Answer ALL FOUR questions.
Each question is worth a total of 25 points. You should use your textbook and any other sources you wish (class discussion questions, video lectures/power points, journal articles, & personal experiences, etc.) to adequately answer the questions below, provided you work alone. YOU MUST CITE YOUR SOURCES in appropriate APA format. Make sure you clearly and thoroughly answer ALL PARTS of each question. Use complete sentences in your answers.
This exam is due on June 30th at 11:55pm. If you have any questions before then, please email me.
Save your exam in a Word document (.docx) and upload the file attachment on Moodle. Include a copy of the questions (including the point values), and, of course, your answers.
Please list separately and number each subquestion (1a, 1b, etc.) as you see below, and post each answer beneath, instead of one long essay per exam question.
1. Little Johnny is a very difficult 11-year old child. He constantly torments his little sister, he cannot sit still for very long, and he is frequently disobedient. He is very intelligent, but that often means that he finds very innovative ways of getting himself into trouble. Choose FIVE of the following personality perspectives and, in a few sentences for each, explain how each perspective could possibly explain Johnnyâ€™s personality (25 points).
a. The Trait Perspective.
b. The Motive Perspective.
c. The Inheritance and Evolutionary Perspective.
d. The Biological Process Perspective.
e. The Psychodynamic Perspective.
f. The Psychosocial Perspective.
g. The Learning Perspective.
h. The Self-Actualization and Self-Determination perspective.
i. The Cognitive Perspective.
j. The Self-Regulation Perspective.
2. In order to study personality, we must be able to assess personality using reliable and valid measurements.
a. Compare and contrast observer ratings and self-reports in personality assessment. Describe some of the advantages and disadvantages of each, and describe when you think it might be more appropriate to use one than the other. (7 points).
b. In one of your assignments, you were asked to identify a personality characteristic that you have that you believe is an important aspect of who you are.
i. Describe how you might use observer ratings to assess this personality characteristic. (4 points).
ii. Describe how you might use self-reports to assess this personality characteristic. (4 points).
c. Discuss the difference between reliability and validity and explain why they are so important to the scientific study of personality (4 points).
i. Describe how you could assess the reliability of observer ratings. (3 points).
ii. Describe how you could assess the reliability of self-reports. (3 points).
3. The Five Factor Theory.
a. Think about a person you have a close relationship with. Based on what you know about this person, describe how each of the â€œBig 5â€ personality traits is manifested in that personâ€™s personality and behavior, giving specific examples. In which of the â€œBig Fiveâ€ traits are you most similar with this person? In which of the â€œBig Fiveâ€ traits are you most different? (10 points).
b. Briefly explain what factor analysis is and how it relates to the development of the â€œBig 5â€ factors (5 points).
c. How does the nomothetic approach to personality differ from the idiographic approach? (4 points).
d. Which approach â€“ nomothetic or idiographic â€“ do you believe should be more important to the scientific study of personality? Explain why. (6 points).
4. The textbook describes two systems that involve approach and avoidance.
a. Define and describe the functions of the Behavioral Approach System (BAS) and the Behavioral Inhibition System (BIS) (4 points).
b. What biological factors are believed to be associated with each of these systems? (4 points)
c. Describe two specific situations in which you believe that YOU have been influenced by your BAS (6 points).
d. Describe two specific situations in which you believe that YOU have been influenced by your BIS. (6 points).
e. In your opinion, how would you describe the BAS and the BIS of a person who is high in sensation-seeking? Explain your answer. (5 points).