Question In substance abuse treatment, clients’ motivation to change has often been the focus of

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In substance abuse treatment, clients' motivation to change has often been the focus of clinical interest and frustration. Motivation has been described as a prerequisite for treatment, without which the clinician can do little (Beckman, 1980). Similarly, lack of motivation has been used to explain the failure of individuals to begin, continue, comply with, and succeed in treatment (Appelbaum, 1972; Miller, 1985b). Until recently, motivation was viewed as a static trait or disposition that a client either did or did not have. If a client was not motivated for change, this was viewed as the client's fault. In fact, motivation for treatment connoted an agreement or willingness to go along with a clinician's or program's particular prescription for recovery. A client who seemed amenable to clinical advice or accepted the label of “alcoholic” or “drug addict” was considered to be motivated, whereas one who resisted a diagnosis or refused to adhere to the proffered treatment was deemed unmotivated. Furthermore, motivation was often viewed as the client's responsibility, not the clinician's (Miller and Rollnick, 1991). Although there are reasons why this view developed that will be discussed later, this guideline views motivation from a substantially different perspective. A New Definition The motivational approaches described in this TIP are based on the following assumptions about the nature of motivation: Motivation is a key to change. Motivation is multidimensional. Motivation is dynamic and fluctuating. Motivation is influenced by social interactions. Motivation can be modified. Motivation is influenced by the clinician's style. The clinician's task is to elicit and enhance motivation. Motivation is a key to change The study of motivation is inexorably linked to an understanding of personal change–a concept that has also been scrutinized by modern psychologists and theorists and is the focus of substance abuse treatment. The nature of change and its causes, like motivation, is a complex construct with evolving definitions. Few of us, for example, take a completely deterministic view of change as an inevitable result of biological forces, yet most of us accept the reality that physical growth and maturation do produce change–the baby begins to walk and the adolescent seems to be driven by hormonal changes. We recognize, too, that social norms and roles can change responses, influencing behaviors as diverse as selecting clothes or joining a gang, although few of us want to think of ourselves as simply conforming to what others expect. Certainly, we believe that reasoning and problem-solving as well as emotional commitment can promote change. The framework for linking individual change to a new view of motivation stems from what has been termed a phenomenological theory of psychology, most familiarly expressed in the writings of Carl Rogers. In this humanistic view, an individual's experience of the core inner self is the most important element for personal change and growth–a process of self-actualization that prompts goal-directed behavior for enhancing this self (Davidson, 1994). In this context, motivation is redefined as purposeful, intentional, and positive–directed toward the best interests of the self. More specifically, motivation is the probability that a person will enter into, continue, and adhere to a specific change strategy (Miller and Rollnick, 1991). need this to be summerizes Write a one page paper (minimum 250 words, double-spaced), using 12-point Times New Roman font, with 1″ margins that includes the following: Summarize “A New Look at Motivation” and “Changes in the Addictions Field” from Chapter One of TIP 35 Explain how these two sections will help you in the field of Alcohol and Drug Counseling cited

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