human sexuality

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answers discussion questions and reply to classmates post. Add additional insight to their post.

Discussion 1 (400 words)

Analyze research statistics available on the following websites, comparing adolescent pregnancy rates in the United States to other countries.  What differences do you see? What might explain these differences? What changes do you see over time? What could be done to improve the statistics?

reply 1 tonya (60 words)

Once difference I saw was that in the US births among teens 15-19 have gone down while older women from 30-40 have gone up.  I think this has to do with the fact that more women are getting an education and getting good jobs so they are starting families later in life to enjoy being single and able to go out and have fun and enjoy their youth more. The teens are getting easier access to birth control and condoms and so they are better able to practice safe sex and not get pregnant.  Those that do are able to get an abortion if they want since it’s no longer illegal to do so long as it’s done before a certain gestational time frame (Zimel, 2020).  In other countries the numbers are different based on their cultures. In many countries the birth rates are associated with the poor social and economic conditions of the mother.  The less education and money they have for resources like birth control and abortion or even schooling that teaches them about how not to get pregnant the more likely they are to become pregnant (Guttmacher, 2015).  Countries like Pakistan or Ethiopia have earlier marriage ages like 15, so they will obviously become pregnant sooner than say a teen in the US.  I think the change in the US numbers vs other countries has to do with accessibility to birth control measures.  Even a rich kid can get pregnant and that has to do with knowledge.  The text said that parents who speak openly about sex and answer questions honestly will more likely help their child from getting pregnant. They will give them the knowledge they need rather than finding it online or from their friends where it’s often unreliable or just wrong information (Crooks, 2020). I think as these other countries begin getting better access to birth control and allowing abortion, they numbers will drop there also. 

reply 2 destiny (60 words)

(Guttmacher Institute, 2016) As we reviewed in previous chapters, contraceptives use among adolescents is increasing. Rates of adolescent childbearing have dropped significantly in many countries over the past few decades. Although many strong economic countries have seen a decrease, many lower class countries still remain the same. There is a correlation between teen pregnancy with poor social and economic conditions, compromising education and economic opportunities in women. According to recent studies Romania has the highest rate of pregnancy.. Despite major declines in recent decades the U.S. teen pregnancy rate is still the highest in the developed world. Although England isn’t the highest in pregnancies’, it is the highest in abortion rates. Across all countries there is little difference in the level of sexual activity among adolescents, but there is substantial variation in contraceptives. Allowing more resources to contraceptives has been linked to higher levels of contraceptive use. (WHO, 2020)  Although many resources are now available some girls are under pressure to marry and bear children early. In less developed countries, 39% of girls marry before the age of 18 and 12% before 15. Many of these countries women choose to become pregnant because of limited education and employment. Adolescents who want to avoid pregnancy may not be able to due to lack of knowledge and understanding of contraceptives and the availability to them. Not providing the needed knowledge can lead to pregnancy and many other health and economic  consequences like death and rejection. It is our duty as older adults to educate and provide knowledge to adolescents to prevent teen pregnancies. Allowing education in and out of school systems and availability to contraceptives can help decrease the number of adolescent pregnancies. 

Discussion 2 (400 words) textbook provided

In Chapter 13 we look at sexuality and how it evolves in the adult years and as people age. What are some of the changes adults experience in later life? As you explore relevant research and information on the Internet, how do patterns of sexual expression or activity change as men and women age? What can individuals do to maintain and maximize their sexual expression/activity as they grow older? How has looking at this topic influenced your own thoughts and feelings about the future?

Reply 1 Creighton ( 60 words)

Through life adults go through many changes some mental and others physical. According to the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (2017) women have a series of physical changes to their vagina that can occur with age. The walls of her vagina can thin and become stiff, and her vagina can become narrow and shorten. There is also the understanding that most women’s ability to self-lubricated lessens as they get older. For males, physical symptoms of age include erect dysfunction which can be the inability to become erect as well as not maintaining a known level of stiffness during erection, or not becoming fully erect (U.S. DHHS, 2017). In a study conducted by Karl et al. (2011) it was found that sexual activity showed a decrease in comparison to increase in age. Along with these findings it was also concluded that as women increased in age their interest and participation in sexual intercourse decreased, but higher levels of sexual activity as well as quality of sex was directly correlated to physical activity. Given these findings it can be assumed that living a more active lifestyle in youthful years into elderly years may benefit the quality of sex you have in those late years. I have always said I did not want to be one of “those” people that get old and get boring. As I have aged, I have a somewhat different opinion on what boring means, in which now I saw that I do not want to grow old and become incapable of doing for myself. I have seen family members grow with age and as they have lived sedentary lifestyles most of their lives those late years truly show it. On the other hand, my parents are both in their fifties, dad is 53 and mother is 58, and both look much younger. They stay active walking every day, bike riding often, and both work full-time jobs where they are always moving around. This level activity has benefited them thus far and is something I model my own life after.

Reply 2 (60 words) Cassandra

Through the textbook I have read that, adults may experience quite a few changes. These changes could include a change in sexual expression from person to person, the effects of good physical health on the ability of individuals to maintain functioning and satisfying relationships, and the difference in coping with aging for different sexualities and genders. Through research online studying the connection between Sex, Gender, Genetics, and Health, “Overall, sex and gender differences in health and longevity are pervasive and persistent. Lower survival rates and life expectancy for males than for females have been found across time, place, and even species” (Short, Yang, Jenkins, 2013). 

As men and women age, it has been researched that despite popular misconception, for many older adults, sexuality is part of what makes their lives full and rich. It has even been found that sexuality can improve for some older adults (Dunn & Cutler, 2000). The factors of extra down time, good health, and financial security, prove to remove a great amount of stress for the couple and thus allowing them more time to become closer and more intimate. A correlation has been found between lifelong consistent sexual activity.

In a 2005 study DeLamater & Still, Lifelong consistent sexual activity may reflect an overall higher sex drive and positive attitudes towards sexuality since both are significant influences on sexual desire and response. Above all else, openness to explore different pleasure methods and activities with a supportive and trustworthy partner is very effective in maximizing sexual expression and activity as individuals grow older. This topic has reaffirmed my belief that it’s important to have a solid foundation and relationship that consists of mutual respect and consideration with whomever you decide to be intimate with especially if you are committing to them long-term. The textbook reading, research, and experience in my own life as well as my friends are all very consistent in this belief. The relationship you have with your partner no matter what age or gender is what the two of you make it to be, and any type of satisfaction you want from that relationship usually begins with communication and trust.

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