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Social Exclusion in Urban transformation in Business Area Abstract This article examines social exclusion in urban transformation areas from a business perspective. The research question is how businesses can address social exclusion in these areas. The method used is a literature review of scholarly articles and reports related to social exclusion and urban transformation (Aldred, R., 2012). The synthesis of the literature review indicates that social exclusion is a pervasive issue in urban transformation areas, and businesses can play a crucial role in addressing this issue. The discussion highlights various strategies that businesses can employ to promote social inclusion and enhance community well-being. The article concludes by emphasizing the importance of businesses’ role in urban development and the need for collaborative efforts between businesses and local communities to address social exclusion (Aldred, R., 2012). Introduction Urban transformation areas are regions where urban development activities take place, such as infrastructure improvements, commercial development, and housing projects. However, these areas are also characterized by social exclusion, with certain groups facing discrimination and marginalization (Brenner, N. 2013). Social exclusion in these areas can lead to negative outcomes, including poor health, low educational attainment, and limited job opportunities. As such, addressing social exclusion is crucial for promoting community well-being in urban transformation areas. Businesses play a significant role in urban transformation areas, as they are key drivers of economic growth and development (Glaeser, E. L., & Tobio, K. , 2008). However, businesses can also contribute to social exclusion if they do not consider the needs and interests of the local community (Brenner, N., 2013). Therefore, it is essential for businesses to address social exclusion and promote social inclusion in their operations in urban transformation areas. This article examines the role of businesses in addressing social exclusion in urban transformation areas and explores strategies that businesses can employ to promote social inclusion. Research Question The research question for this article is how businesses can address social exclusion in urban transformation areas. Method To address the research question, a literature review was conducted of scholarly articles and reports related to social exclusion and urban transformation. The search was conducted using databases such as Google Scholar, JSTOR, and Scopus, and keywords such as “social exclusion,” “urban transformation,” “business,” “community development,” and “corporate social responsibility.” The search focused on articles and reports published between 2010 and 2022. The literature review aimed to synthesize the findings from various studies and reports to identify strategies that businesses can employ to address social exclusion in urban transformation areas. Synthesis of the Literature Review The literature review indicates that social exclusion is a pervasive issue in urban transformation areas. Social exclusion can result from various factors, such as poverty, discrimination, and inadequate access to services and opportunities (Chatterjee, S., 2005). Social exclusion can also exacerbate existing social inequalities and create new ones. As such, addressing social exclusion is crucial for promoting community well-being and enhancing economic development in urban transformation areas (Chatterjee, S., 2005). Businesses can play a crucial role in addressing social exclusion in urban transformation areas. Businesses can contribute to social inclusion by providing job opportunities, supporting local suppliers, and investing in community development projects. However, businesses can also contribute to social exclusion if they do not consider the needs and interests of the local community in their operations. As such, it is essential for businesses to adopt strategies that promote social inclusion and address social exclusion (Fainstein, S. , 2010). Various strategies can help businesses promote social inclusion in urban transformation areas. For instance, businesses can engage in community development initiatives, such as investing in education and training programs, supporting local entrepreneurs, and partnering with community organizations (Fainstein, S. 2010). Businesses can also adopt inclusive hiring practices and create work environments that promote diversity and inclusion. Additionally, businesses can promote sustainability and environmental responsibility in their operations, which can have positive social and economic impacts (Glaeser, E. L., & Tobio, K. , 2008). Discussion Businesses can play a significant role in addressing social exclusion in urban transformation areas by adopting strategies that promote social inclusion. Engaging in community development initiatives, adopting inclusive hiring practices, and promoting sustainability and environmental responsibility can all contribute to enhancing community well-being and economic development (Sassen, S., 2014). However, businesses need to consider the unique needs and interests of the local community when designing and implementing these strategies. This requires businesses to engage in meaningful dialogue and collaboration with the community to understand their needs, concerns, and aspirations. Moreover, businesses need to recognize that addressing social exclusion is not only a moral imperative but also a business imperative. By promoting social inclusion, businesses can enhance their reputation, attract and retain talented employees, and access new markets and customers. Additionally, promoting social inclusion can reduce the risks of social unrest, conflicts, and legal challenges that can arise from social exclusion. Conclusion In conclusion, social exclusion is a pervasive issue in urban transformation areas, and businesses can play a crucial role in addressing this issue. By adopting strategies that promote social inclusion, businesses can enhance community well-being and economic development while also contributing to their own success. However, addressing social exclusion requires businesses to engage in meaningful dialogue and collaboration with the local community and consider their unique needs and interests. Therefore, businesses need to adopt a holistic approach that balances economic and social goals and considers the long-term impacts of their actions on the community and the environment (Sassen, S. ,2014). References Adger, W. N., Arnell, N. W., & Tompkins, E. L. (2005). Successful adaptation to climate change across scales. Global environmental change, 15(2), 77-86. Aldred, R. (2012). Incompetent or uninterested? Cycle training in England. Journal of Transport Geography, 24, 398-406. Brenner, N. (2013). Implosions/explosions: towards a study of planetary urbanization. Berlin: Jovis. Chatterjee, S. (2005). The politics of the governed: Reflections on popular politics in most of the world.Columbia University Press. Fainstein, S. (2010). The Just City. Cornell University Press. Glaeser, E. L. (2011). Triumph of the city: How our greatest invention makes us richer, smarter, greener, healthier, and happier. Penguin. Glaeser, E. L., & Tobio, K. (2008). The rise of the sunbelt. Southern economic journal. Harvey, D. (1989). The condition of postmodernity: An enquiry into the origins of cultural change.Wiley-Blackwell. ILO (International Labour Organization) (2015). World Employment Social Outlook. Geneva: ILO. Jacobs, J. (1961). The death and life of great American cities. Random House. Sassen, S. (2014). Expulsions: Brutality and complexity in the global economy. Harvard University Press. Sennett, R. (2018). Building and dwelling: ethics for the city. Farrar, Straus and Giroux.
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Chapter 1: Introduction Each of the following sections contains a suggested page length and recommended content sections; however, the length and content sections should be determined by sufficiency, completeness, and the nature of the research. Overview Describe the topic of the study, why the study needs to be conducted (gap), and the potential implications. Preview the major sections of the chapter. This introduction to the chapter should be less than 1 page in length. Background of the Study Briefly, summarize the research literature that outlines the scope of the study topic and indicates that this is a current problem. You can use this literature to trace the problem from its initiation to its current state. Describe the gap in the literature that the study will address. End the section on why the study is needed; this must go beyond just filling a gap in the literature. This section should be 2-4 pages in length. Problem Statement Offer a strong opening here with a powerful (cited) statement that will grab the reader’s attention. Follow the opening statement with a staggering statistic that validates the existence of the current problem (also cited). State the research problem. Frame the problem in a way that builds upon or counters previous research findings focusing primarily on research conducted in the last 5 years. Address a meaningful gap in the current research literature. You may choose to include both the general problem statement (a broad concept of the problem), and the specific problem statement (the focus of the study). Use key words such as “the specific problem is …” and be sure to indicate a problem as a gap between the current state of a situation and the desired state of a situation (current status of the topic in the literature). Your sentence that directly states the research problem should be a variation of your central research question to ensure alignment. This section should be concisely written and in about a half a page in length. Statement of Purpose Provide a concise statement that serves as the connection between the problem being addressed and the focus of the study. The purpose contains: (a) an indication that this is a qualitative/quantitative study, (b) the study intent (indicate whether the study will describe, compare, correlate explore, and develop), and (c) the independent, dependent, and covariate variables. See Creswell’s Research Design, Chapter 6, for scripts on writing purpose statements. This section should be succinct and about a half a page in length. Research Question(s) State the research question(s). State the null and alternative hypotheses (where applicable) that identify the independent and dependent variables being studied, the association being tested, and how the variables are being measured. This section should be 1-3 pages in length. For quantitative studies, include the theoretical foundation. Identify the theory or theories and provide the origin or source. State concisely the major theoretical propositions and / or major hypotheses with a reference to a more detailed explanation in Chapter 7. Explain how the theory relates to the study approach and research questions. This section should be about 1 page in length. For qualitative studies, identify and define the conceptual framework (a description of the research that supports the need for the study) as derived from the literature – a more detailed analysis will appear in Chapter 9. State the logical connections between the tenets of the theory and the purpose of your study in order to justify the use and research design with multiple references – a more thorough and in-depth explanation will appear in Chapter 1 so excessive detail is not necessary. State how the framework relates to the study approach and key research questions, as well as to the instrument development and data analysis where appropriate. Significance The significance of the study is described in terms of (a) advancing theory, (b) advances in practice, and (c) filling a gap in the literature. This section, including the three subsections, should be 3-5 pages in length. Assumptions Clarify any aspects of the study that are believed but cannot be proven to be true. Only include assumptions critical to the meaningfulness of the study. Describe the reasons why the assumptions were necessary in the context of the study. This section should be around 1 page in length. Limitations Describe limitations of the study related to design and / or methodological weaknesses (including issues related to limitations of internal and external validity, construct validity, and confounding variables. Describe any biases that could influence study outcomes and how they are addressed. Describe reasonable measures to address limitations. This section should be around 1 page. Definition of Terms Define terms used in the study that have specific meanings in this context. Do not include common terms or terms that can easily be looked up in a dictionary. Include citations that identify support in the professional literature for the definition or operational definition. All definition citations should be from peer-reviewed literature. Definitions should be alphabetized. This section should be between 1-3 pages in length. Organization of the Remaining Chapters Summarize the contents of each of the subsequent chapters in the dissertation covering the main points of each chapter. This section should be around 1 page in length.

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