# HLT 362 Applied Statistics for Health Care Professionals

**Week 1 Discussion**

DQ1 Discuss the historical application of statistics in the field of health care. Describe an example, other than Florence Nightingale’s contributions, where statistical application has greatly influenced or changed health care operations or practice.

DQ2 Discuss why it is important for a person working in health care to understand statistical concepts. Provide an example of how statistical data is used in your organization or specialty area today and what you are expected to do with this information as a practitioner.

**HLT 362 Applied Statistics for Health Care Professionals**

**Week 2 Discussion**

DQ1 Select a research article, other than the articles from your assignments, from the library. Provide an overview of the study and describe the strategy that was used to select the sample from the population. Evaluate the effectiveness of the sampling method selected. Provide support for your answer. Include the article title and permalink in your post.

DQ2 Using the research article selected for DQ 1, identify three key questions you will ask and answer when reading the research study and why these questions are important. When responding to peers, provide other questions and answers that could be considered in relation to the peers’ studies.

**HLT 362 Applied Statistics for Health Care Professionals**

**Week 3 Discussion**

DQ1 Provide two different examples of how research uses hypothesis testing, and describe the criteria for rejecting the null hypothesis. Discuss why this is important in your practice and with patient interactions.

DQ2 Evaluate and provide examples of how hypothesis testing and confidence intervals are used together in health care research. Provide a workplace example that illustrates your ideas.

**HLT 362 Applied Statistics for Health Care Professionals**

**Week 4 Discussion**

DQ1 Provide an example of experimental, quasi-experimental, and nonexperimental research from the Library and explain how each research type differs from the others. When replying to peers, evaluate the effectiveness of the research design of the study for two of the examples provided.

DQ2 Describe the difference between research and quality improvement. Provide a workplace example where qualitative and quantitative research is applied and how it was used within your organization. When replying to peers, discuss how these research findings might be incorporated into another health care setting.

**HLT 362 Applied Statistics for Health Care Professionals**

**Week 5 Discussion**

DQ1 Describe how epidemiological data influences changes in health practices. Provide an example and explain what data would be necessary to make a change in practice.

DQ2 Discuss ways your organization uses technology to gather patient and health care information, and how this information and data are used to direct patient care and outcomes.

**HLT 362 Applied Statistics for Health Care Professionals**

**Week 1 Assignment**

Application of Statistics in Health Care

Statistical application and the interpretation of data is important in health care. Review the statistical concepts covered in this topic. In a 750-1,000 word paper, discuss the significance of statistical application in health care. Include the following:

Describe the application of statistics in health care. Specifically discuss its significance to quality, safety, health promotion, and leadership.

Consider your organization or specialty area and how you utilize statistical knowledge. Discuss how you obtain statistical data, how statistical knowledge is used in day-to-day operations and how you apply it or use it in decision making.

Three peer-reviewed, scholarly or professional references are required.

Prepare this assignment according to the guidelines found in the APA Style Guide, located in the Student Success Center. An abstract is not required.

This assignment uses a rubric. Please review the rubric prior to beginning the assignment to become familiar with the expectations for successful completion.

You are required to submit this assignment to LopesWrite. Refer to the LopesWrite Technical Support articles for assistance.

**HLT 362 Applied Statistics for Health Care Professionals**

**Week 2 Assignment**

Article Analysis 1

The interpretation of research in health care is essential to decision making. By understanding research, health care providers can identify risk factors, trends, outcomes for treatment, health care costs and best practices. To be effective in evaluating and interpreting research, the reader must first understand how to interpret the findings. You will practice article analysis in Topics 2, 3, and 5.

For this assignment:

Search the Library and find three different health care articles that use quantitative research. Do not use articles that appear in the Topic Materials or textbook. Complete an article analysis for each using the “Article Analysis 1” template.

Refer to the “Patient Preference and Satisfaction in Hospital-at-Home and Usual Hospital Care for COPD Exacerbations: Results of a Randomised Controlled Trial,” in conjunction with the “Article Analysis Example 1,” for an example of an article analysis.

While APA style is not required for the body of this assignment, solid academic writing is expected, and documentation of sources should be presented using APA formatting guidelines, which can be found in the APA Style Guide, located in the Student Success Center.

This assignment uses a rubric. Please review the rubric prior to beginning the assignment to become familiar with the expectations for successful completion.

You are required to submit this assignment to LopesWrite. Refer to the LopesWrite Technical Support articles for assistance.

**HLT 362 Applied Statistics for Health Care Professionals**

**Week 3 Assignment**

Article Analysis 2

Search the Library and find two new health care articles that use quantitative research. Do not use articles from a previous assignment, or articles that appear in the Topic Materials or textbook.

Complete an article analysis for each using the “Article Analysis: Part 2” template.

Refer to the “Patient Preference and Satisfaction in Hospital-at-Home and Usual Hospital Care for COPD Exacerbations: Results of a Randomised Controlled Trial,” in conjunction with the “Article Analysis Example 2,” for an example of an article analysis.

While APA style is not required for the body of this assignment, solid academic writing is expected, and documentation of sources should be presented using APA formatting guidelines, which can be found in the APA Style Guide, located in the Student Success Center.

This assignment uses a rubric. Please review the rubric prior to beginning the assignment to become familiar with the expectations for successful completion.

You are required to submit this assignment to LopesWrite. Refer to the LopesWrite Technical Support articles for assistance.

**HLT 362 Applied Statistics for Health Care Professionals**

**Week 4 Assignment**

Quality Improvement Proposal

Identify a quality improvement opportunity in your organization or practice. In a 1,250-1,500 word paper, describe the problem or issue and propose a quality improvement initiative based on evidence-based practice. Apply “The Road to Evidence-Based Practice” process, illustrated in Chapter 4 of your textbook, to create your proposal.

Include the following:

Provide an overview of the problem and the setting in which the problem or issue occurs.

Explain why a quality improvement initiative is needed in this area and the expected outcome.

Discuss how the results of previous research demonstrate support for the quality improvement initiative and its projected outcomes. Include a minimum of three peer-reviewed sources published within the last 5 years, not included in the course materials or textbook, that establish evidence in support of the quality improvement proposed.

Discuss steps necessary to implement the quality improvement initiative. Provide evidence and rationale to support your answer.

Explain how the quality improvement initiative will be evaluated to determine whether there was improvement.

Support your explanation by identifying the variables, hypothesis test, and statistical test that you would need to prove that the quality improvement initiative succeeded.

While APA style is not required for the body of this assignment, solid academic writing is expected, and documentation of sources should be presented using APA formatting guidelines, which can be found in the APA Style Guide, located in the Student Success Center.

**HLT 362 Applied Statistics for Health Care Professionals**

**Week 5 Assignment**

Article Analysis and Evaluation of Research Ethics

Search the Library and find one new health care article that uses quantitative research. Do not use an article from a previous assignment, or that appears in the Topic Materials or textbook.

Complete an article analysis and ethics evaluation of the research using the “Article Analysis and Evaluation of Research Ethics” template. See Chapter 5 of your textbook as needed, for assistance.

**HLT 362 Applied Statistics for Health Care Professionals**

**Week 5 Assignment**

Summary and Descriptive Statistics

There is often the requirement to evaluate descriptive statistics for data within the organization or for health care information. Every year the National Cancer Institute collects and publishes data based on patient demographics. Understanding differences between the groups based upon the collected data often informs health care professionals towards research, treatment options, or patient education.

Using the data on the “National Cancer Institute Data” Excel spreadsheet, calculate the descriptive statistics indicated below for each of the Race/Ethnicity groups. Refer to your textbook and the Topic Materials, as needed, for assistance in with creating Excel formulas.

Provide the following descriptive statistics:

Measures of Central Tendency: Mean, Median, and Mode

Measures of Variation: Variance, Standard Deviation, and Range (a formula is not needed for Range).

Once the data is calculated, provide a 150-250 word analysis of the descriptive statistics on the spreadsheet. This should include differences and health outcomes between groups.

APA style is not required, but solid academic writing is expected.

You are not required to submit this assignment to LopesWrite.

**HLT 362 Applied Statistics for Health Care Professionals**

**Week 1 Quiz**

â€¢ When a researcher uses a random sample of 400 to make conclusions about a larger population, this is an example of:

â€¢Descriptive statistics

â€¢Demographics

â€¢Inferential statistics

â€¢Dependent variables

â€¢ If a study is comparing number of falls by age, age is considered what type of variable?

â€¢Interval

â€¢Ordinal

â€¢Ratio

â€¢Nominal

â€¢ Validity is:

â€¢A data item, such as characteristics, numbers, properties, or quantities, that can be measured or counted.

â€¢The extent to which an idea or measurement is well-founded and an accurate representation of the real world.

â€¢A measurement level with equal distances between the points and a zero-starting point.

â€¢Raw unorganized information from which conclusions can be made.

â€¢ Data is defined as:

â€¢A data item, such as characteristics, numbers, properties, or quantities, that can be measured or counted.

â€¢The extent to which an idea or measurement is well-founded and an accurate representation of the real world.

â€¢A measurement level with equal distances between the points and a zero-starting point.

â€¢Raw unorganized information from which conclusions can be made.

â€¢ The average of the collected data is known as:

â€¢Mean

â€¢Median

â€¢Variance

â€¢Range

â€¢ The experimental or predictor variable is an example of:

â€¢Extraneous variable

â€¢Dependent variable

â€¢Independent variable

â€¢Nominal data

â€¢ Level of measurement that defines the relationship between things and assigns an order or ranking to each thing is known as:

â€¢Interval

â€¢Ordinal

â€¢Ratio

â€¢Nominal

â€¢ A variable is considered:

â€¢A data item, such as characteristics, numbers, properties, or quantities, that can be measured or counted.

â€¢A component of mathematics that looks at gathered data.

â€¢Statistics designed to allow the researcher to infer characteristics regarding a population from sample population.

â€¢External and internal influences within a study that can affect the validity and reliability of the outcomes.

â€¢ External and internal influences within a study that can affect the validity and reliability of outcomes is called:

â€¢Continuous variables

â€¢Demographics

â€¢Bias

â€¢Standard deviation

â€¢ The subset of the population to be studied is called:

â€¢Sample

â€¢Variable

â€¢Population

â€¢Demographic

**HLT 362 Applied Statistics for Health Care Professionals**

**Week 3 Quiz**

â€¢ To obtain a sample of 20 patients in ICU, clinician goes to the ICU and selects the current patients. This is an example of a:

â€¢Judgement sampling

â€¢Simple random sampling

â€¢Snowball sampling

â€¢Convenience sampling

â€¢ A Type I error is committed when _____.

â€¢We reject a null hypothesis that is true.

â€¢We do not reject a null hypothesis that is true.

â€¢We reject a null hypothesis that is false.

â€¢We do not reject a null hypothesis that is false.

â€¢ Which of the following would be an appropriate null hypothesis?

â€¢The mean of a sample is equal to 65.

â€¢The mean of a population is greater than 65.

â€¢The mean of a population is equal to 65.

â€¢The mean of the sample is greater than 65.

â€¢ Quantitative research strives for quality and the ability to apply the analysis to a broader population. This is referred to as _____.

â€¢Validity

â€¢Normality

â€¢Generalization

â€¢Reliability

â€¢ Scenario Based Question: If you were conducting a study of blood pressure readings in a hospital unit, compared AM and PM readings, and assumed the data were normally distributed and variances were equal, what type of statistical test would be conducted?

â€¢Separate variance t-test

â€¢Paired t-test

â€¢Pooled variance t-test

â€¢F-test

â€¢ Which of the following can be reduced by proper interviewer training?

â€¢Neither sampling error nor measurement error

â€¢Sampling error

â€¢Both sampling error and measurement error

â€¢Measurement error

â€¢ A Type II error is committed when _____.

â€¢We reject a null hypothesis that is true.

â€¢We do not reject a null hypothesis that is false.

â€¢We do not reject a null hypothesis that is true.

â€¢We reject a null hypothesis that is false.

â€¢ If a researcher does not select the appropriate level of significance (alpha) based upon prior research or industry standard and concludes that the study found a statistical difference when in fact there was no difference, this is referred to as _____.

â€¢Validity

â€¢Reliability

â€¢Type I error

â€¢Type II error

â€¢ If you are conducting a study on the impacts of diet and exercise on high blood pressure and you take a proportional sample based upon race/ethnicity, this would be an example of _____.

â€¢Simple random sample

â€¢Cluster sampling

â€¢Stratified sampling

â€¢Convenience sampling

â€¢ In a research study, if the sample size is too low and the results do not find a statistical difference when in fact there is a difference, this is referred to as _____.

â€¢Validity

â€¢Reliability

â€¢Type I error

â€¢Type II error