Hi I need to respond to two of my peers. The responses do not need to be in essay format, this is a response for a discussion post. In your responses, provide specific feedback, constructive criticism, suggestions for improvement, and ideas for resources or support. I will post 2 of the discussion posts below, each need a response back with a minimum of 150 words each so 300 words total for both.
Ethical perspective: Will this treatment be accessible to all social groups?
So far, from the looks of it, it seems as if psilocybin treatment can only be used under medical supervision in a therapeutic setting. It has not mentioned whether it would be covered by insurance or not, but it will most likely fall under behavioral therapy which is covered. It is milder and more neutral than lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD), containing fewer ingredients. The resilience and toxicity of magic mushrooms vary. Some health professionals have lately shown interest in using this medication in treatment. Prescribing psilocybin mushrooms have several advantages and disadvantages. When Joe Biden was elected as the country’s 46th president in the fall of 2020, Oregon voters also approved a significant new drug law reform. Measure 109, an innovative law passed in Oregon, makes it legal to use psilocybin, a psychedelic found in magic mushrooms. Psilocybin is promoted as a powerful and secure treatment for depression and other mental illnesses, and Measure 109 aims to unleash its therapeutic potential. When developing and implementing new medication policies, ethical leaders should take into account the latest medical research, which indicates that the usage of these natural remedies is good for chronic psychical and physiological disorders.
Cultural Perspective: Is there evidence of psilocybin usage from years prior?
Psilocybin mushrooms have been used for centuries for medicinal and ritualistic purposes. The oldest trace of psilocybin use dates back to the 1500s CE in Mesoamerica (V. Court et al., 2022), now known as Central America. This finding of psilocybin was found in a painting delineating an image of the Aztec deities consuming the “sacred” psilocybin mushrooms. Another artifact in Mesoamerica is “mushroom stones” found in Guatemala, which show the existence of psilocybin use during pre-Columbian times when the mushrooms were ground for consumption to prepare for a sacred ceremony (V. Court et al., 2022). Not only were psilocybin mushrooms believed to have spiritual healing purposes, but they were also believed to have physical healing properties. Magic mushrooms induce an “out of body experience” as a result of the user’s “soul” departing their body, and it allows self-healing. (Guzman 2008; Herrera 2007).
Questions: Will using psilocybin treatments have any type of religious repercussions? Will the use of psilocybin have a negative outcome on the indigenous community? Is there anything that can be done in order to make it accessible to all social groups in need of treatment?
Ethical Level 1: How do ethical theories apply to this issue?
Ethical Level 2: Are the decisions that patients with mental health disorders make the right decision?
Ethics most definitely plays a role in the medical field, even if it is psychiatric care. Every patient has the right to make their own decisions. Privacy and respect are both ethical elements that all health care providers are required to meet for their patients. Patients always make their own decisions and therefore no health care provider can force them into doing something or believing something, but how does this effect those diagnosed with mental health disorders. Those with mental health disorders, in particular schizophrenia, are not capable of thinking and functioning properly. The way they think is altered, meaning they necessarily do not know whether the choice they make is the right decision or not. It is important for health care providers to speak with their patients and ensure them that the decisions they chose are for the best of their patients. “…the presence of mental disorders causes many patients to lack capacity to make decisions for themselves and to depend on clinicians to attend to their best interests in ethics and law” (Silva, 2018). Individuals diagnosed with schizophrenia are not capable of making the proper decisions, and oftentimes will make a decision that is not for the best of them. Although patients have every right to make decisions for themselves, when it comes to psychiatric care, this is altered a bit, and psychologists can assist their patients into making the right decisions.
Cultural Level 1: Which cultural values and/or norms influence the issue?
Cultural Level 2: How do different cultures manage/treat schizophrenia?
Every culture and religion has their own perspective on things in life, even when it comes to medical diagnoses. Many cultures do not believe in mental health disorders, and simply believe it is all in one’s head. Some cultures don’t believe in the use of medications for mental health disorders. There are many different cultural values that influence schizophrenia and the way one may manage it. The two main categories that cultural values about schizophrenia can be divided into are Wester vs Easter societies views on schizophrenia. “Western societies tend to view schizophrenia symptoms as a medical issues, while Easter societies treat it as a spiritual or supernatural phenomenon” (Gaines, 2014). As we can see, the two different cultural views are entirely different. Schizophrenia is a medical diagnosis, and the way different cultures may view is, Eastern societies, may make managing and treating a bit more difficult.
What specific cultures should I focus on more in depth? Are there are cultural conflicts you may know that arise when dealing with schizophrenia? Is schizophrenia accepted by your culture, if so why or how?