– Remember that your answers must be direct and to the point, or brief, as the goal is to write this in 5 pages. No points are detracted for lengthier submissions (e.g. 8 pages) if all instructions have been followed. The submission should double spaced with 1” margins all around, using 11 or 12 font. Please answer the following questions, while adhering to the APA (6th edition) guidelines, requiring citing of all references, including author, year, and page number. Please read and review the APA GUIDE AND KEYHOLE PAPER METHOD WRITING I created (and the HBSS POSTING TIPS GUIDE AND GETTING RIGHT THE DETAILS OF APA AND SCHOLARLY WRITING) posted for your convenience as tutorials on Moodle. In addition, you must have an opening thesis statement (i.e., Note the following example of an opening thesis statement: This paper will present a summary discussion of the principles which guide health-related behavioral and social change, as they are derived from the following theories: 1) stages of change theory, 2) motivational interviewing theory, and 3) relapse prevention theory). It is also suggested that these also be your three main headings in the body of your paper [i.e. Stages of Change (SOC); Motivational Interviewing (MI); Relapse Prevention (RP)].
This assignment requires access to the following books;
Motivational Interviewing: Helping People Change, 3rd Edition. ISBN# 978-1-60918-227-4 or 978-1-4625-0757-3
Relapse Prevention: Maintenance Strategies in the Treatment of Addictive Behaviors, 2nd Edition ISBN#1-59385-176-6
STAGES OF CHANGE (recommended paper sub-heading—as per the APA GUIDE)
1A-How do DiClemente and Velasquez (2002) describe the stages of change—in brief (1 sentence for each stage). Indicate the timing/duration/length of the action and maintenance stages; please locate the answer (please search for it, as it is there) [answer location = pp. 204-213. [NOTE: Please, ciite authors of the chapter, not editors of the book] [Do not describe the four types of precontemplators!]
RATIONALE FOR INTEGRATING APPROACHES AND WIDE APPLICATIONS (recommended paper sub-heading—as per the APA GUIDE)
1B-What is the relationship between the stages of change and motivational interviewing, according to DiClemente Velasquez (2002)? [answer location on pp. 202-203]
2A-According to Miller and Rollnick (2013), most cognitive-behavioral therapies are designed for those in what stage of change, and what question arises with regard to those in the earlier stages? Given this situation, how was MI as a clinical tool originally conceptualized? [answer location = p. 373] And, summarize [without using as cited in!] how MI has been integrated with other approaches, can be more than a prelude to other treatment, and is applicable throughout the stages of change to X,Y,Z (state it); and, explain their view on using MI as a stand-alone treatment to compete with other approaches [answer location=p.300]
2B-Explain the alternation model and integration model [answer location = p. 340 –without using as cited in!]. Briefly cite approaches with which MI has been integrated or combined [answer location = p. 341 – without using as cited in!]
3A-Briefly summarize how there is evidence that MI has been used effectively via telephone or audio link (without using as cited in!) and in a group format, via computer/text formats, and interactive journaling, in family consultations [pp. 337-339], and cross culturally [answer location = p. 348—without using as cited in!]
3B-Briefly list some of the types of professionals who have used MI, or their role [pp. 341-342] . And, briefly describe the types of settings where brief MI consultations have been conducted [answer location = pp. 343 -346– without using as cited in!]
MOTIVATIONAL INTERVIEWING (recommended paper sub-heading—as per the APA GUIDE)
4- According to Miller and Rollnick (2013), what is the layman’s definition of MI? [answer location p.12] What is the pragmatic definition of MI for practitioners? [pp. 21-22] What is the technical definition of MI? [answer location = p. 29]
5.-What is the role of partnership, acceptance, compassion, and evocation in MI? Briefly explain each of these four key aspects of the underlying spirit of MI, including how we should understand
acceptance and its four elements? [answer location p. 19] Be sure to cover the essence of evocation and how is it different from a deficit approach. [answer location = pp 20-21]
6.-What are the four key processes of MI? Please briefly explain each MI process. [answer location = pp. 26-30]
7.-What are the five core skills, or core communication skills, or core interviewing skills in motivational interviewing? Please briefly explain each of the five skills. Briefly, explain the role for informing and advising. Include explanation of the acronym OARS in your answer. [answer location = pp. 32-35; pp 62-69]
8.-What are the five recommended ethical guidelines for the practice of MI? Briefly explain each one [answer location = p. 129]
9A.-What is change talk? Please explain the four sub-types of preparatory change talk—or, DARN. [answer location= p. 159-161] And, what is mobilizing change talk? Please explain commitment language, activation, and taking steps—OR CATS. [answer location= pp. 161-162] Briefly, explain confidence talk .[answer location=p. 215] Briefly explain how the confidence ruler can be used to elicit confidence talk.
9B-What is sustain talk, briefly? [answer location =p. 197] Please briefly explain the reflective responses to sustain talk. [answer location = pp. 198-204]. When does a practitioner experience discord, or what are signs of discord—in brief? [answer location = pp. 204-206] Briefly explain the recommended responses to discord? [answer location =pp. 209-201]
10-What is the role of developing discrepancy, or creating cognitive dissonance in MI? How does it work, briefly [answer location = p. 243] Describe the situation when one needs to instill discrepancy [answer location= pp. 247-248] What is the role of exploring goals and values in developing discrepancy? [answer location = 252-253]
11-Once a practitioner sees signs of readiness to change, what is the key question to ask? [answer location =p. 265] Within the planning process, please provide the five component tasks in path mapping. [answer location = p. 276] For option # 2, include mention of how you can offer a menu of options. [answer location = p. 276]
RELAPSE PREVENTION (recommended paper sub-heading—as per the APA GUIDE)
12-As a form of tertiary prevention, please describe the two specific aims of RP and the ultimate goal of RP. [answer location in Marlatt & Witkiewitz, 2005, p. 1]
13-Given that relapse is a process and an outcome (state this in your paper), what are possible outcomes of the relapse process, and explain how it may be a common denominator. [answer location in Marlatt & Witkiewitz, 2005, p. 2]
3 – PART I – PART B of the CCEP – ANSWER QUESTIONS # 12-20
14-Describe and explain the concept of a high-risk situation for relapse and research findings on determinants of relapse, specifically citing the 3 most common determinants of relapse found in research by Cummings, Gordon and Marlatt (1980), and the interpersonal and intrapersonal determinants of relapse with all of the subcategories under each [answer in one of the Marlatt (1985) chapters]. Briefly, in the NIAAA funded RREP studies, what were most commonly identified as high risk situations for relapse (Lowman et, al, 1996), and what were the overall recommendations based on the set of studies [answer location in Marlatt & Witkiewitz, 2005, p. 9].
15-Explain self efficacy in relation to coping in high risk situations for relapse. How does self- efficacy change in relation to successful versus unsuccessful coping in a high risk situation for relapse [answer in one of the Marlatt (1985) chapters].
16-Summarize the cognitive-behavioral model and its components, using an individual’s response to a high risk situation, including what happens if the individuals lack an effective coping response and what mediates the decision to engage or not engage in a problem behavior. [answer location in Marlatt & Witkiewitz, 2005, pp. 2, 3, and figure 1.2 on page 22]
17-Explain how the AVE operates, including an explanation of what it is, the components, what happens depending upon how a person views a lapse, and the role it plays in predicting relapse. [answer location in Marlatt & Witkiewitz, 2005, p. 3]
18-Describe treatment approaches using RP as a framework, including an explanation of the role of the following components: behavioral, cognitive, educational, lapse management, lifestyle balance/lifestyle self-management, and relapse road maps [answer location in Marlatt & Witkiewitz, 2005, pp. 4-5]
19-Briefly, briefly, briefly, summarize the effectiveness and efficacy research on RP [answer location in Marlatt & Witkiewitz, 2005, pp. 5-6].
20-In their proposed reformulation of the relapse process in a dynamic model, what are the elements operating in what they describe as an individual’s response being a self-organizing system, incorporating 1) distal factors, 2) cognitive processes, and 3) cognitive-behavioral coping skills? Provides their examples of each of these three factors. [answer location in Marlatt & Witkiewitz, 2005, p. 22]