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What is an article critique?

An article critique requires you to critically read a piece of research and identify and evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of the article.

What steps need to be taken to write an article critique?

· Choose an article that meets the criteria outlined by your instructor.

· Read the article to get an understanding of the main idea.

· Jot down notes in the margins of the article as you read for understanding.

How is a critique different from a summary?

A summary of a research article requires you to share the key points of the article so your reader can get a clear picture of what the article is about. A critique may include a brief summary, but the main focus should be on your evaluation and analysis of the research itself.

What should the article critique include?

I. Introduction

Include introductory paragraph(s) that includes the following:

A. The author’s name(s) and the title of the article

B. The author’s main point

· What does the author say is his main point? Significance?

· What does the author say about the purpose of the article?

C. A thesis statement that previews your analysis.

II. Summary

After your introduction, discuss the following in your own words:

A. The arguments or information presented in the article

B. Conceptual/Theoretical Framework

· Discuss what the framework present in the article and how it supports the significance of the article.

· If there is more than one framework presented,

C. Reference to review of literature

· Discuss how the review of literature supports the main point.

· You can point out the most prevalent studies, concepts, etc. of the review.

D. The sample, methodology, instrument, findings, etc. of the article

E. The author’s discussion

· Was it clear, relevant? Explain why or why not.


After summarizing the article, critique the article by doing the following:

A. Discuss the strengths and weaknesses of the article that you noted while critically reading the article.

B. State your informed opinions about the clarity, relevancy, and accuracy of the article, using specific examples from the article to support your statements.

· To what extent is the title of the article appropriate and clear?

· To what extent is the abstract specific, representative of the study?

· To what extent is the purpose of the article made clear in the introduction?

· Did the author/s ground their research in theory and previous literature? How effective was this review of literature?

· Are the chosen research methods appropriate to answer the research question(s)?

· Are there issues related to the generalizability of the results? (If you do not feel there was no generalization of results, provide evidence and state it. Likewise, if you do feel that there is generalization, explain.)

· Discuss any errors of the fact and interpretation. (If you do not feel there were errors, provide evidence and state it. Likewise, if you do feel that way, discuss it and provide evidence.)

· Is there evidence of bias or a conflict of interest? (If you do not feel there was bias or conflict of interest, provide evidence and state it. Likewise, if you do feel that way, discuss it and provide evidence.)

· Is the article timely and relevant or is it outdated? (If you do not feel there was relevance, provide evidence and state it. Likewise, if you do feel that way, discuss it and provide evidence.)

IV. Conclusion

Finally, end your article critique with a conclusion that does the following:

A. Summarize the key points in the article, as well the key points from your own analysis.

B. Talk about the areas where the authors could have provided more information, if applicable.

· Should some sections of the manuscript be expanded, condensed or omitted? Why or why not?

C. Close with a comment about the significance of the research on implications or recommendation for future research needed in the field.






· The introduction has the author’s name(s) and the title of the article


· The main point(s) is clearly conveyed in a manner that the ready can grasp without wondering.


· The author’s purpose is stated concisely.


· The student included a thesis statement that provides a road map of the critique.



· The summary reiterates the main points with consideration of the argument and general information in the article.


· There is a scholarly discussion of the conceptual/theoretical framework(s) and how it supports the significance of the article.


· There is a precise discussion of the review of literature present and how it supports the main point.


· The participants (sampling) is presented clearly.


· The instrument/method for collecting data is clearly stated.


· The methodology is clearly conveyed.

· The findings/data analyses are clearly articulated and includes adequate information about the findings and how well they answered the research questions.


· The author’s discussion was precise and clearly showed the author’s perspective of the findings.



· There was a scholarly discussion of the strengths and weaknesses of the article from the reader’s perspective. This includes your perspective of the review of literature and conceptual framework.


· The discussion of the title of the article included relevance to the overall study.


· The discussion of the appropriateness of the abstract included relevance to the overall study.


· There was a scholarly discussion of the extent of how well the author articulated the purpose.


· There was an appropriate, relevant discussion of how well the research methods adequately answered the research questions.


· There is a scholarly discussion of the extent that the author generalized the results—bias vs. unbias and/or conflict of interest.


· Discussion of fact vs. interpretation.


· There was a scholarly discussion of the relevance of the information presented.



· The conclusion summarized the key points as it related to your own analysis/critiques.


· There was a scholarly, relevance discussion of section(s) or information that could have been condensed, omitted, or expanded.


· The conclusion adequately provided significance and recommendations for future study on this topic.




The paper is well organized, thus presenting the paper in manner that clearly conveys components of the Introduction, Summary, Critique, and Conclusion.



The paper reflects standard English that is written in a scholarly manner


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August 15, 2020

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Published: August 5, 2020

Teaching and Learning in the Pandemic

—Stephanie Shafer for Education Week

When teachers go back to school this fall, the classroom as they’ve
known it will be gone, and their instruction will be more critical than

That’s a daunting combination, but it’s what the pandemic has
delivered. The spring produced crisis schooling, and teachers and
schools scrambled to find online resources and master remote teaching
techniques. A more deliberate approach this fall could mean a better
experience for students; the lack of one could turn equity gaps into

With so much riding on instruction, districts need to plan for it
with the same rigor they’ve applied to more operational aspects of
reopening. “School leaders can’t be swallowed up in figuring out where
the hand sanitizing stations are going to go,” said Justin Reich, the
director of the MIT Teaching Systems Lab.

About This Project

Fifth in a series of eight installments.

These times are unprecedented. Through these eight installments, we
will explore the steps administrators need to take to ensure the safety
of students and faculty.

> Full report: How We Go Back to School

> Part 1: Socially Distanced School Day

> Part 2: Scheduling and Staffing

> Part 3: Transportation

> Part 4: Remote Learning

> Part 5: Teaching & Learning

> Up next: Learning Loss

Deepen Your Knowledge

Get the practical insights you need to succeed, and save up to 60% on a subscription to Education Week.


It’s a lot to take on even as the ground shifts under
teachers’ feet. In the building, social distancing could put an end to
the group projects and partner work that are central to many teachers’
pedagogy. Online, they will have to develop relationships and classroom
routines with students they may have never met in person.

And engaging students is more essential than ever: Months of unequal
access to instruction last spring mean that students will be coming back
to school, in person or remotely, with varying degrees of learning
loss. Teachers will have to address those losses as they introduce
grade-level content.

They’ll also have to keep instruction coherent across online and
in-person settings, since many districts plan to offer hybrid schedules.
Schools might well need to respond to that reality by forging new roles
or responsibilities for staff members—making one teacher the “remote
lead,” or creating new cross-grade teams to support progressions in

Schools should acknowledge upfront that they’ll likely have less
instructional time this year and should plan to identify the highest
priority parts of their curriculum accordingly. Teachers will need to
create flexible, adaptable assignments that students can complete in
different environments and with varied levels of technology access.

Experts say no students should be held back from grade-level
work—instead, teachers and instructional leaders should figure out where
they might need to revisit prerequisite skills in the context of
instruction. That’s where a rethought approach to assessment can play a
role. Experts are advising educators to use standardized tests sparingly
and focus more heavily on informal assessments in the classroom:
well-designed activities that “assess” the few, most critical things
their students haven’t yet mastered for the next unit. Teachers can then
remediate those gaps “just in time,” instead of trying to cover every
standard or skill that might have been missed last spring.

Professional development will carry an outsized burden this fall,
too, as school staff members require training to serve not only as
instructors, but as social-emotional supports for students. Connection
and trust are as central to instruction as curricular mapping and
assessment. More than ever before, it’s essential that instruction
encourages strong, caring relationships with adults and provides
opportunities for students to think deeply, to connect with their peers,
and to get excited about learning again.

Education Week reporters Catherine Gewertz and Sarah Schwartz
interviewed 50 teachers, instructional leaders, and curriculum and
assessment experts, and reviewed dozens of documents for this
installment. It offers advice for deciding what to teach this year, how
to teach it, and how to make sure students and teachers both get the
support that they need from schools.

—The Editors


Now more than ever, schools need to give all students access to
grade-level work, experts say. Even if students had little instruction
in the spring, districts should fight the impulse to require extensive
remediation or reteaching of whole units from last year. Doing so can
widen equity gaps.

Instead, instructional leaders need to create a range of entry points
into the grade-level content—scaffolds for students who require them,
and places where teachers can refresh or reteach concepts that students
need to understand in order to succeed this fall.

With many students on hybrid schedules that plan for some in-person
and some remote learning, one “class” of students likely won’t be the
coherent unit that it was in past years. Schools also need to plan how
they will keep curriculum and instruction cohesive across different


The coronavirus has already restructured one big pillar of the
assessment world: It obliterated federally mandated statewide testing
last spring. And now, as the new school year approaches, it’s led
experts to wave cautionary flags that say: Be very careful about how you handle testing this year.

In a year when so many children have unfinished learning, leading
experts are advising educators to resist a “test and remediate”
mentality, which risks trapping children in a scrambling-to-catch-up

Instead, they’re urging schools to focus deeply on instructional
techniques and informal tests in the classroom. That information offers
the best way to do what’s crucially important
this year: adjust instruction to meet students’ needs, and provide
support to help them be successful with on-grade-level work.

It’s particularly important this year, experts say, to use each kind
of assessment for the right purposes, and to avoid overidentifying
struggling students, English-learners, or students with special needs
for remediation.


Teachers’ practices and routines will look different this year,
whether they’re holding class online or in-person. But there are some
priorities—like engaging with students, providing access to cognitively
demanding work, and responding to formative assessment—that teachers can
address in any environment.

Regular teacher-student interaction is critical to remote and hybrid
learning. But districts can’t expect teachers to be available
24/7—setting boundaries is essential for creating a sustainable work
environment and protecting teacher mental health.


The coronavirus didn’t just disrupt learning last spring; it opened
up vast craters of academic and emotional need in students that adults
must now try to meet. All of that has created a new set of staffing and
professional development challenges for school and district leaders.

When it comes to staffing, it’s likely that the usual roles and
responsibilities will need to shift to allow a school to focus deeply on
things that matter most: good instruction, since many students missed
key content last spring; support for technology, since many students
will be learning remotely; emotional support for students, who have
likely experienced trauma in the pandemic; and connecting with families,
whose help is required now more than ever as more learning takes place
at home. (Previous installments in our “How We Go Back to School” series have focused on staffing changes needed for health and safety.)

In this section, we explore staffing ideas that some schools are
implementing to better support students’ academic and emotional needs,
whether they’re in the building or learning from home. We also offer one
organization’s thoughts on a way to envision and rework staffing

As if staffing isn’t challenging enough, professional development is
shaping up to be a full plate all by itself. The pandemic has forced so
many changes that experts are saying teachers and other school staff
members need training on a wide range of things. They’ve issued a stack
of papers and guidance documents suggesting that these topics are
important and urgent, but it’s a daunting list to conquer.

Here’s a sampling of the topics most frequently mentioned as especially important for PD this year:

  • recognizing trauma in children and providing support;
  • weaving social-emotional skills into academic instruction (watch for more on this in Installment 7);
  • deepening instructional skills for the most vulnerable students;
  • maximizing the effectiveness and engagement of your online instruction;
  • pivoting easily from online to in-person instruction;
  • building new kinds of professional-learning communities that work as well remotely as in person;
  • analyzing the year’s curriculum and identifying the highest priority standards to focus on;
  • shifting thinking about assessment to focus heavily on informal classroom assessments;
  • and remediating on just the few, key concepts students need most for the next unit.

Feel like a long list? You’re not alone. Leaders vary on which of
these they feel should be top priorities, but it’s easy to see there is a
lot to tackle. How does a principal or superintendent manage busy
schedules to get all this done?

“It’s aspirational,” said Dan Domenech, the executive director of
AASA, the School Superintendents Association. “In an environment like
this, where there is so much going on at the same time, it’s true, there
is an awful lot to cover.”

Domenech imagines most districts will focus heavily on PD for remote
learning, because so many teachers have not received deep training on
it. Training on how to respond to students’ unfinished learning and
their emotional needs will likely be two of the other most common areas
of focus, he said.

As this report is published, many school districts are already
conducting a week or more of professional development on a range of
topics. But it’s a lot to take on. And whether teachers will feel
adequately prepared and supported to meet the coming year’s challenges
remains an open question.


Reporters: Catherine Gewertz, Sarah Schwartz

Designers/Visual artists: Laura Baker, Emma Patti Harris, Francis Sheehan, Vanessa Solis, Gina Tomko

Illustrator: Stephanie Shafer for Education Week

Photo editor: Jaclyn Borowski

Web producers: Mike Bock, Stacey Decker, Hyon-Young Kim

Visual project editor: Emma Patti Harris

Project editor: Liana Loewus

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