Module # 3: health behavioral theories

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Create a PowerPoint based on HEALTH BEHAVIORAL THEORIES. 

Submission Instructions:

  • Use citations to support assignment from academic sources. 
  • See the attached document.

My background: I am a Psychiatric Mental Health Nurse Practitioner. I work at mental health clinic (outpatient services) where I provide direct patient care, diagnose, and prescribe pharmacological treatments for patients with mental health disorders.

Health Behavioral Theories

Theories can assist in the design of behavior change interventions in several ways, promoting understanding of health behavior, directing research, and facilitating the transferability of an intervention to a health problem, geographic area, or setting. health care to another. Behavior change, especially those related to health and safety, can be difficult. Before we proceed with developing a project to create a system focused on food safety, we should note numerous published theories specifically on behavior change (Eccles, M., Grimshaw, Walker, Johnston, & Pitts, 2005).

· Theory of behavior: The theory of behavior is largely based on BF Skinner’s work on operant conditioning. According to this theory, changes in behavior are a response to stimuli in the environment. The theory is based on the “pairing” of the reaction or desired behavior with a reinforcement. Repeated pairing the desired behavior with positive or negative reinforcement can increase and decrease behavior (Hardeman, Johnston, Johnston, Bonetti, Wareham, & Kinmonth, 2002).

· Social cognitive theory: According to cognitive theories, humans are more complex than a series of responses to external stimuli. The social cognitive theory emphasizes that environmental and personal factors influence behavior, and a person’s behavior can be influenced by his beliefs, attitudes, and perceptions. The central concepts in social cognitive theory are those related to skills and self-efficacy. If a person receives an incentive associated with a specific behavior, she believes that she can perform it (Self-efficacy). Successful behavior performance increases the likelihood that this behavior will be repeated in the future (Stone, 1998).

· Health Belief Model: This model is one of the most used by health professionals dealing with health-related behaviors. It is based on four key concepts. The first is that the individual’s perception of the susceptibility or risk of contracting a disease or having an injury. For example, when considering family medical history, a person believes that the probability of developing cancer has increased. The probability that they will listen to or pay more attention to health advice related to this topic increases. The second is a person’s perception of how severe injuries or illnesses can be; Injuries or illnesses that don’t seem so severe are unlikely to get anyone’s attention. The third concept is a person’s perception of the benefits of practicing preventive actions; If a person doubts the effectiveness of a recommendation or advice to remedy a situation, they are unlikely to follow it. And, finally, the fourth concept is related to the perception of a barrier that prevents taking action. Barriers can vary and include financial, cultural, or training aspects (such as mastery of a foreign language); For example, if a person perceives that eating healthy implies a higher cost, they are less likely to change their eating habits. Constraints of the model involve the following:

· It does not consider a person’s feelings, beliefs, or other individual determinants that dictate their acceptance of health behavior.

· It does not consider habitual behaviors and thus may advise the decision-making procedure to allow a suggested activity (e.g., smoking).

· It does not consider the behaviors that are accomplished for non-health-related purposes, such as common suitability.

· It does not consider environmental or economic considerations that may exclude or encourage the suggested activity.

· It presumes that every person has access to equivalent quantities of knowledge on the ill-health or disorder.

· It accepts that action keys are widely predominant in inspiring people to take action and that “health” activities are the most important objective in the decision-making process (Boskey, 2020).

Theory of Reasoned Action: The primary focus of this theory is on intentions, attitudes, and beliefs. According to this theory, a person’s attempt to carry out a specific behavior is primarily motivated by intention. Two key factors influence a person’s intentions, their health beliefs. One, her level of intention is higher if she has a positive attitude about the behavior. Second, her level of intention is higher if they are motivated to comply with a social norm ((Hale, Householder, & Greene, 2002).

Source: to an external site.

· Transtheoretical Model (Stages of change): This model explains behavior change as a series of six stages that a person goes through related to their readiness for change. The stages are: i) Pre-contemplation; ii) Contemplation; iii) Preparation; iv) Action; v) Maintenance; vi) Termination. Using this theory, specific interventions should be used to influence behavior change according to the person’s stage.

· Precontemplation – In this step, people do not plan to take action in the immediate future (described as within the next 6 months). Individuals are frequently uninformed that their conduct is challenging or generates harmful consequences. People in this phase frequently misjudge the pros of changing behavior and emphasize the cons of changing behavior.

· Contemplation – In this stage, people intend to start healthy behavior in the foreseeable future (defined as within the next six months). Individuals understand that their behavior may be problematic. More thoughtful and practical consideration of the pros and cons of changing the behavior occurs, with the same importance positioned on both. Even with this acknowledgment, people may still feel hesitant toward adjusting their behavior.

· Preparation (Determination) – In this step, people are prepared to make changes within the next 30 days. Individuals start to take small steps toward conduct change, and they consider changing their conduct can lead to an improved life.

· Action – In this stage, people have just changed their behavior (defined as within the last six months) and expect to keep pushing forward with that behavior modification. People may demonstrate this by adjusting their problematic behavior or developing new healthy activities.

· Maintenance – In this phase, people have prolonged their behavior adjustment for a while (defined as more than six months) and anticipate maintaining the performance change going frontward. People in this stage work out to avoid decline to earlier phases.

· Termination – In this phase, people have no wish to return to their harmful actions and are convinced they will not decline. Because this is not often achieved, and people have a tendency to stay in the previous stage, this stage is frequently not deemed in health promotion plans ( Prochaska & Velicer, 1997).  

· Social Marketing: Social marketing theory is a collection of theories that promote socially valuable information. Social and welfare organizations have used this theory to help promote or discourage various behaviors. The theory is administrative in that it pursues to define a context that can be used to create, execute and assess information movements. The objective audience is recognized based on their information need. Once this is done, information is packaged and distributed to be easily accessible to the intended audience. The theory emerged in the 1970s when marketing techniques were realized to sell ideas, attitudes, and behaviors rather than products and include the concept of “Edutainment” (Education and Entertainment). The theory was proposed by Philip Kotler and Gerald Zaltman, which social and welfare organizations are now using. Social marketing is not social media marketing. Although as such, it is not a theory about behavior, it has a series of procedures that can be used to promote change related to health behavior; it is an application of commercial marketing technologies for examination, planning, implementation, and assessment of programs intended to affect the intended conduct of board audiences in order to improve personal well-being and that of society (Bandura, 2004).


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