how widespread is the practice of female circumcision

how widespread is the practice of female circumcision?

The text notes that definitions of child maltreatment vary with cultural norms.in some instances ,these norms encourage age physical rites of passage that,to other cultures,are simply sickening ,to proponents,however ,these rites remain scared rituals that strengthen childrens character.one of the most vivid examples of  article of passage that has received considerable attention media is “female circumcision”, or genital mutilation.you can access the article on which the following case is based through the New York  Times website (www.nytimes .com)

ONLY USE THIS RESOURCE : Dugger, c.w. (1996 December 28) Tug of taboos: African rite vs U.S law

1. how widespread is the practice of female circumcision? why is it practiced ? is it a form of child maltreatment? should the answer to this question depend on whether the rite is performed by members of a certain cultural or ethnic group?

2.How might primary,secondary,and tertiary prevention be used to combat the practice of female genital cutting ?

MUST BE APA STYLE FORMAT

DONT USE ANY OTHER RESOURCE JUST THE ONE I HAVE .