Contraception and




Chapter 9
Contraception and Reproduction

Learning Outcomes:

  • Describe the process of human conception


  • Identify factors to consider and discuss with your partner when choosing a contraceptive method


  • Identify conceptive methods and discuss the advantages and disadvantages of each

Chapter 9
Contraception and Reproduction

Learning Outcomes:

  • Evaluate contraceptive methods that would meet your personal criteria if, or when, you need them


  • Describe methods used to perform abortions


  • Discuss the physiological effects of pregnancy and describe fetal development


  • Describe the three stages of labor and the birth process

Conception or Contraception?

If one is engaging in intercourse, one must consider the consequences of such action and decisions that need to be made

  • Conception (fertilization) – Pregnancy


  • Birth Control:
  • Contraception – prevent conception

If so, which method


  • Other Means
  • Sterilization
  • Abortion





  • Merging of sperm and egg – fertilization
  • Sperm travel from vagina through uterus into fallopian tube where it fertilizes the ovum (egg)
  • Zygote: fertilized egg
  • Blastocyst – zygote divides into small cluster of cells as it travels down the fallopian tube
  • Implantation in the uterus – embryo

Birth Control

  • Any method used to prevent pregnancy
  • Factors to consider when choosing a birth control method
  • Effectiveness/Reliability in preventing pregnancy
  • Effectiveness/Reliability in preventing STIs
  • Suitability
  • Side Effects
  • Health Risks/Safety
  • Future fertility
  • Personal values

Comparing Effectiveness

Contraceptive Methods

  • Abstinence
  • 100% effective to prevent pregnancy


  • Nonpenetrative Activity
  • “outercourse”
  • Effective against pregnancy and STIs if no bodily fluid is exchanged


  • Withdrawal (Coitus interuptus)
  • Not very reliable to prevent pregnancy

Barrier Methods

Blocks the meeting of egg and sperm by means of a physical barrier and/or a chemical one

  • Proper usage is critical to it’s reliability and effectiveness against pregnancy
  • Effectiveness against STIs depends on type


Nonprescription barriers:

male condom, female condom, contraceptive sponge, spermicides and film


Prescription barriers:

diaphragm, cervical cap, Femcap



Hormonal Contraceptives

  • Proper Use is critical for reliability/effectiveness against pregnancy
  • Does not protect against STIs
  • Health Risks/Side effects associated with use


  • Oral contraceptives – “the pill”
  • Monophasic pill, progestin-only pill, extended use pill
  • The Patch (Ortho Evra); Vaginal Ring; Implants; Injectable, Intrauterine (IUD)
  • Emergency Contraception

Other Forms of Birth Control

  • Sterilization

Male: vasectomy

Female: tubal ligation, tubal occlusion


  • Abortion
  • Medical abortion – “abortion pill”
  • Surgical abortion
  • Psychological issues
  • Politics


    • Preconception, as well as prenatal care, are very important in both the health of the woman and baby
    • Complications of Pregnancy
    • Ectopic pregnancy
    • Miscarriage
    • Infections
    • Genetic Disorder
    • Premature Labor



  • Preparing for Childbirth
  • Labor & Delivery
  • 3 phases of labor
  • Effacement and dilation
  • Movement of baby into and through birth canal
  • “Afterbirth” – expulsion of placenta


    • Caesarean Birth