MPS620 All Modules Discussions (May 2019)

MPS 620 Applied Research Methods and Statistics

Module 1 Discussion

DQ1 Introductions

Welcome! Let’s take a moment to introduce ourselves to each other. Tell us a little bit about your background, family, work, goals, and plans for the future, etc. Please make your original post and respond to at least one other student in the course.

DQ2 Independent Variable versus Dependent Variable

1a. Identify a recently available peer reviewed research study found in the Library on the keyword of “Media”. Please provide the corresponding APA format citation in your discussion post.

1b. Identify and briefly explain the Independent Variable(s) and Dependent variable(s) for this research article that you chose from the Library. Furthermore, identify and explain some of the confounding variables in this research study.

MPS 620 Applied Research Methods and Statistics

Module 2 Discussion

DQ1 Types of Quantitative Research

1a. After reading the assigned reading and videos, identify a recently available peer reviewed research study that used a Quantitative Research on the keywords of “Self Esteem AND Ethnicity” found in the Library. Please provide the corresponding APA format citation in your discussion post.

1b. Based on the article that you have identified from the Library, please identify the type of quantitative research design that was used in this study and explain 3 features or characteristics of this research study that allows you to categorize this as a quantitative research study.

DQ2 Quantitative versus Qualitative Research

2a. Based on the assigned reading, describe the strengths and weaknesses of Quantitative and Qualitative Research studies.

2b. Describe and explain the benefits of using the mixed methods approach to complement the strengths between Quantitative and Qualitative Research methods.

MPS 620 Applied Research Methods and Statistics

Module 3 Discussion

DQ1 Sampling

1a. Based on the videos and assigned article, identify and explain the strengths and limitations related to sampling of participants.

1b. Identify and explain a public opinion poll related that has been published online in the last 6 months. Please provide a link to the news report. Based on reviewing the information from the public opinion poll you have identified, what are the limitations related to concepts related to sampling that might be related to this public opinion poll?

DQ2Experimenter Bias in Research

2a. Based on the assigned video and reading, identify and explain the key issues related to experimenter or publication bias in psychology

MPS 620 Applied Research Methods and Statistics

Module 4 Discussion

DQ1 Case Study: Identifying threats to Internal Validity and External Validity

1a. Based on the assigned video, identify at least one threat to internal validity and at least one threat to external validity from the research study provided below.

A researcher compared the effectiveness of compressed versus distributed practice in preparing for a memory test. The independent variable for the study was the type of practice (compressed versus distributed practice) and the dependent variable was the performance on the memory test. Each of two groups memorized the definitions of 40 vocabulary words. In group A, there were 50 participants who were all under twenty-five years of age. Participants in group A used the method of distributed practice, studying for 30 minutes on each of four evenings. They were all tested together on the fifth morning at 7:00 A.M at a community college classroom. Due to the length of the study, over 4 evenings, only 30 participants were able to be tested on the 5th morning at 7:00 A.M. In group B, there were 50 participants who were all over sixty years of age. Participants in group B used the method of compressed practice, studying only from 6:30 P.M. to 8:30 P.M. on the evening before the test. They were tested the next morning at 7:00 A.M at their individual homes. All participants completed a recall test. The test measured how quickly participants recalled the definitions of the vocabulary words. The results showed that the mean difference between the distributed practice group and the compressed practice group was statistically different from each other.

1b. Explain how you would change the research study above to help reduce the threat to internal validity that you had identified.

1c. Explain how you would change the research study above to help reduce the threat to external validity that you had identified.

DQ2 Reliability

If you were going to design your own assessment measure of depression and you wanted to publish it so that clinicians could use it to determine whether their clients met criteria for depression, describe at least two types of reliability and two types of validity that you would consider most important for your measure to have and explain why. Please cite sources to support your points and respond to at least one of your peer’s posts.

MPS 620 Applied Research Methods and Statistics

Module 5 Discussion

DQ1 Historical and Philosophical context of research ethics

1a. After reading the assigned article, identify and explain at least 3 historical or philosophical reasons why ethical considerations are needed when conducting research in the field of psychology.

1b. Describe and explain what additional (social, cultural, legal) considerations do you think psychology researchers should include when conducting ethical research studies in the field of psychology

Be sure to provide specific examples and respond to another student. Please make sure to cite your sources.

DQ2 Case Study: Ethics

Case study: (Adopted from Muriel J. Bebeau, et al., Moral Reasoning in Scientific Research: Cases for Teaching and Assessment. Bloomington, Indiana: Poynter Center, 1995.)

Dr. Judy Brewster, long interested in the effects of exposure to maladaptive environments on development, plans to design a study to examine resilience. To learn more about the characteristics associated with resilience to environmental insult, Jane will study fourth, sixth and eighth graders who have been exposed to violence within their communities.

Youths will be assessed at six-month intervals for a period of four years. Assessments will be conducted in school through group-administered written surveys and individual interviews of approximately one to two hours in length. The amount and frequency of exposure to community violence will be measured, as well as short- and long-term psychological (anxiety, depression, perception of social support), behavioral (academic achievement, risk engagement) and coping responses.

Ms. Rosen, the principal of a private religious school, has agreed to allow her school to participate in the study. She is eager to assist her students and suggests that Judy begin at once. When Judy asks for advice on how to approach parents for their permission, the principal says it would be difficult to obtaining responses from every parent in the fourth, sixth, and eighth grades; Ms. Rosen suggests that a letter be sent to parents advising them that the study will be conducted and asking them to return the permission form if they do not want their child to participate.

Approximately two years into her study, Judy notices two distinct patterns of adaptation. Some of the children exhibit signs of distress, anxiety and depression, and report that they have begun to engage in multiple risk behaviors such as substance use, delinquency, violence and sexual promiscuity. Other children show no signs of distress, or have outgrown and discontinued such behaviors. Judy is concerned about the acting-out youth, but she notes that many children have engaged in such behaviors and later discontinued engagement.

2a. Based on the case study presented above, identify and explain at least one ethical concern in this study. Furthermore, please explain how the researcher can address this concern in order to ensure the ethical guidelines to participating in the research studies are being followed.

MPS 620 Applied Research Methods and Statistics

Module 6 Discussion

DQ1 Statistical Literacy

1a. If you were going to convince a close friend to develop statistical literacy, identify and explain 3 key arguments and examples you would use to show them the need of being statistically literate.

1b. Identify a recent statistical result related to the science or practice of psychology that has been reported by an established online media outlet (i.e. New York Times, Huffington Post, Reuters, CNN) in the past 6 months. Please provide a link to the news report and briefly summarize the context of the statistical result you are reporting

1c. Using the 4 criteria for statistical literacy from the assigned article, please critique or identify the limitations of the statistical result you are sharing to your classmates.

DQ2 Infographics and Data visualization

2a. Based on the assigned reading and video, describe and explain the multiple advantages and disadvantages of developing Infographics and Data visualization to communicate statistical results.

2b. Identify an infographic related to the science or practice of psychology that has been published online in the last 6 months. Please provide a link to the infographic.

2c. Using the 4 criteria for statistical literacy from previous threaded discussion posting, please critique or identify the limitations of the statistical result of the infographic you have provided.

MPS 620 Applied Research Methods and Statistics

Module 7 Discussion

DQ1 Independent Samples T-test Analysis

1a, Identify an available peer reviewed research study that used an independent samples t-test statistical analysis found in the Library within the topic of “Personality”. Please provide the corresponding APA format citation in your discussion post.

1b. Identify and briefly explain the levels (i.e. conditions) of the Independent Variable and the corresponding Dependent variable for the independent samples t-test used in this research article that you chose from the Library. In your own words, briefly describe the results of the independent samples t-test analysis with corresponding averages and standard deviations (Note: the peer reviewed research article may have multiple statistical analyses reported, but please limit your discussion on only one independent samples t-test statistical analysis in the peer reviewed research paper)

DQ2 One-Way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) Analysis

1a, Identify an available peer reviewed research study that used a One-way ANOVA statistical analysis found in the Library within the topic of “Stress”. Please provide the corresponding APA format citation in your discussion post

1b. Identify and briefly explain the levels (i.e. conditions) of the Independent Variable and the corresponding Dependent variable for the ANOVA used in this research article that you chose from the Library. In your own words, briefly describe the results of the ANOVA analysis with corresponding averages and standard deviations (Note: the peer reviewed research article may have multiple statistical analyses reported, but please limit your discussion on only one ANOVA statistical analysis in the peer reviewed research paper)

MPS 620 Applied Research Methods and Statistics

Module 8 Discussion

DQ1 Correlation and Multiple Linear Regression

1a. Based on the assigned videos and readings, identify and explain the key limitations of the correlation results reported in any research study.

1b. Based on the assigned reading, describe and explain the differences between a correlation versus a multiple linear regression.

DQ2 Key Lessons from the course

Of the different statistical procedures that we discussed including correlations, one-way ANOVAs, independent t-tests, and multiple regression analyses, please explain which one you found the most interesting and why? Also please describe the most challenging analysis and why you found it to be challenging. Please respond to a peer as well.