Men: Risk ratio of cancer death = 1.5, 95% confidence interval = 1.1–2.1
Women: Risk ratio of cancer death = 1.6, 95% confidence interval = 1.4–1.9
State in words your interpretation of the risk ratio given for the men.State in words your interpretation of the risk ratio given for the women.Are these results confounded by gender?The authors stated that they controlled for confounding many risk factors using a multivariate analysis. State an alternative method that the authors could have used to control for confounding in the design or analysis. In addition, name two confounding variables that you think should be controlled using this method.
2) A cohort study was undertaken to examine the association between high lipid level and coronary heart disease (CHD). Participants were classified as having either a high lipid level (exposed) or a low or normal lipid level (unexposed). Because age is associated with both lipid level and risk of heart disease, age was considered a potential confounder or effect modifier and the age of each subject was recorded. The following data describes the study participants: Overall, there were 11,000 young participants and 9,000 old participants. Of the 4,000 young participants with high lipid levels, 20 of them developed CHD. Of the 6,000 old participants with high lipid levels, 200 of them developed CHD. In the unexposed, 18 young and 65 old participants developed CHD.
Construct the appropriate two by two tables using the data given above. Be sure to label the cells and margins.Calculate the appropriate crude ratio measure of association combining the data for young and old individuals.Now, perform a stratified analysis and calculate the appropriate stratum-specific ratio measures of association. What are they?Do the data provide evidence of effect measure modification on the ratio scale? Justify your answer.
3) A study used self-administered mail questionnaires to gather data on height and weight in order to calculate a measure of obesity. Which of the following types of problems were likely avoided by this method of data collection, and why?Interviewerbias,Exposure misclassification, Confounding,Selectionbias,Loss-to-follow-up