
health condition is the existing number of cases of that condition in the
population. State whether the factors listed below are likely to increase or
decrease the prevalence of a health condition and Explain your
reasoning.

  1. Improvements in diagnostic
    criteria
  2. Shorter duration of a health
    condition
  3. Decrease in the incidence of the health
    condition
  4. Loss of healthy people from the population for other
    reasons

500 words minimum

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