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Not only do managers oversee functional processes in company, they also have to manage people. Human Resources (HR) is the primary way that companies manage people and HR assists managers with areas such as hiring, training, employment law, performance management, employee benefits, and compensation. They also use organizational behavior principles to build positive employees relations. Reflect back on what you have learned in your program on HR and organizational behavior. Please review the following article on HR:

Then as a refresher, research both topics and answer the following questions:

  • You are a manager working with a recruiter to hire a new employee, what steps should you take to hire them?
  • Your new employee just started, how would you explain each area of HR to them?
  • What principles of organizational behavior could help you build your team?
  • What leadership theories and skills would you use to successful lead your team?

Click to access the Assignment Template.

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The impact of Leadershift on cultural agility policy: The search for
effective ways of mindfulness

Zeinab Shawky Younis
Dina Assem Abelmounem Mohamed

The British University in Egypt
Business Department, El Sherouk City, Egypt

Cultural Agility, Leadershift, Mindfulness, Organizational Behavior, Organizational Psychology,
and Resilience in Leadership.

To achieve an agile business culture, leaders must match styles with situations (leadershift). Such a goal can
be acquired by utilizing special abilities and skills, such as Mindfulness. We tested such a framework of
research to identify the role of Mindfulness as a personality trait that any leader should effectively utilize to
achieve an agile organizational culture successfully. The variance model was applied by a cross-sectional
survey on a sample from the Egyptian Post Authority to evaluate their success using the proposed tools in
their latest era of significant changes. Findings reveal that Mindfulness is a compelling personality trait that
facilitates leadershift, identified as shifting leadership styles with high flexibility to fit the situation. Such a
trait helped the management of the Egyptian Post Office to achieve a thriving agile culture as a state-owned
enterprise. Moreover, further implications were highlighted for practitioners and academic researchers to
investigate the relationship profoundly.

Corresponding author: Zeinab Shawky Younis
Email addresses for the corresponding author: [email protected]
The first submission received: 5th July 2022
Revised submission received: 9th September 2022
Accepted: 17th October 2022


In a volatile business environment, leadershift is about coping with change in crucibles of
international competition and deregulations of markets on both private entities and state-owned
enterprises (Kotter, 2011). Cultural agility, in this sense, is crucial for businesses to compete in a
complicated globalized world and is defined as the capacity to incorporate change in multiple scenarios
and contexts (Caligiuri & Tarique, 2016). To successfully transform cultures towards agility, leaders need
to use their abilities and skills in shifting between different styles to ensure maximum success. One
hidden ability is Mindfulness which leaders can utilize to change the game’s rules and enhance their
flexibility of awareness in shifting between leadership styles (Smith, 2022). New updated forms of leaders’
styles are the core force in redefining business models and even the meaning of business in public and
private institutions. Employees’ commitment to the transformation in leadership styles resulting from
Mindfulness as a tool that creates social, collaborative, and virtual networking. Such new perspectives are
clustered as mass participation, leading to new leadership models.

This study aims to emphasize the critical study of leadershift in styles of leading and its impact on
cultural agility by exploring the essence of mindfulness as a tool in this direction. This study has both
academic and practical contributions to literature. Academically, the study will introduce selected
theoretical concepts and relevant research that serves as an academic and practical application to state-
owned enterprises. Practically, it will serve to develop a typology for leadershift components using
mindfulness as a moderator towards completing a smooth transition for change, paving the way to
cultural agility achievement. Mindfulness will be explored practically as a guru behind problem-solving
and decision-making when challenges pertain to the performance in any organization. Cultural agility is a
crowning result of such efforts to smooth transition paths for organization members. The current research
will test such typology in The Egyptian Post Authority, setting a context for the research. Therefore, the

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research aims to investigate the impact of leadershift on cultural agility policy, entailing the use of
mindfulness to achieve the new normal phase for change. Two broad trends across the public sector have
been previously observed by Boyne (2002): On the one hand, many organizations regard measures of
engagement as the most significant measure of employee attitudes or experience reflected in the style of
leading. While many organizations in the public sector include measures of engagement in annual
surveys as a more general term to describe workplace approaches to improvement. In both cases,
engagement initiatives are often linked to training and mentoring, having mindfulness as a tool for
incorporating leadershift styles towards a more transformational culture. Leadershift style initiatives
depend on senior management style, corporate strategy, and followership related to the levels of trust and
credibility found in the leading style and encouraging more cultural agile transformation.

On the other hand, task structure, discussed in the Fiedler model, encompasses the work
environment and motivation levels of an engaging leadership style. Managers in this context come
together to discuss employee engagement and share ideas for improvement (Boyne, 2002). Thus, the
researchers will divide the main aim into the following research objectives:

1. Determine the association between leadershift and cultural agility.
2. Test the moderating role of Mindfulness on the relationship between leadershift and cultural

3. Develop a guideline for state-owned enterprises on how their managers or leaders can use

Mindfulness to enhance their leadership style-shifting and lead a thriving agile culture.

Literature review
The current research advocates a paradigm shift towards more application of the pillars of leadershift

towards creating more culturally agile state-owned enterprises able to capitalize on the strengths, values,
and norms needed in times of crisis.

Global business enterprises are winning the future through their global leaders with the ability to
match their leading style to the situation. In the light of the agile transformation worldwide in the
concepts of leadership and the new Public Management strategic policies, this growth and shift in styles
need mindfulness as a tool to deliver more culturally agile business units able to adapt and integrate into
the new systems of global change and face adversities and crises. The importance of the research stems
from the increasing number of employees working in the public sector in Egypt by “0.9%”. Such an
increase resulted from the government initiatives of several projects to decrease the unemployment rate to
“7.4%” in 2021, which led to having “30” Million employees in 2018 (Daily News Egypt, 2022). According
to Kiprop (2012), public organizations need oxygen tanks of leadershift in styles toward more cultural
agility to enhance high levels of productivity, motivation, creativity, and innovation. The path is not
relevant anymore, where employees perform tasks systematically with no supportive and adaptive
leading styles (Kiprop, 2012). The current literature will be structured as cultural agility, Leadershift, and
mindfulness to highlight previous studies that will help ground theories used to generate assumptions
and develop hypotheses.

Cultural agility

Literature defines Cultural Agility as the knowledge, attitudes, and skills needed to effectively lead in
a diversified community (Traylor & Caligiuri, 2019). Whether state-owned enterprises or private
institutions, restructuring companies entails a change curve in both leadership positions and leadership
styles. Adapting to a new shift in style requires a change in norms and a new mind-set.

Through the tool of Mindfulness, the leaders strive to learn to minimize differences and override
diversity barriers to survive. The human resources department must embrace diversity and introduce
change under the ceiling of the leadershift styles. They are enhancing more strategies of cultural agility by
working on talent management and convincing the workforce of the necessity of change. A laissez-faire
style with high trust and credibility can be a weapon for imitating global perspectives of change rather
than day-to-day administrative tasks to foster employees’ results and increase performance. If leaders can
trade cultural agility as a commodity, it would be the name of the game for the highest purchased and the

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most expensive (Ibraiz & Caliguiri, 2016). Moreover, cultural agility has three dimensions that will be the
focus of the current research:

Cultural Integration: Such change requires the collaboration of all employees and top management to
create a new approach to leading where top management must introduce change in the procedures and
the relative behaviors, which will help in fostering rules for task-related interaction, engagement, and
participation, where every individual will feel that he or she is a part of this change. The essence here is to
compromise in negotiating the change, not ruling it, integrating decisions into the changing environment
(Ibraiz & Caliguiri, 2016).

Cultural Adaptation: The employees adapt to new norms and differences in diversity programs
related to their work. These need to motivate and persuade subordinates of different cultures to accept
and train different skill levels of their employees working on their competencies with a person-job fit.
Cooperation is the essence of agility to adjust to people in different cultures (Ibraiz & Caliguiri, 2016).

Cultural Minimisation: Where the leader must act on leveraging differences for the benefit of change
and control different skills and capacity backgrounds of employees into a melting pot, leaders can achieve
this by listing the set of values expected from employees, codes of conduct, and minimizing autocratic
style as only a ceiling of order. New norms overrule the expectations of others, and the employee here is
needed to embrace his behavioral responses to change to face new cultural agility (Ibraiz & Caliguiri,

The effective use of these three dimensions above leads to cultural flexibility, according to Courtney
(2016), where you avoid resistance to change. Advantages of cultural agility include widening the base for
participation and engagement, having no more blind stagnation, and limiting stalling or postponing
innovation to avoid risks where the team is on the wheel of creative assignments.

Additionally, it limits blind agreement in an autocratic style for advocating unilateral ideas and
eliminates a lack of trust where transparency prevails in the new setting. Leadershift interferes here to
provide fairness and equity benefits to promote the credibility of change, recognize team members,
remove toxic employees, and engage the workforce in practice decisions. The leadershift in styles to
induce change is the maestro of the game, where he must be the best player and the trainer while coaching
melting differences in both cultural attitudes. Such attitudes may include unspoken opinions that could be
changed and cultural values embedding the principles that are difficult to change (Courtney, 2016).

The new paradigm of Global leadership change towards cultural agility entails the use of the two
following variables to advocate the agility policy needed along with culture:

Cultural competence is the ability to participate effectively in professional intercultural integration to
adopt change. The sum of behavior and attitudes will come together in a cohesive pattern to ensure the
dimension of cultural adaptation (Green-Moton & Minkler, 2019). This variable includes several
measurements to consider, which are:
Cultural curiosity, also called learning desire, occurs when organization members are interested in
learning new skills, seeking updated information, and sharing knowledge with others to gain experience
(Lee, et al., 2021).
Tolerance of ambiguity occurs when organization members have high flexibility in adapting to
ambiguous situations and contexts of high risk (Lee, et al., 2021).
Relationship-building occurs when members share a strong relationship and have a high sense of
engagement and commitment to the organization and its culture (Lee, et al., 2021).
Perspective-taking occurs when leaders and employees can look at different points of view and make a
sound decision (Lee, et al., 2021).
Resilience occurs when an individual has a high self-efficacy and professional confidence in abilities and
skills (Lee, et al., 2021).
Cultural humility is the ability to maintain an interpersonal stand to a lifelong commitment to self-
evaluation to address imbalances and be open to other aspects of cultural identity, which aligns with
cultural integration (Green-Moton & Minkler, 2019).

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Leadershift entails the ability and willingness to change the leader’s style to enhance personal growth

positively and create a strong business culture. This concept aligns with the notion behind the Fiedler
model for leadership (Hughes, et al., 2022), where leaders master the change of their style or the
situational factors to enhance the change through several contingency dimensions:

Leader-member relations: degree of confidence, trust, and respect members have in their leaders.
Task structure: whether the task is structured or unstructured, specific, or general, the goals are

achievable and clear or not.
Position power: leader influence overpowers variables such as hiring, firing, and salary increase.
The world is changing tremendously, which highly impacts the business environment rapidly.

According to Maxwell 2019, to embrace change, the leader must identify different circumstances to
employ the power of proximate purpose and embrace conversation in a necessary form to brainstorm
about circumstances pertaining. Working from the edge of competencies to engage and decentralize
authority, get loose from a past hindering change, and dig in a blue ocean strategically where turbulent
waters are not the danger but the calamity behind the storm (Maxwell, 2019). A historical shift in the ’40s-
’70s happened from business tycoons to leaders managing by results. In the ’80-the ’90s, another transition
from these managerial perspectives to leadership perspectives started in 2000, a strategic agility
movement towards understanding leadership core itself.

The essence of leadershift is to preserve core values and purpose while changing cultural and
operational practices to align specific goals and strategies and engage in operational agility. According to
Boyatzis, a leader shifts from autocracy to democracy to reach a Laissez-faire style leading by command
and motivating patterns to embrace change. Hence, the leader requires high emotional intelligence to
have high self-management and self-awareness, social awareness, and relationship management. Such
intelligence will help leaders achieve positive emotional connectivity with him/herself and with
employees (Goleman, et al., 2004).

On the other hand, the Resonant leadershift reflects a smooth transition from one status to another.
Engaging others in shared meaning creates a distinctive, compelling voice and acts with adaptive
capacity. Furthermore, this is the most sensitive and crucial of all as it is called applied creativity. This
concept is defined, according to Bennis, 2018 as consisting of two essential qualities: the ability to grasp
the context and the ability to face hardiness. The first has to do with perspective, and the second has to do
with stamina, perseverance, and toughness. Leadershift plays a role of emotional vitality, emotional,
compelling character for its leaders in the movement from shifting from one state to the other in the
organization and emotional empathy to the followers. Leaders in shifting positions depend on the
emotional bank account to enhance followers to be ready for change. They also depend on developing a
bucket of interpersonal relationships needed for the shift. They develop what McKee called resonance,
where a leader brings the best in everyone by stressing positive emotions (Bennis & Thomas, 2018).

The factors that play with leadershift impact include external systems around the organization, the
internal system of the organization, and the internal system team. A leader must have the power to go to
work and express the absolute best to do that. No one needs a title to do it and inspire and influence,
giving a great example, and no title is needed for that to drive a position to change in the face of
unfavourable conditions. Finally, a leader can level up in the organization, treat stakeholders with respect,
and raise a positive organizational culture (Sharma, 2010).

If it is assumed in some reviews that the essence of leadership is made of crude substance, “90%” of
leaders in an institution might produce cruddy results. The role of a transformational leader is finding the
“10%” by investigating the reasons for declining productivity in the business. Philosophically these types
of leaders search for simple solutions for complex situations. Their problem-solving technique is a critical
analysis of all steps of the problem by flipping the coin towards more understanding of the true essence of
their employees’ motivation levels.

The type of leaders needed for leadershift is exponential leaders formed of entrepreneurial or social
leaders. These interact with the four properties of leader shift envisioned in 4Is: Involvement, Initiative,
Innovation, and Ingenuity (Woodward & Demille, 2013). In practical application, leaders can view the 4Is
as follows: Stick to the strategy but shift in the right time to capitalize on the connecting points. Widening

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the scope of vision to see what others do not see and act decisively and give direction to take
accountability. Finally, leaders should lead in their sphere of influence to persuade employees to perform
to the utmost, creating responsive followership (Weir, 2015).

However, Leadershift fails if a leader fails to master the active constructive pattern of resilience
training, missing the authentic, enthusiastic support turning into passivity, which is the lack of iconic
support of behavior. A degree of dissonance results from an abnormal rhythm of change in the
organization where emotions are invested negatively towards a dark side of the leadershift. The followers
will turn into resentment, rage, and frustration, and the leadership cabinet will feel off-balance and
discord. Dissonance in the leadershift process is the failure to anticipate change and embrace it positively.
It impairs hope, happiness, and peace about that change in the organization. Leaders in this shifting loop
yield manipulation and authority, which followers usually resist. Such resistance results in dismantled
workplaces with no cohesiveness and a lack of empathy (Seligman, 2018).

The culture of leadershift in the organization is the support tool and weapon a leader creates to
accomplish the change mission. The behavioral environment leads a strategy to live, creating a
combination of objectives aligned with strategy achieved by teams sealed by values of motivation to yield
action. Action is the forward movement for leadershift to succeed, and nothing without the action will
make a difference in the movement. According to Ibad 2013, such action occurs through the IPA agenda,
defined as ideas, people, and action. The idea implies setting the direction, crafting ideas, creating a
perfect vision for the future, creating a team that believes in change, and managing performance before
stating the actual performance tasks. People come in the loop of followership to make network work,
good coaching, and manage difficult conversations. Then on top importance comes the action of realizing
a dream to happen of more involvement with the community. The action is to manage the change process,
master the craft, find help, be clear about the goals, and set up the change to succeed with a value creation
(Ibad, 2013).

Leadershift is a transformational change of leadership patterns that helps identify and solve any
decline in productivity, searching for simple solutions for complex situations. The different solutions to
implement those stages, according to Flint (2019), are to keep the focus on the micro monitor without
micromanaging and advocating the fact that change is inevitable while embracing loyalty from followers
to embrace it. Bravery and courage to face the unknown future by acting proactively, decisively, and
connecting the dots for a stable direction towards the pace of change. Involvement, initiation, and
innovation are the inevitable properties that a leader must advocate at this stage (Flint & Hearn, 2019).

Moreover, Yukl Taxonomy also offered other attributes for leadershift by creating a more
comprehensive model. It includes three meta categories: task orientation, relations orientation, and change
orientation. In addition, highlighting some specific leadership behaviors include planning, clarifying,
monitoring, supporting, developing, recognizing, and influencing organizational culture (Yukl, 2002).

In contrast, the DISC model also offers a simple solution with profound results to learning how to
identify the behavioral styles of others. Such identification helps leaders adapt their communication
approaches to increase sales, assemble teams, target new hires, develop “rock star” leaders, and respond to
problems and challenges.

D – Dominance: Direct and Guarded, Fast-paced and Task-oriented, Focuses on Problems &
Challenges, Assertive.

I – Influence: Direct and Open, Fast-paced, and People-oriented, Focuses on People & Contacts,

S – Steadiness: Indirect and Open, Slow-paced, and People-oriented, Focuses on Pace & Consistency,

C- Conscientious. Indirect and Guarded, Slow-paced and Task-oriented, Focuses on Procedures &
Constraints, Analytical (Yukl, 2002).

This tool for assessing behavior carries a background of several driving forces embedded with values,
such as knowledge expressed in cognitive and intellectual behaviors. This utility is parallel to the use of
resources, the power which is the essence of commanding the shifting styles of leaders, and the various
structured methodologies to assess behaviors. In assessing the behaviors of leaders in the process of
shifting a style of management, several personal skills must be looked at, such as the core competencies of

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appreciating others, emotional intelligence, continuous learning, conceptual thinking, coaching,
negotiation, teamwork, time and priority management in crisis, personal accountability, futuristic
thinking and exponential capacity building, and resilience (Yukl, 2002).

One of the recent attempts to touch on the basics of leadershift is the DEAD model by Gobillot in
2009, and it is considered the death symbol for traditional leadership. This model reflects more
participation as the new trend where an adaptive form of leadership and an authentic one is the basis for
assessing the shift from Mindfulness to more cultural adaptation and integration. The new model calls for
securing engagement, alignment with organizational goals and employees’ needs, accountability, and
commitment. The DEAD model is a crucial insight explaining that the need for a shift in the way
managers lead is based on four vital societal trends or challenges.

The D stands for demographic trend for experiencing a variety of socio-cultural backgrounds,
individual shared experiences and beliefs, and a mirror to engagement. The E stands for expertise which
is the core of the combination of knowledge and a nest of relationships. Suppose a leader wants the
company to succeed. In that case, it must gain control over knowledge by technology and expert power—
a stand for attention where a social and informational network group replaces the old organizational
structure. Finally, the D stands for democratic trend where the leader must align and engage with no
more rigid hierarchies with direct reporting.

The organization that Gobillot advocated through the DEAD leadership model is a matrix that
involves all members from top to bottom to share in the decision-making process to ensure inclusion and
fairness. The motivation patterns are shifting towards avoiding the carrot and the stick famous motivation
framework to invest more in human resources focusing on skills (Gobillot, 2009). Additionally, in Smith
(2020), traditional leadership is disappearing in the new turn of the century, and high levels of
emotionally intelligent that put wisdom before knowledge and expertise and put interpersonal relations
above initiating the tasks are highly needed (Smith, 2020). Further, according to Ibad, 2013 the leadershift
movement must move from directed plans to narration where participants are more aware of the social
process demands. Hence, the responsibility for change is faster and more efficient. Moreover, the
employee must move from a defined role to a specific task of self-fulfillment, matching his capacities and
skills to flourish in his career. The core lies in shifting to more simplicity to present coherence and
encourage interdependence and commitment (Ibad, 2013).


Shifting styles lead to shifting procedures and modes of leading under the umbrella of several
components: the ideal self, the authentic self; the learning agenda; mastering Mindfulness as a moderating
tool, and finally, developing trusted leadership in a renewed form of cultural agility a result driving for
change. The new shifting leadership model calls for more secure engagement, alignment, accountability,
and commitment. In this sense, the notion of Mindfulness entails a loosening control mechanism and an
influential interdependent leader together with a self-aware community of employees. Such skills entail a
mind shift from a polarized attitude to fostering a climate of innovation where appreciating that things
can be done differently in multi-cultural contexts. The movement from mutual distrust and unwillingness
to reach out and cooperate to collaboration and mutual understanding for discovering new ideas and
brainstorming common interests is crucial at this stage. According to late professor Mark T. Jones, 2020
the leader is moving from the “us” mentality to the “them” mentality (Jones, 2020). The idea advocated by
Jones is moving from passiveness in reactions to proactivity in actions. Such perspective paves the way for
more cooperation and adaptation moderated by Mindfulness. When Mindfulness as a policy or
moderating tool is used towards achieving more cultural agility, leaders must shift their mental construct
and followers to accept the change and understand that collaboration does not mean capitulation.
Exponential types of leaders who venture outside their box of a comfort zone to survive are the same ones
who get out of their silos using the policy of Mindfulness to reach the results.

Leadershift here will be the independent factor that works as a fast forward to future change. Only at
that time will deficits be mended. Not only will strengths participate, but skills along this side of
Mindfulness will also shift from a capacity-building of knowledge and expertise to a more comprehensive
shift for more entrepreneurship, agility, and accountable self-aware employees (Carter, et al., 2021).

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Leadershift in this context aligned with Mindfulness falls in managing the meaning of situations,
conflict resolutions offering a novel way to interpret and react emotionally. The mirroring effect occurs
here when the psychological impact is the same as the leader connecting to followers. Their actions start to
be parallel, their reactions as well. They develop a magnet of a sphere of attraction as if they are floating in
an orbital circle but harmonious.

At this stage, Mindfulness interferes to make the following equation as a help and support tool for
this leadershift action to happen: the vision + need + capacity to change + first steps are more prominent
than the risks and costs of change. According to Goleman, Leadershift commands fall into four discoveries
involving Mindfulness in an emotional context: (Hirst, 2019).

Individual authentic self = these match self-awareness and self-management.
Individual learning agenda = relationship management.
Leaders are practicing feelings to the point of mastery = self-awareness.
We are developing supportive and trusting leadership = social awareness.
Mindfulness is also an interplay between biology and psychology, where research must touch on the

neuroscience of leadership. It depends on how the brain works, starting with the cortex, the outer layer,
and the neural tissue responsible for cognitive understanding. Then comes the limbic system, which
handles emotions and behavioral responses, and finally, the reptilian brain part. This limbic system must
control the body’s vital functions, such as heart rate, breathing, body temperature, and balance. It is
concerned with decision-making based on old experience stored if the problem is structured. The gift in
prudent management is in the heal-reboot and the reset steps, where the employee starts to ask questions
like what is in it for him/her and why, and then what should the leader do differently to get it done for
us? The leader interferes with inducing the culture of trust, which impacts performance and productivity
to increase retention. A smooth path of change reflects the mixture of the reptilian brain, the experience,
and the limbic system that handles emotions. The reptilian brain is crucial in decision making where
survival is most important using the cortex, and the limbic, on the other hand, helps in reviving the sub-
conscious. The leader must heal the heart, reboot the head, and reset the hand (Nour, 2020).

The discussion above relates feedback with the impact model called BIFF. It investigates employees’
behaviors and how it impacts their feelings after the feedback and the future action that needs to be
advocated. The complexity lies within the success of a leader to give feedback and alter actions towards
the behavior of change; otherwise, gaps will be created. The role of HR is crucial here to create regular
meetings, a constructive feedback agenda, a code of ethics, and flatten the organization structure to
enhance engagement. The break of the taboo for destructive feedback in a critical way is the sealed result
of the success of the transformation by the top management.

Another model to look at Mindfulness is the SCARF model: where the S stands for status, looking at
the relative importance of people, the C for certainty, which looks at the ability to predict the future, and
the A for autonomy which looks at our perception of having control over our environment, the R for
relatedness that looks to the relationships and the sense of fitting in high cultural awareness of
belongingness, and the F which looks at the perception of being treated fairly in a standard way.

The two frameworks of mindfulness act as brokerage channels to connect employees within the loop
of shifting leadership styles towards more cultural agility to enable access to novel information and
structural change in the organization (Smith & Mannucci, 2017). Failure in achieving mindfulness results
in a lack of neurodiversity strategies where career-killing for both a leader and an employee becomes a
definite result instead of creating culturally agile organizations.

Leaders unaware of Mindfulness discard the neurodivergent thinkers as outcasts and bury their
talents for decades. They might fall into the trap of dark leadership where disorder, disease, and
dysfunction happen to the organization (Fitzell, 2021). The Broaden and build theory presented by
Frederickson, 2013 in the context of positive psychology can help manage the challenges of mindfulness
failure. Leaders must balance positive to negative emotions appropriately to generate novelty for change
advocacy. The positive emotions broaden awareness and build structural support by developing
competencies rather than correcting weaknesses. The theory created an emotional label aligned with the
mindfulness growth in recent studies inside the organization where motivation goes in parallel with what

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each need at his or her own pace. Therefore, an appreciative leadership style should align with the
appraisal theme through benefits if one is motivated by gratitude.

As a result, this will be the neurological motor sensor that motivates his or her work. Employee
engagement resulting from the correct motivational program is meaningful work and a positive energy
state (Frederickson, 2013). In this direction, employees must avoid overusing strengths in various areas.
They must focus on the necessary change administered by the leader to integrate efforts towards
achieving the transformation needed (Kaplan & Kaiser, 2009).

Cultural agility and Mindfulness
Cultural agility depends on a leader who walks the talk of change in parallel with his employees. It is

not a simple speech to declare novelty and leave them in the grey area of communication where the path
for change is unclear and does not align with their personal self-development goals. Mindfulness
interferes here in the context of the emotional intelligence traits of a leader, which are crucial for change.
Therefore, the talk that the leader is expected to issue highlights. There are three awareness competencies
to win the agility needed: Self-Management, relationship management, and task management. The result
will be a workforce expected to tolerate ambiguity, build relationships with co-workers from different
backgrounds, and respond to changes in task structures. Mindfulness is a tool used by top management to
pick the suitable mode for change. According to Arinya, 2020 the three awareness factors mentioned
above must be allocated at the correct timing for change. Employees are in the high activation mode,
learning skills, integrating ideas, and setting priorities. The high mode offers a person ready to widen the
scope and endures personal resistance based on the motivational plan chosen by the leader through on-
site training based on experiential learning. The peak performance results from the convincing power of
the leader to convince the employee to work on his or her energizing skills in integrating organizational
goals with knowledge acquired through training and building experience (Arinya, 2020).

Based on the previous literature, two alternative hypotheses were derived to test the relationship
between leadershift and cultural agility through the effective utilization of mindfulness as follows:

H1: There is a significant relationship between leadershift and cultural agility.
H2: Mindfulness moderated the relationship between leadershift and cultural agility.

Research Methodology
The current research will combine two data collection tools: a business case study and a

questionnaire. The case study will provide a context of a public state-owned enterprise-facing rapid
changes in leadership styles, processes, and activities. Hence, the chosen business is the Egypt Post
Authority because a leadership change occurred. The Chairman, Dr. Sherif Farouk, made a massive
change in the business’ organizational structure, business strategy, operational activities, and services.
One crucial aspect of change was a culture change, including cross-culture factors, requiring special skills
and abilities to adapt to such changes. Such context serves to investigate how shifting leader styles can
impact the agility of culture using Mindfulness as a vital skill for adaptability. However, to overcome the
limitations of case studies, another tool will be used to determine the association between variables
(Dossick, et al., 2011).

Moreover, the additional tool is a questionnaire that includes items related to the three variables of
the study. The questionnaire was created and provided to the Egypt Post management for approval, and
it was conducted physically inside the Cairo branch. Thus, the sample was randomly selected to reach a
diversified group of managers and employees. The sample size was determined to be (n=110) for the
current research. After determining the participants, out of the 110 employees, 43 were females, and 67
were males from different departments and holding different positions. At the same time, 68% of
employees and managers are aged 44 and above, while 31% are aged 31 and 43.

On the other hand, only 1% of employees in the sample are aged between 18 and 30. Such results
might indicate a challenge in adapting to the agile culture resulting from leadership change. Thus, this
study used simple random sampling to give all individuals in the population an equal chance to
participate. This sampling technique will decrease bias and increase the reliability and validity of data (Li,
et al., 2017). On the other hand, the sample size was chosen based on past researchers that recommended
having a minimum of 25 participants per variable (Elston, 2018). The questionnaire was a 5-point scale

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that depended on self-evaluation. It included a page where the research idea, aim, and questions to
explain the research. It also explained that the data collected will be 100% confidential. The CEO will not
have access to any data, managers, or other employees (Deary, et al., 2005).

Findings and Results

Table 1: Construct Reliability and Validity
The previous table shows that all convergent validity criteria are met. It is clear from the value of

Composite Reliability, which was within the acceptable limits, greater than or equal to 0.70 for all axes of
the model. We also find that the Average Variance Extracted (AVE) value ranged from 0.562 to 0.592,
which is around the acceptable limits. It is greater than or equal to 0.50, which clarifies the model’s axes.

• Discriminant Validity:
The Fornell-Larcker Cross Loadings criterion was used to identify the degree of overlap to measure

the differential validity of the model axes. Cross Loadings is used to find out the degree of loading the
ferry on the axis, or in other words, is the ferry related to the axis it represents or not. It is also that the
degree of loading the ferry on its axis must be more significant, and the degree of its bearing on the other
axes is weak. When the degree of the ferry is loaded on more than Axes, there is an error in the scale.

Fornell-Larcker Criterion Cultural Agility Leadershift Mindfulness

Cultural Agility 0.750

Leadershift -0.204 0.770

Mindfulness 0.519 -0.260 0.752

Table 2: Discriminant Validity: Fornell-Larcker Criterion

The previous table for testing shows that the value of the study axes’ overlap with themselves is more
significant than their overlap with other axes. Thus the model scale has discriminatory honesty.

Table 3: R-Square and R-Square Adjusted

This scale is used to measure the explanatory power of the independent variables. When the value of
R Square is less than 0.1, the model is not fit; from 0.1 to 0.25, the explanatory power is small. In contrast,
when it is 0.25 to 0.36, the explanatory power is medium, and the explanatory power of a model is high
when it is more significant than 0.36.

Fit Summary

Model_Fit Saturated Model Estimated Model

SRMR 0.117 0.117

d_ULS 0.620 0.620

d_G 0.193 0.193

Chi-Square 131.321 131.321

NFI 0.407 0.407

Table 4: Model Fit

Construct Reliability and



Average Variance Extracted

Cultural Agility 0.649 0.836 0.787 0.562

Leadershift 0.671 0.718 0.811 0.592

Mindfulness 0.624 0.630 0.796 0.565

R Square R Square Adjusted

Cultural Agility 0.274 0.261

Mindfulness 0.067 0.059

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The last criterion shows the model’s goodness of fit. The most important of these criteria is NFI,
where there are limits to accepting and judging the overall quality of a model. When its top is more
significant than 0.20, the model has a reasonable degree of acceptance.


Original Sample

Sample Mean


T Statistics P Values

Leadershift ->
Cultural Agility

-0.074 -0.086 0.117 0.630 0.529

Leadershift ->

-0.260 -0.284 0.092 2.819 0.529

Mindfulness ->
Cultural Agility

0.499 0.512 0.068 7.332 0.000

Table 5: Results
The previous table shows the effect of both the independent and the mediator variable on the

dependent variable, where we find that the effect of Leadershift -> Cultural Agility is inverse but not
significant, and this appears from the value of P-values where it was more significant than 0.05 at a
confidence degree of 95%. In contrast, we find that the effect of Leadershift -> Mindfulness had a
Significant adverse effect. The value of P Values was 0.005, which is significant at a significant level less
than 0.05. Researchers also find that the effect of Mindfulness -> Cultural Agility has a significant positive
effect, with a p-value of 0.005, which is less than the significance level of 0.05.

Sample (O)

Mean (M)

Deviation (STDEV)

T Statistics



Leadershift -> Mindfulness ->
Cultural Agility

-0.130 -0.145 0.051 2.557


Table 6: Specific Indirect Effects
The previous table shows the indirect effect of leadershift on Cultural Agility through Mindfulness.

We find that the value of this effect is inverse and significant, as the value of this effect is (0.145).

Discussion and Conclusion
Previous statistical analysis approves the literature and the theoretical background of this research.

Therefore, data collected indicates that research findings fail to reject H2 while rejecting H1. In other
words, gathered data shows an insignificant relationship between leadershift and cultural agility. In
contrast, data shows a significant moderation between leadershift and cultural agility. Such results prove
the literature by concluding that shifting leadership styles in each context alone does not lead to a thriving
agile culture in the business. However, leaders must search for unique characteristics or traits to facilitate
the change in styles. One trendy trait that research is concerned about is Mindfulness. Such relationships
are shown in Figure 1 of the theoretical framework for this research.

Figure 1: Research Theoretical Framework

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The model indicates that a leader must have high self-awareness and social awareness to achieve a
thriving agile culture. While shifting leadership styles, leaders should consider the context or situation to
choose the right hat to wear. Each situation’s chosen style and power usage may help or hinder
employees’ positive feelings and experiences. Such results indicate that leaders need to use Mindfulness to
have both emotional and cognitive ability to reach high awareness of their own and other peoples’
feelings. This act will help employees adapt to the change of style and culture, ensuring the success of
agile culture in the business. The leader formulates the mission to lead an agile organization with dynamic
organizational structure and relationship changes in this position. Given the research context of The
Egyptian National Post Authority, they are facing a transformation of the rigid organizational structure to
a flatter organizational chart that facilitates communication and the decision-making process. They also
shifted significant tasks in each department to become more group-oriented to diversify ideas and roles.
Such changes influence leaders in conducting a daily self-reflection on attitudes and behaviors and how
they impact their employees. Such reflection will increase self-awareness and facilitate the shifting of
leadership styles, which will lead to cross-cultural awareness (France, et al., 2019).

Further, the leader will have a people-oriented style that is participative and keen on understanding
followers’ expectations. Moreover, the literature supports the findings by suggesting a value-based
leadership style and a charismatic style with a mentorship-based relationship with followers. Other
literature indicated the importance of having a servant leadership style to facilitate the agility of the
business. Such servant style will help leaders become more resilient with high intelligence and provide
subordinates with needed career-oriented support. Outcomes will be an agile business with high
organizational knowledge that will stand as a competitive advantage for the firm that would be hard to
imitate. Based on findings, such a relationship between leadershift and cultural agility can only be
achieved by Mindfulness as an effective tool. It leads to awareness of self and others’ emotions and
abilities, leading to high control and stability of the agile culture. Therefore, leaders will understand
followers’ performance, behaviors, and well-being. Such understanding will lead to solid interpersonal
relationships based on high job satisfaction and loyalty (Johnstone & Wilson-Prangley, 2021).

To sum up, findings show that the relationship is not direct between leadershift and Cultural agility.
However, when leaders utilize the ability of mindfulness, there is a direct relationship between
mindfulness and cultural agility. Henceforth, the impact breeds a relationship between Leadershift and
Cultural Agility only through the impact of building leadership skills. Therefore, other leadership skills
could be an area of developing the research in leadership that leadership can help create a compelling and
capable team to lead future opportunities in an impactful way by practicing both environment of the
organization and the ecosystem (Pugh, 2020).

Reflections on the Egyptian National Post Authority

The National Postal Authority, established in 1865, is considered the oldest and most important
national institution in Egypt, providing financial and Postal services. In the past, the postman was the
ultimate delivery news portal for every Egyptian family for more than 150 years in history. Today,
witnessing a global transformation in both theory and practical implications in management studies, the
public sector institution is reviving to a new dawn of innovation in most products and service delivery.
The idea of a one-stop-shop has prevailed in the National Postal Authority activities since 2018, with a
new shift in leadership tactics and vision. The digital transformation progress with an added value of
services, innovative solutions, and products portfolio that hit the edge in a competitive market of younger
generations and global endeavors of other competitors in delivery such as Jumia and Amazon. The
National post authority aligned with these competitors when it signed a protocol of collaboration with
Jumia marketing company to encourage digital marketing platforms to deliver goods and services and a
joint training program to exchange knowledge and innovations (Mansour, 2022).

As change is a constant fact of life, the post authority is now providing a variety of service delivery
administered with new practices and platforms for agile transformation with an added value, of course, to
the powerful and unique geographical spread. As a customer-first choice, the National Postal Authority
has now become a one-stop-shop with a wide range of activities: international and domestic Express mail
service, parcel service, tailored postcards services, registered mail services, cash on delivery services,

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saving accounts, and the civil status service, delivered through an excellent state of art retail with one-
stop-shop by the teller services window. The National post authority is also extending to be the arm of the
government through an E-administration service as state-owned to offer many services to its citizens such
as Pension and traffic violation Payments, utility bills, and many other bill services Payments (Mansour,

The list of services since 2022 provides an insightful future of change where the IPA agenda (Idea;
People and Action) of leadershift was defined as a tool to ensure the input of all soft skills of leaders in all
departments of the institution into hard results.

The continuity of launching new products and services opens avenues for the customers to use their
Egypt Post debit cards by developing a new Portal of Egypt post and mobile application. Hence,
customers enjoy a new list of digitalized services, for example, Wassalha, a delivery service, to develop
the receipt of shipments (Mansour, 2022).

The Egyptian post authority uses a plan of innovative vision that is an actual application for the “I”
letter in the DISC framework of leadershift: where leadership style is geared towards a fast-paced impact
and people-oriented one. Such implementation is shown in numerous activities by top management in the
Post authority. There is an encouragement and engagement for employees by setting a ceremony for
employee of the month for delivery success. Moreover, it was highlighted in the interpersonal style of
leading when the CEO of the post authority visited a worker who did an accident while delivering mail.
Such style added a positive reflection on the interpersonal style of leading. Both cultural competence and
humility reflect the professional integration of all aspects of the workforce force and the interpersonal
commitment toward the employees (Mansour, 2022).

In addition, when it comes to Mindfulness as a moderator in the theoretical framework, the “R” in the
scarf model is geared towards relatedness of communities benefit and added value in the services
provided. A proper application of this is through the financial inclusion plan for pension payments.
According to Dr. Sharif Farouk, they are following the state’s plan that pensions accounts provided by
Egypt Post will benefit pensioners, as in the ease of dealing with all ATMs, electronic shopping, bills
payment, and issuing direct debit card “Meeza” (Farouk, 2022).

When cultural agility is studied through its three dimensions, the combination of the cultural
integration CI +cultural adaptation, CA+ cultural minimization CM adds to creating an agile environment
where numerous services are directed for inclusion, collaboration, and embracing the change of new
norms. The initiative of the National Post Authority in this direction aligned with the signing of
cooperation with DHL Egypt to empower E-commerce Businesses in Egypt and African countries in 2017.

The innovations along this agreement were crowned by the opening of the logistical hub for
international delivery in August 2020 for the Mena region, Africa, and other international hubs. Along
with signing a protocol in September 2020 with Abu Dhabi Bank to ease the money transfer process for
the Egyptians working abroad in UAE. In addition to signing a protocol of collaboration with Misr
Insurance Company in October 2020 to ensure the delivery of rights to workers, signing a training
protocol between the Egyptian Banking Institute and the Egyptian Post Authority on hybrid work and
artificial intelligence, and finally, sponsoring the world cup of handball male sports competition word
broad achieved visibility and international exposure of the port authority as an inclusive, leading body.
The DEAD model, in this context, is found to be employed by the top Management of the National Post
Authority, where all members from top to bottom are involved in sharing in the decision-making process
to ensure inclusion and fairness. The state-owned public enterprise is an accurate model of a typical
mechanistic structure on the surface to meet governmental expectations of the authority chain of
command. However, an inner organic structure governs the day-to-day operations within the formalistic
structure to ensure engagement and participation (Farouk, 2022).


This research has a context of the Egyptian Post Authority facing changes in leadership,
organizational structure, and business processes. Therefore, leaders need to use effective traits such as
Mindfulness to facilitate change to a more agile culture. Such context created an aim for the research to
determine the association between leadershift and cultural agility while testing the moderating role of

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Mindfulness on the relationship between leadershift and cultural agility. The main contribution will be a
developed guideline for state-owned enterprises on how their managers or leaders can use Mindfulness to
enhance their leadership style-shifting and lead a thriving agile culture. Moreover, this research added
theoretical and practical literature by introducing a new theoretical framework to trendy topics within
Egyptian public organizations. Findings contributed by proving that Leadershift is both an art and a
Science entailing a set of solid leadership skills in engaging and enhancing followership. The leader is a
Maestro organizing the orchestra into peaceful change advocacy. There is no single recipe or clear-cut
edge as to what defines leadershift, but many tools help explain effective leadership within a dynamic
context of global trends.

Mindfulness is a scientific tool based on cognitive and affective components that interfere with paving
the way for implementing an agile change in culture. Therefore, the influence in defining new
relationships could be explained through the five Cs of changing leadership style. They entail the
following factors to ensure a smooth transition towards cultural agility:

– Consciousness of every single intake.
– Converting and measuring to keep track of the change.
– Comparing results in relationship to the original plan.
– Cutting on excess luggage when the change process is precise, concise, and to the point.
– Cleaning as a last stage where people try to maintain the organization’s survival (Nasr, 2021).

Research Implications
The previous research findings can work as implications for future researchers and managers. The

paper contributed to literature by theorizing the concept of leadershift as the ability to shift between styles
of leadership smoothly depending on the situation. Thus, the findings provide a developmental base for
papers to test such relationships in different contexts and with different moderating variables.
Additionally, future researchers can test the same relationship while comparing the public and the private
sector in Egypt. Not to mention that researchers can study the impact of national culture on the agile
business culture to be highly generalized to different societies. Other factors to be considered could be the
age element or the gender element in reaching the relationship between leadershift and cultural agility. In
contrast, this research has a practical implication for business practitioners. Hence, the paper adds
knowledge by setting an example to various public sector enterprises in Egypt on achieving this
framework in their business. It works as a practical guideline for business leaders on utilizing
mindfulness, which will help achieve leadershift and leads a sustained agile culture.

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Journal of International Trade, Logistics and Law, Vol. 8, Num. 1, 2022, 11-17




Melih Şükrü ECERTAŞ

Gebze Technical University, Turkey

Gebze Technical University, Turkey

Received: Dec 12, 2021 Accepted: March 22, 2022 Published: June 01, 2022

Within the scope of organizational behavior, human resource management has been among the most popular research areas for nearly half
of a century. The relationship between human resource management and organizational performance is one of the most attractive topics for
researchers and business practitioners. Researchers, who have focused on different human resources management “contents” (job
satisfaction, organizational commitment, performance appraisal, incentive wage systems, etc.) for a long time, not only have argued in the
last 20 years that the content alone is not enough, but also emphasized the importance of the “process” of applying these contents. The
“HRM System Strength” theory, which Bowen and Ostroff introduced in 2004, inspired by Mischel’s (1982) Strong Situation approach
and Kelley’s (1967) covariance model of attribution theory, stands out as the most remarkable of the above-mentioned “process” focused
studies. HRM System Strength focuses on the common opinion of the employees about what is expected from them by the organization,
and its basic proposition is that the company has a strong HR system depending on how distinctive its HR practices are , how consistent
they are , and to what extent it has consensus among employees. In this article, we will discuss in detail the concept of HRM system
strength, its underlying theories, its 3 sub-dimensions and its relationship with other related HR applications.

Human Resource Management System Strength, Attribution Theory, Situation Strength

1. Introduction
Organizations continue to exist with a certain strategy that is aligned with their aims and objectives. The greater the
importance of external-oriented decisions such as market and customer strategy, the greater the importance of
internal-oriented actions such as organizational growth. After 1980, “human resources,” which were previously
viewed as a cost element, began to be analyzed from a strategic standpoint (Devenna, Fombrun and Tichy, 1981,
Baird and Meshoulam, 1988).
The primary goal of human resource management has always been to improve organizational performance. Guest’s
(1987) new strategic framework pioneered this new method in Human Resources management, bringing a new
viewpoint to the phrase “people management.” By the 1990s, the link between human resource management and
organizational performance has become one of the most popular research topics. The most important issue in the
interaction between organizational performance and people management has been called high performance work
systems (Huselid, 1995). Huselid (1995) emphasized selection and recruitment methods, performance management
and incentive payment systems, talent development, and brought attention to the fact that such specialized
approaches boost productivity in high performance work systems. Employee participation in decision-making
processes (Levine and Tyson, 1990), employee training (Bartel, 1994), profit sharing with employees (Kruse, 1993),
teamwork within the context of comprehensive job design (Macy and Izumi, 1993), and high commitment (Arthur,
1994) are examples of high-performance work systems that increase productivity.
By the 2000s, even though many different subjects in human resource management came to the fore both in
academia and in business practice, the “black box” attempted to be explained in the relationship between

Melih Şükrü ECERTAŞ & Oya ERDİL


organizational performance and human resources has not yet been fully resolved. When the studies conducted until
2003 were thoroughly analyzed, it was observed that the relationship between HR management and performance was
studied empirically (Wright and Gardner, 2003) in a comprehensive manner, while the role of “psychological
processes” were overlooked (Wood, 1999). The “HRM Process” approach can be said to have arrived at this point.
In 2004, Bowen and Ostroff emphasized the significance of the “process” of how HR procedures are viewed by
employees, as well as the “contents” of this human resources activity. A strong atmosphere is created when
employees have a shared vision of what is expected from them and which behaviors are rewarded by the firm. To
generate this strong climate, HR policies must be unique, that is, clear, understandable, and rational, and must be
implemented in a fair and consistent manner by all implementing managers in consensus. The authors’ “HRM
System Strength” approach emphasizes the notions of “strong climate,” “distinctiveness,” “consistency,” and
“consensus.” In this study, we will go through the HRM System Strength method in depth and look at how it relates
to other organizational behavior principles.

2. HRM System Strength as a concept focused on “process”
As previously stated, thousands of various “applications” in the field of Human Resources Management were
proposed between 1984 and 2004. Young et al. (1996) presented the top examples from five major studies in their
study where the best of these were assessed (Arthur, 1992; Delaney, Lewin & Ichniowski, 1984; Freund & Epstein,
1984; Huselid, 1995; McDuffie, 1995; Pfeffer, 1994).
There is a plethora of applications that can be considered “benchmarks.” However, the problem of how these
procedures are seen within the organization remains unresolved. Bowen and Ostroff (2004) established their “HRM
System Strength” approach by combining Mischel’s (1982) approaches to “situational strength” and the co-variation
model of attribution theory (Kelley, 1967). While HRM activities are viewed as a communication flow from the
employer to the employee (Guzzo and Noonan, 1994), this method investigates how these practices are perceived by
employees in a similar manner. Employees make mental connections to human resource management practices.
Human resource management systems are classified as either strong or weak based on the degree of distinctiveness,
consistency, and consensus among employees.

3. Dimensions of HRM System Strength
In the simplest words, Bowen and Ostroff’s (2004) method is concerned with how “anticipated” behaviors that
everyone “accepts” are “clearly” conveyed by the organization and how “consistent” its field practices are. Ten years
later from the unique study, Bowen and Ostroff (2016) reviewed the studies on HRM system strength and they
identified a fundamental distinction between their original argument and many other studies in the same literature.
Originally, “HRM System Strength” was a an organizational-level phenomenon, whereas “Perceived HRM System
Strength” was studied at the employee-level. The three primary aspects of human resource system strength, which
are “distinctiveness”, “consistency”, and “consensus”, as defined by Bowen and Ostroff, will be addressed in detail
below, along with their sub-dimensions.

3.1. Distinctiveness
In the literature, it is well explained that differentiated human resource practices improve an organization’s overall
performance (Hlltrop, 1996). The effectiveness of an HR application that fails to capture the employee attention and
has neither an appeal nor a purpose is subject to debate. It is the framework that focuses on the organization’s
human resource strategies with regards to recruiting and engaging personnel. Bowen and Ostroff (2004) discuss four
essential mechanisms that contribute to the “distinctiveness” of human resource practices, which are namely
visibility, understandability, legitimacy of authority, and relevance.

3.2. Visibility
It refers to the extent to which employees are aware of the company’s human resource policies. There is a positive
correlation between apparent human resource procedures and employee performance.

Its Strength, As Well As Its Presence, is Vital: Managing Hr Systems As a Process


3.3. Understandability
Effective human resource communication requires clarity and simplicity. It is crucial for employee performance and
motivation. Internal signals concerning the company’s management methods that are incomprehensible would
undermine the organization’s cohesion. It is self-evident that complex messages that are visible to everyone but are
incomprehensible will cause more harm than good. For example, using a reward system including an incentive model
on which only the sales managers who built it have knowledge does not benefit the sales force or boost the
company’s revenue.

3.4. Legitimacy of authority
Implementing human resource practices with status and prestige is significant and meaningful in terms of corporate
governance. The fact that human resource managers have authority within a corporate decision-making system
indicates that employees will pay increased attention to the messages they send (Andersen, Cooper and Zhu, 2007).
Human resource managers have genuine authority bestowed by the corporation; this demonstrates the formality of
the organization’s roles, expectations, and practices.

3.5. Relevance
This is the condition in which human resource objectives are congruent with business strategy. Human resource
management policies that are unrelated to the organization’s primary goals and strategies cannot be anticipated to be
sustainable and lead to a deteriorating corporate climate.

Table 1. Dimensions of HRM System Strength

Distinctiveness Consistency Consensus

Visibility Instrumentality Agreement among HR decision

makers Understandability Validity

Legitimacy of authority
Consistent HR messages Fairness


3.6. Consistency
Consistency is critical in human resource procedures, as it is in any other discipline, and numerous researches have
been conducted on this subject (Baron and Kreps, 1999; Kooji et. al., 2013). Regardless of time or circumstance, in
any situation where cause-effect relationships exist, the company’s attitudes and behaviors toward employees must be
consistent. Instrumentality, validity, and consistent HR messages are the sub-dimensions of consistency.

3.7. Instrumentality
As behaviors and their outcomes become more consistent, employees notice the principle of instrumentality more
frequently. It establishes a distinct, unambiguous understanding of the cause-effect relationship between expected
behaviors and the corresponding outcomes. Instrumentality can also be defined as the degree to which employees’
behaviors are directed toward desirable behavior patterns.

3.8. Validity
Human resource strategies are designed to achieve specific goals, but if those goals are not met, they lose their
consistency and reliability. In summary, validity refers to the degree to which human resource practices accomplish
what they are anticipated to achieve.

3.9. Consistent Human Resources Messages
The human mind is continually looking for consistency. In other words, two distinct approaches should not conflict
with the fundamental objectives. Consistency is critical for persuasion in employer-to-employee communication. It is
a case of sending consistent messages incessantly.

Melih Şükrü ECERTAŞ & Oya ERDİL


3.10. Consensus
Consensus is a positive aspect in the development of a strong corporate culture and organizational climate. It is
beneficial for employees to agree on what is expected from them and to see this from all managers in a consistent

3.11. Agreement Among Human Resource Decision Makers
Employees in firms have social interactions with a variety of supervisors from various departments daily. The fact
that they are all in agreement on human resource policies will also improve the employees’ perception of

3.12. Fairness
It refers to the employees’ perceptions that they are treated “fairly” within the organization. The concept of “justice”
has been thoroughly researched in human resource literature and has been established as one of the crucial elements
in practical implementations (Kee et. al., 2004; Beugre, 1998; Lavelle et.al., 2009). Performance appraisal is quite
common in human resource practices, and by promoting equal and comparable appraisal among employees, the
fundamental notion of justice is enhanced, hence increasing the organization’s overall performance (Kavanagh et. al.,

4. The Drivers of HRM System Strength Theory
4.1. Organizational Climate
Business strategies and human resource policies of an organization should be congruent and linked. As illustrated by
Bowen and Ostroff; the human resources policy of an innovation-oriented company should also support the
innovation strategy. Also, the human resource policy of a customer satisfaction-oriented company should also be
focused on the services provided to the customers. Indeed, whatever dominating climate exists in the culture of the
firm, employees’ expectations will be established within the context of that climate. When we view culture as a
collection of the company’s assumptions and values, we may see it as both a precursor to the human resource system
and a mediator of the link between human resources and performance (Denison, 1996). While organizational beliefs
and values influence human resource practices, they also shape the norms that govern individual and organizational
performance (Bowen and Ostroff, 2004).
Bowen and Ostroff determined that organizational climate is a more appropriate term for their theory based on
organizational culture and organizational climate studies (Denison 1996; Schneider, Salvaggio, & Subirats, 2002)
since they desired to tackle human resource management system strength from a multidimensional perspective, that
is, both at the individual and organizational level.

4.2. Situational Strength
Bowen and Ostroff used Mischel’s “situational strength” technique to determine whether the organizational climate
is weak or strong. According to this definition, a scenario is considered “strong” if it results in a “conformity”
interpretation in the mind of the individual, and “weak” if it results in an “ambiguity” interpretation (Mischel and
Peake, 1982). It is believed that organizational culture creates a “strong situation” by directing employees toward
unambiguous ideals and goals, and uniting minds, around common denominators (Bowen and Ostroff, 2004).

4.3. Attribution Theory
Among the attribution theories that address how people make meaning of the events they experience in their brains,
Kelly’s covariance model in 1976 served as a foundation for Bowen and Ostroff’s development of the HR System
strength approach. In terms of explaining the cause of something, the theory of covariation examines whether the
cause exists in multiple conditions or not (Kelly, 1973). These causal attributions are classified into three categories.

1. congruence: Does the owner of the conduct always exhibit the same behavior? Is the cause-and-effect
relationship time-independent?
2. distinctiveness: Can that specific activity be viewed clearly? Do it always have the same cause-effect

relationship when examined by someone who is not familiar with the subject?

Its Strength, As Well As Its Presence, is Vital: Managing Hr Systems As a Process


3. consensus: Do other individuals in a comparable scenario behave similarly in a similar cause-effect

As can be seen from the three frameworks above, Kelly (1967) describes the causal attributions of behaviors. On the
other hand, Bowen and Ostroff advocate for a “strong situation” based on these three characteristics.

5. The Impact of HRM System Strength
As previously said, success is ultimately determined by the effect of human resource investigations on organizational
performance. Along with financial aims, organizations have more qualitative human resource targets. Employee
motivation, commitment, and satisfaction can all be used as instances of such human resource objectives. Hauff,
Alewell, and Hansen (2016) discovered that a robust human resource management system improves a company’s
ability to achieve its human resource goals.
Change management is crucial for organizational development. Businesses that can reinvent themselves during
challenging times emerge stronger. Employee support for change enables the organization to refresh itself, grow, and
compete more effectively in the market. Employees contribute favorably to the organization’s demand for change in
organizations with a robust human resource management system (Alfes et al., 2019). Additionally, change occurs
only in the presence of strong leadership. At times, when managers dispute over their leadership style, the company’s
change and progress may fail. However, in firms with a robust human resource management system, followers of the
leaders retain their motivation and can keep up with the company’s growth despite this paradoxical leadership
struggle (Jia et al., 2018).
Employees’ perceptions of management methods as distinctive, consistent, and consensus-building have been found
to be favorably connected with emotional commitment (Sanders, Dorenbosch and Reuver, 2008; Cafferkey
et.al.,2019; Bos-Nehles, Conway and Fox, 2021). Meyer and Allen’s (1991) perspectives on organizational
commitment are extremely important for understanding human resources and their performance. The “normative
commitment” relates to the employee’s obligation to remain in the organization, whereas the “continuance
commitment” refers to the perceived costs associated with leaving the organization. On the other hand, “affective
commitment” refers to an individual’s emotional affiliation with an organization (Meyer and Allen, 1991).
Employees’ emotional identification with the organization will be achievable only if the organization communicates
clearly what is expected from employees and which behaviors are rewarded, and whether the organization’s
approach towards anticipated behaviors is consistent and equitable throughout.

6. Conclusions and Discussion
We may assert that the value of human resource management models in establishing a sustainable competitive
advantage has grown in popularity over the previous three decades. Numerous human resource management
applications are discussed above as “content” studies. However, in this study, we attempted to emphasize the
relevance of “process” studies in addition to content-oriented human resource management research. Numerous
studies have demonstrated that the same human resource management procedures produce inconsistent results due
to changes in the employees’ perception processes of human resource management practices within the organization.
The HRM system strength theory places a premium on how well managers interact with employees in practice,
rather than on the quality of the “content” of these studies. Assume that we establish difficult targets for all
employees using a variety of key performance indicators. Are the staff fully aware of the objectives set for them? Are
these reasonable targets? Are the objectives aligned with the organization’s overall strategy? Are the managers’
behaviors toward employees similar when they implement and evaluate these goals?
Let us be certain that if we receive affirmative responses to these questions, our performance management system’s
contribution to our company’s organizational success will significantly grow.

Melih Şükrü ECERTAŞ & Oya ERDİL


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MGMT665, MBA Capstone

Live Chat #3: Focus on Organizational Behavior & HRM

Dr. Joe Cappa

CTU Library— Quick Review

  • General Tour
  • IBISWorld

CTU Library Databases

  • IBISWorld

General Management Responsibilities

  • Planning
  • Organizing
  • Leading
  • Controlling
  • Manages, controls, evaluates resources (people, capital, raw materials) current and future.
  • Organizes and manages projects.
  • Leads teams.
  • Motivates, evaluates, & coaches teams; maintains oversight of processes; assesses progress toward goals.

Planning Tools

Diagrams for Visualizing Data



More Complex Visualizations

Interrelationship Diagram

Matrix Diagrams


  • An 
    L-shaped matrix relates two groups of items to each other (or one group to itself).
  •  A 
    T-shaped matrix relates three groups of items: groups B and C are each related to A; groups B and C are not related to each other.
  •  A 
    Y-shaped matrix relates three groups of items: each group is related to the other two in a circular fashion.
  •  A 
    C-shaped matrix relates three groups of items all together simultaneously, in 3D.
  •  An 
    X-shaped matrix relates four groups of items: each group is related to two others in a circular fashion.
  •  A 
    roof-shaped matrix relates one group of items to itself; it is usually used along with an L- or T-shaped matrix.

Prioritization Matrix




Process Design Program Chart (PDPC)



Organizing Tools

  • Operations Management
  • Six Sigma or DMAIC
  • Order processing, warehouse management, & demand forecasting
  • Project Management
  • Pert & Gantt charts
  • Calendars
  • Established goals
  • Budgeting
  • Spreadsheets

Team Leadership Tools

  • Employee Personalities (examples below):
  • Peacemaker
  • Organizer
  • Revolutionary
  • Steamroller
  • Communications
  • Clear messages
  • Match assignments to type
  • Feedback
  • Team-building models
  • Assessment
  • Reasonable expectations/goals
  • Fair evaluation
  • Giving credit/rewards
  • Coaching
  • Development
  • Professional development
  • Goal-setting
  • Promotions

Controlling Tools

  • Accounting & Finance Policies
  • Operational Management Control System Techniques
  • Activity-based costing
  • Balanced scorecard
  • Benchmarking
  • Capital budgeting
  • Just-in-Time
  • Kaizen (continuous improvement)
  • TQM
  • Project management processes
  • HR Policies
  • Procedures

Subject Review: People, people, people


Components of Management Role

  • Management Styles
  • People-management
  • HRM
  • Process-management
  • Marketing management
  • Operations management
  • Financial management

General Management Hierarchy

Management: Styles & Roles


  • Democratic (collaborative & participative)
  • Laissez-faire (hands off)
  • Autocratic (micromanager & dictatorial)
  • Charismatic (charming & persuasive)
  • Coach (motivational and helpful)
  • Pacesetting (fair & pusher)
  • Bureaucratic (cognizant of hierarchy)
  • Transactional (focus on performance)

Subject Review: Organizational Behavior

OB is the process of analyzing the effect of social and environmental factors that affect the way employees or teams work.

(The way people interact, communicate, and collaborate is key to an organization’s success.)

Subject Review:



Human resource management is the organizational function that manages all issues related to the people in an organization. That includes but is not limited to compensation, recruitment, and hiring, performance management, organization development, safety, wellness, benefits, employee motivation, communication, policy administration, and training. 

Human resource management is also a strategic and comprehensive approach to managing people and the workplace culture and environment. Done well, it enables employees to contribute effectively and productively to the overall company direction and the accomplishment of the organization’s goals and objectives.

Leadership Theories & Styles

  • Great Man (born to lead)
  • Situational (leaders step up when necessary)
  • Behavioral (leaders are made not born)
  • Participative (encourage participation and contributions from group members)
  • Management (a/k/a transactional. focuses on roles of supervision, organization and group performance)
  • Contingency (convergence of style, qualities of followers, and situation)
  • Trait (inherited traits)
  • Relationship (a/k/a transformational, uses relationships to motivate and inspire)

Back to the SWOT: HR Examples

  External Opportunities
*Innovative technology
External Threats
*Tight labor market
Internal Strengths
*quality products
*In-house R&D
*Excellent accounting team
*Budget compliance
O/S Strategies T/S Strategies
Internal Weaknesses
*Lack of management training
*Uneven merit raises
*High number of employee complaints
*Low employee retention 
O/W Strategies T/W Strategies


Parting Thoughts


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