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Please answer the questions and number them- 6 questions And READ PART 1 And 2 give feedbacks on them do you agree and disagree? Please be brief on this response. Find a current article that relates to this topic and describe how it relates…..attached article link FOLLOW INSTRUCTIONS MAX word count: 400-word count Marketing and communication respond to the questions related to case 10.1 and 10.2 CASE 10.1 Rebranding 4-H In the late 19th century, more than half of all Americans lived on farms. New farming techniques, based on science, were being developed through university research, but older generations of farmers were slow to adopt them (Joslyn, 2017). Some thought that the only way to achieve implementation of new methods might be to educate young people, who would eventually take over their family farms. In 1902, A. B. Graham started an after-school program for farm kids in Ohio (4-H, n.d.-a). The Cooperative Extension System was established within the U.S. Department of Agriculture in 1914, and Graham’s clubs eventually became nationalized as the nonprofit organization known as 4-H, meaning “head, heart, hands, and health” (Stein, 2016). The goals were to advance new farming technology by educating young people and to provide opportunities for growth for rural kids. By 2016, 4-H had become the largest youth development organization in the United States, serving six million young people through a network of 110 public universities and 3,000 local agricultural extension offices across the country (National 4-H Council, 2016). Although less well-known as an organization by many Americans, 4-H was engaging more young people than the Boy Scouts and Girl Scouts combined (Joslyn, 2017). By 2016, the world had changed since the founding of 4-H, and the organization needed to adapt in order to continue its impact and growth. More than 80 percent of Americans were living in urban areas (Joslyn, 2017). Less than one half of American kids ages 8 to 18 were engaged in any youth-development organization at all (Joslyn, 2017). More than one half of 4-H members were white, at a time when African American and Hispanic communities were growing, especially in urban areas (Shapiro, 2016). Even in some rural areas, many young people were of Latino/Hispanic backgrounds, and most were not involved in 4-H (Joslyn, 2017). Many of 4-H’s 25 million alumni said they had lost their connection to the organization (Stein, 2016). The organization’s programs had evolved with the changing times, but its brand had not kept pace. Originally established to advance scientific techniques in agriculture, by the 2000s, 4-H programs were emphasizing tech science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM), including a popular robotics curriculum (Joslyn, 2017). But its plan to increase participation to 10 million young people by 2025 was hampered by perceptions; it was still seen by many people as being all about “cows and plows” (Stein, 2016). Changing the brand would require reemphasizing the mission of youth empowerment and the relevance of 4-H programs to developing skills for addressing diverse issues in today’s society, not just agriculture (Wood, 2016). It would also require moving beyond agricultural regions and into cities as well as attracting a more diverse membership. “We want to ensure that our program has a welcome mat in every community,” 4-H’s national CEO explained. “We know if we don’t get them ready for leadership, we may have a huge leadership void affecting every industry and sector in the future” (Shapiro, 2016). Working with an advertising agency that provided pro bono services, the national 4-H office launched a rebranding campaign, focusing on three program areas: STEM, healthy living, and civic engagement (Stein, 2016). A plan was developed for advertising to promote the new themes on TV, radio, and the Internet (Stein, 2016). The messages were developed in consultation with young people and 4-H alumni. Advertising was targeted on Generation X and millennial mothers who were former 4-H members and who had children in the 6 to 18 age range (Stein, 2016). Alumni were another target. Most had grown up in rural areas but now lived in urban communities. The marketing would try to remind them of 4-H’s roots while also informing them about its contemporary focus (Tadena, 2016). A First-Generation 4-H Families Initiative was launched in Midwestern states to engage Hispanic kids (Joslyn, 2017). A survey of young people had revealed a desire to develop leadership skills and confidence. In response, 4-H launched its “Grow True Leaders” campaign, with a rally in Washington, DC, that featured prominent alumni (National 4-H Council, 2016). New online resources were developed to engage kids in hands-on learning and enable them to share experiences (4-H, n.d.-b). Writing about the 4-H brand makeover, Heather Joslyn (2017) identifies five lessons that she offers as points of advice: Be willing to rethink everything about how you operate. Double down on popular programs. Tell your story. And give the participants the tools to tell their stories. Invite alumni to stay involved. Listen to your staff, your affiliates, and the people you serve. Andrew Bosworth, a 4-H alumnus who went on to become an executive at Facebook, also offers advice on building a brand in the era of social media. It is just no longer possible for an organization to control its brand as it might have done in the past. Today, Bosworth says, “you really have to empower your community to own your brand, to be its ambassadors. And that means giving up some control you used to assert” (Joslyn, 2017). Questions Related to Case 10.1 Which principles from this chapter are illustrated by the case of 4-H? Think back on (or read again) the discussion of strategic planning in Chapter 7. What strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats do you think 4-H might have identified, leading to the changes discussed in this case? Can you think of other nonprofit organizations with brands that may not accurately reflect their programs today, perhaps some with which you have been involved or that have become familiar to you as a result of hearing and reading about them? In broad terms, how do you think their messages might be revised in order to change perceptions? Can new messages solve their problems or will that also require new programs? In 2012, the Susan G. Komen Foundation, one of the nation’s leading breast cancer research organizations, announced that it was discontinuing funding to Planned Parenthood, one of the nation’s largest providers and advocates in the field of reproductive health care. Komen had provided funds to Planned Parenthood to support breast cancer screenings. The announcement that it would no longer fund Planned Parenthood created a national controversy that eventually led Komen to reverse its decision. The reaction, much of it expressed on social media, reflected the nation’s divided views regarding abortion, but it also provided a case study of nonprofit communication strategies and the power of social media. Planned Parenthood responded quickly to Komen’s announcement, immediately posting information on its Facebook page and on Twitter, attracting more than 1,000 comments in the first 24 hours. In contrast, Komen waited two days to mention the controversy on its Facebook page and then offered a less-than-detailed explanation: “Grant-making decisions are not about politics—our priority is and always will be the women we serve” (Panepento, 2012). By that time, Planned Parenthood’s posting had received more than 2,000 comments, and the extensive online discussion had captured the attention of traditional news media. The story came to dominate national news, with Planned Parenthood largely framing the dialogue. In subsequent days, Komen’s founder and CEO, Nancy Brinker, responded in more detail. But she offered inconsistent explanations for the termination of funding to Planned Parenthood. At first, she stated that Komen’s policy prohibited funding for organizations that were under investigation. Some noted that while a congressional committee was investigating the question of whether Planned Parenthood had used federal funds to provide abortions, there was no criminal investigation of the organization underway. Brinker then explained that Planned Parenthood did not conduct breast cancer screenings directly but rather referred women to other providers, offering that as a reason for defunding by Komen (Condon, 2012). In another interview, Brinker suggested that the reasons for ending support were related to Komen’s “new standards of criteria for how we can measure our results and effectiveness in communities,” but she did not explain how Planned Parenthood had failed to meet those standards (NBC News, 2012). Within three days of its announcement that it would cease funding Planned Parenthood, Komen reversed its position and offered an apology. Komen’s board chair and other officials resigned. Contributions to Komen declined by 22 percent in the year following the controversy, while gifts to Planned Parenthood increased (“Komen Gifts Plunged,” 2014). In 2014, Komen’s CEO, Judith Salerno, said that the organization had “moved past” the controversy (“Komen Has ‘Moved Past,’” 2014). Contributions continued to decline, to $201 million in 2015, but then increased to $211 million in 2016, suggesting that perhaps Komen was indeed rebounding (Leslie, 2017). Meanwhile, a new phrase to describe the potential impact of social media criticism on a nonprofit had entered the vocabulary: “getting Komened” (Peregrine, 2012). Although differing political and social views were one explanation of the controversy, some authors who analyzed the events objectively viewed it as a case study in crisis management and communications, drawing lessons for nonprofit organizations generally. Some cited Komen’s delayed and inconsistent responses as critical mistakes. As one author wrote, “YouTube, Facebook, and mass e-mail contributed mightily to the uproar by quickly informing and galvanizing hundreds of thousands of concerned individuals. Cyberspace proved to be a tenuous place, even for the dedicated. The need for charities to be media savvy was never more evident, never more on display” (Grunfeld & Lash, 2012). Questions Related to Case 10.2 1. Is the case of Planned Parenthood and the Susan G. Komen Foundation primarily related to the concepts of marketing, communications, or public relations? Explain. 2. How does Coombs’s situational crisis communication theory (SCCT) apply to the case of Planned Parenthood and the Susan G. Komen Foundation? 3. Leaving aside your personal views on the issues that were involved, how do you think the controversy between the Susan G. Komen Foundation and Planned Parenthood may have affected the brand of each organization? PART 1 1. Describe and discuss the four P’s of marketing The four P’s of marketing are product, place, price, and promotion. The product is the good or service that is offered. For a nonprofit, the product is typically whatever programs they may operate to expand their mission. The place is where the product will be made available. It is important that a product is in a place that is easily accessible for the intended clients or consumer. Price is the cost for a client to purchase the product. For nonprofit organizations, price can decided in many different ways. Some nonprofits choose to either not charge for their products or charge less than their product is worth due to their mission. Promotion is how the organization spreads the word about its product. This can include several methods of communication such as advertisements, social media posts, announcements, and others (Worth, p 284-287). 2. Marketing Segmentation is an essential concept of marketing. This involves gathering and understanding demographics and psychographics. In general describe how would a NPO identify the market segment for the commercial marketing of services or programs? There are several factors that help an NPO identify their target market. Demographic variables are a big part of identifying the market that an NPO wishes to promote its product to. These demographic variables could be many things such as age, race, gender, income, and several other characteristics. They also may use psychographics which combine data on demographics with data on lifestyles. Using this data can help identify different populations and how to most effectively reach the target population based on common activities or finding where a higher percentage of that population live (Worth, 286). 3. What are four methods used to establish a price for a product or service offered by a NPO? The four methods for establishing a price for a product offered by a nonprofit are cost-oriented pricing, competitive pricing, value-based pricing, and pricing based on the organizations mission. Cost-oriented pricing is when the product is priced based on the cost to make it which includes direct cost of the good or service and any overhead costs so that the organization breaks-even. Competitive pricing is when the price is lowered to compete with a similar product or when the product is improved to offer a better product at the same price as the competition. Value-based pricing is when the price is determined by perceived value of a product. The final way an NPO could determine price would be based on its mission as some NPO’s may have missions that state they either will not charge for their product or they will charge significantly lower than the value of the product (Worth, pg.287-288). 4. Why is cost-oriented pricing popular with NPO’s? Cost-oriented pricing is popular with NPO’s because it is an easy way to determine the price for an organization who is not seeking to profit. Cost-oriented also allows the organization to make up for the resources used to produce the product so they can continue making the product or providing the service (Worth, pg.287). 5. Describe Integrated Marketing Communication (IMC) and why is the need for IMC greater for NPO’s then in other organizations? Integrated marketing communication (IMC) is when all messages sent by an organization reflect the same values in all aspects of the organization. This means that if the organization wants to be thought of as “caring” or “respectful”, they need to ensure that their staff and their branding maintain that image. IMC is important for nonprofits because word of mouth communication is very common within these organizations. Since most nonprofits rely on volunteers to help, there is a lot of interaction between the organizations employees and members of the public. If the organization portrayed itself as one thing but did not follow those values when dealing with its volunteers or clients, it may create a negative image for the organization overall (Worth, pg.292-294. 6. What are the three elements of effective communication as described in our text and provide an example and explanation of each? The three elements of effective communication are clarity, brevity, and consistency. Clarity is important so that the message isn’t confusing to the audience. If a message isn’t clear about how something is going to be done or why things are being done a certain way, it could lead to the message being misunderstood. Brevity is important to keep the message concise and using exact wording. The message should not be too long and should say the exact goal. Consistency is the final element of effective communication and is important for keeping order between messages (Worth, 295). 7. Provide good examples of crisis communication. Why is this so important to any organization but especially for a NPO? Crisis communication is an organizations communications response to a crisis. A good example of crisis communication is The Nature Conservancy’s response to the BP oil spill in 2010. Unlike BP, the conservancy was willing to explain its relationship with the oil company and was willing to answer questions and criticisms. Crisis communication is important for NPOs because keeping information accurate during a crisis is important for the reputation of an organization and if the situation is not handled well, the organization could lose donors and volunteers from bad publicity (Worth, pg.295-296) Current event https://www.bizjournals.com/charlotte/news/2022/10/28/charlotte-partners-help-nonprofit-reach-more.htmlLinks to an external site. This article is about how a nonprofit in Charlotte, South Carolina has partnered with other local organizations to help expand its reach. The organization’s mission is to help students who are bellow the poverty line get academic support. This partnership helps improve the nonprofits ability to fulfill its mission and improves training and technology for the organization. Reference Worth, M. J. (2020). Nonprofit Management (6th Edition). SAGE Publications, Inc. (US). https://bookshelf.vitalsource.com/books/9781544380001 PART 2 The four P’s of marketing are product, place, promotion, and price. Product is related to the goods or services being offered such as education, health care, or food. Place is the location in which the product or service is available. This can be a college, hospital, or food shelter. Promotion is like marketing such as brochures, advertisements, and announcements. And price is what we pay to obtain that we want (Worth pg 285-287). Nonprofit organizations separate their target audience by certain factors. Those factors can be age, location, occupation, gender, race, and more. Once they are able to narrow down groups to target, they implement their marketing to those defined target markets (Worth pg 286) The approaches to establish the price for a good or service can be cost-oriented, competitive, value-based, and demand-based (Worth pg 288). Cost-oriented pricing is more common with nonprofit organizations because it is closer to the breakeven point in terms of income vs expenses. With the cost-oriented pricing, the NPO is more likely not to “earn income” as it would net to zero. Integrated marketing communication is the organization making sure both its marketing efforts and communication efforts are representing the same thing and the organization as a whole. It is important for nonprofit organizations to use IMC so that their message and mission are not misconstrued to the public. Worth describes an example of if an organization wants to give off the message or image of being “caring” that its logo might include fuzzy animals. But along with that, the staff and volunteers of the organization must also act and communicate in a way that the public sees the organization as caring. It should not be a one-sided image (Worth pg 292). According to our text, there are four essential elements of effective communication. Those are “CRAM”: establishing a connection, promise a reward, inspire action, and stick in memory. Establishing a connection would be to find something in common like reaching out to pet owners about animals in need. Promising a reward could be material such as a tshirt or emotional rewards for helping. Inspiring action would be to show the work that is being done and what can be done. And stick in memory would be to leave the target audience thinking about your organization even after it is not in front of them. For example the ASPCA always had the commercials with the sad animals in cages. All four elements were covered in one 30 second commercial. (Worth pg 294) Crisis communication is important for all organizations but especially nonprofits because it could make or break the organization. For example, worth describes the BP oil spill. When the oil spill happened, the management provided very little information to the public. It was described as a textbook example of how not to do crisis management. (Worth pg 295). Worth, M. J. (2021). Nonprofit management: Principles and practice (6th ed.). Sage.
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