# Discussion: Research Design and t Tests: How Are They Connected?

The best way to solidify your understanding of statistical testing is to actually engage in performing some data analysis. This week you will work with a real, secondary dataset to construct a research question, perform a t test, and interpret the results.

Whether in a scholarly or practitioner setting, good research and data analysis should have the benefit of peer feedback. For this Discussion, you will post your response to the hypothesis test, along with the results. Be sure and remember that the goal is to obtain constructive feedback to improve the research and its interpretation, so please view this as an opportunity to learn from one another.

To prepare for this Discussion:

• Review the Learning Resources and the media programs related to t tests.
• Using the SPSS software, open the High School Longitudinal Study dataset found in this week’s Learning Resources and construct a research question that involves a comparison of a means test.

#### By Day 3

Use SPSS to answer the research question you constructed and post your response to the following:

1. What is your research question?
2. What is the null hypothesis for your question?
3. What research design would align with this question?
4. What comparison of means test was used to answer the question (be sure to defend the use of the test using the article you found in your search)?
5. What dependent variable was used and how is it measured?
6. What independent variable is used and how is it measured?
7. If you found significance, what is the strength of the effect?
8. Identify your research question and explain your results for a lay audience, what is the answer to your research question?

Be sure to support your Main Post and Response Post with reference to the week’s Learning Resources and other scholarly evidence in APA Style.

#### By Day 5

Respond to one of your colleagues’ posts and:

1. Make recommendations for the design choice.
2. Explain whether you think that this is the appropriate t test to use for the question. Why or why not?
3. As a lay reader, were you able to understand the results and their implications? Why or why not?

# Assignment 1: Testing Hypotheses for Means

This week you have explored three different approaches to t tests. By this point, you know that each test has assumptions about the data and type of research questions it can answer. For this Assignment, you will be provided with three scenarios. As you read the scenarios, be sure and think about aligning the appropriate t test with the question. Consider whether the data are independent samples and if two samples are being compared.

To prepare for this Assignment:

• Review the Learning Resources and the media programs related to t tests.
• Also, review the t test scenarios found in this week’s Learning Resources and consider the three different approaches of t tests:
• Independent sample t test
• Paired sample t test
• One sample t test
• Based on each of the three research scenarios provided, open the High School Longitudinal Study dataset or the Afrobarometer dataset from this week’s Learning Resources using SPSS software, then choose and run the appropriate t test.
• Once you perform your t test analyses, review Chapter 11 of the Wagner text to understand how to copy and paste your output into your Word document.

For this Assignment:

Write a 2- to 3-paragraph analysis of your t test results for each research scenario and include the SPSS syntax and output. Based on your results, provide an explanation of what the implications of social change might be.

Use proper APA format, citations, and referencing for your analysis, research questions, and output.

#### By Day 7

Submit Assignment 1: Testing Hypothesis for a Mean.

#### Submission and Grading Information

To submit your completed Assignment for review and grading, do the following:

• Please save your Assignment using the naming convention “WK6Assgn1+last name+first initial.(extension)” as the name.
• Click the Week 6 Assignment 1 Rubric to review the Grading Criteria for the Assignment.
• Click the Week 6 Assignment 1 link. You will also be able to “View Rubric” for grading criteria from this area.
• Next, from the Attach File area, click on the Browse My Computer button. Find the document you saved as “WK6Assgn1+last name+first initial.(extension)” and click Open.
• If applicable: From the Plagiarism Tools area, click the checkbox for I agree to submit my paper(s) to the Global Reference Database.
• Click on the Submit button to complete your submission.

# Assignment 2: t Tests in Practice

The practice of quantitative research not only involves statistical calculations and formulas but also involves the understanding of statistical techniques related to real world applications. You might not become a quantitative researcher nor use statistical methods in your profession, but as a consumer, citizen, and scholar-practitioner, it will be important for you to become a critical consumer of research, which will empower you to read, interpret, and evaluate the strength of claims made in scholarly material and daily news.

For this Assignment, you will critically evaluate a scholarly article related to t tests.

To prepare for this Assignment:

• Search for and select a quantitative article specific to your discipline and related to t tests. Help with this task may be found in the Course guide and assignment help linked in this week’s Learning Resources.

For this Assignment:

Write a 2- to 3-page critique of the article. In your critique, include responses to the following:

• Why did the authors use this t test?
• Do you think it’s the most appropriate choice? Why or why not?
• Did the authors display the data?
• Do the results stand alone? Why or why not?

#### By Day 7

Submit Assignment 2: t tests in Practice.

#### Submission and Grading Information

To submit your completed Assignment for review and grading, do the following:

• Please save your Assignment using the naming convention “WK6Assgn2+last name+first initial.(extension)” as the name.
• Click the Week 6 Assignment 2 Rubric to review the Grading Criteria for the Assignment.
• Click the Week 6 Assignment 2 link. You will also be able to “View Rubric” for grading criteria from this area.
• Next, from the Attach File area, click on the Browse My Computer button. Find the document you saved as “WK6Assgn2+last name+first initial.(extension)” and click Open.
• If applicable: From the Plagiarism Tools area, click the checkbox for I agree to submit my paper(s) to the Global Reference Database.
• Click on the Submit button to complete your submission.