NURS8310 WEEK 6 QUIZ QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS

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Question 1
6 / 6 pts
The odds ratio of exposure and the odds ratio of disease are mathematically equivalent.

True

False

Question 2
6 / 6 pts
The purpose of matching in a case-control study is to select the controls in such a way that the control group has the same distribution as the cases with respect to certain confounding variables.

True

False

Question 3
6 / 6 pts
The fundamental tool for etiologic studies of both acute and chronic diseases

This is a use primarily for incidence data.

This is a use primarily for prevalence data.

This application could apply equally for both incidence and prevalence data.

This is a use for neither incidence data nor prevalence data.

Question 4
6 / 6 pts
The crude death rate is defined as the number of deaths in a given year divided by a reference population (during mid-point of the year) times 100,000.

True

False

Question 5
6 / 6 pts
Techniques to reduce information bias include the following:

Use memory aids and validate exposures.

Provide standardized training sessions and protocols.

Use standardized collection forms.

Try to ensure that questions are clearly understood.

All of the above

Question 6
6 / 6 pts
In a study to determine the incidence of a chronic disease, 150 people were examined at the end of a 3-year period. Twelve cases were found, giving a cumulative risk of 8%. Fifty other members of the initial cohort could not be examined; 20 of these 50 could not be examined because they died. Which source of bias may have affected the study?

Information bias (interviewer/abstractor bias)

Hawthorne effect

Selection bias (survival bias)

Information bias (recall bias)

Question 7
6 / 6 pts
Certain diseases can occur more than once in the same individual during a stated period of time. Repeated cases of the disease have no effect upon incidence rates.

True

False

Question 8
6 / 6 pts
When the duration of a disease becomes short and the incidence is high, the prevalence becomes similar to incidence.

True

False

Question 9
6 / 6 pts
Blood pressure measurements on adult males 30–39 years of age were obtained in a survey of a representative sample of Twin Cities households. To compare the frequency of hypertension in the white and non-white population surveyed, the most appropriate measure is the:

incidence rate

prevalence

race-specific incidence rate

race-specific prevalence

race-specific age-adjusted prevalence

Question 10
6 / 6 pts
The major disadvantage of crude rates is that:

They may not allow for comparison of populations that differ in size.

They do not permit comparison of populations that vary in composition.

They are difficult to calculate from available data sources.

All of the above

Question 11
6 / 6 pts
The incidence rate of a disease is defined as the number of new cases of the disease over a time period divided by the total population (at risk) during the same time period times a multiplier (e.g., 100,000).

True

False

Question 12
6 / 6 pts
To provide a direct estimate of the risk of developing a disease:

Incidence data is used.

Prevalence data is used.

Both incidence and prevalence data are used.

Neither incidence data nor prevalence data are used.

Question 13
6 / 6 pts
To express the burden or extent of some condition or attribute in a population:

Incidence data is used.

Prevalence data is used.

Both incidence and prevalence data are used.

Neither incidence data nor prevalence data are used.

Question 14
6 / 6 pts
You are investigating the role of physical activity in heart disease and suggest that physical activity protects against having a heart attack. While presenting these data to your colleagues, someone asks if you thought about confounders, such as factor X. This factor could have confounded your interpretation of the data if it:

Is a factor for some other disease but not heart disease

Is a factor associated with physical activity and heart disease

Is part of the pathway by which physical activity affects heart disease

Has caused a lack of follow-up of test subjects

IncorrectQuestion 15
0 / 6 pts
For a chronic disease of low incidence and long duration, prevalence of the disease decreases relative to incidence.

True

False

Question 16
6 / 6 pts
The purpose of a double-blind study is to:

Achieve comparability of cases and controls.

Reduce the effects of sampling variation.

Avoid observer and interviewee bias.

Avoid observer bias and sampling variation.

Avoid interviewee bias and sampling variation.

Question 17
6 / 6 pts
The point prevalence of a disease is defined as the number of persons ill divided by the total number in the group at a point in time.

True

False

IncorrectQuestion 18
0 / 6 pts
Case-control study designs are useful for assessing the efficacy of interventions because the odds ratio is usually a good estimate of the relative risk.

True

False

Question 19
6 / 6 pts
The incidence of a disease is five times greater in men than in women, but the prevalence shows no sex difference. The most likely explanation is that:

The mortality rate is greater in women.

The case fatality rate is greater in women.

The duration of the disease is greater in women.

Women receive less adequate medical care for the disease.

Question 20
6 / 6 pts
The risk of acquiring a given disease during a time period is best determined by:

The mortality rate from that disease in the 0–4 age group

A spot map that records all cases of the disease in the past year

The period prevalence for that disease during the past year

The incidence rate (cumulative incidence) for that disease in a given period of time

 

Question 1
0 / 6 pts
The major disadvantage of crude rates is that:

They may not allow for comparison of populations that differ in size.

They do not permit comparison of populations that vary in composition.

They are difficult to calculate from available data sources.

All of the above

IncorrectQuestion 2
0 / 6 pts
The purpose of a double-blind study is to:

Achieve comparability of cases and controls.

Reduce the effects of sampling variation.

Avoid observer and interviewee bias.

Avoid observer bias and sampling variation.

Avoid interviewee bias and sampling variation.

IncorrectQuestion 3
0 / 6 pts
When the duration of a disease becomes short and the incidence is high, the prevalence becomes similar to incidence.

True

False

Question 4
6 / 6 pts
When an odds ratio is used to estimate the relative risk:

It tends to minimize the magnitude of the association.

An odds ratio should never be used to estimate the relative risk.

The odds ratio must take into account all possible confounders

It usually gives an estimate further from 1.0 than the relative risk would be.

Question 5
6 / 6 pts
You are investigating the role of physical activity in heart disease and suggest that physical activity protects against having a heart attack. While presenting these data to your colleagues, someone asks if you thought about confounders, such as factor X. This factor could have confounded your interpretation of the data if it:

Is a factor for some other disease but not heart disease

Is a factor associated with physical activity and heart disease

Is part of the pathway by which physical activity affects heart disease

Has caused a lack of follow-up of test subjects

IncorrectQuestion 6
0 / 6 pts
When assessing a positive relationship between alcohol consumption and oral cancer using a case-control study, increasing the sample size of the study will result in which of the following? (Select all that apply.)
1. A lower p value
2. A greater odds ratio
3. A smaller 95% confidence interval
4. A higher disease prevalence
Choose the best response.

1 and 3 only

2 and 4 only

1, 2, and 3 only

All of the above

None of the above

Question 7
6 / 6 pts
In a study to determine the incidence of a chronic disease, 150 people were examined at the end of a 3-year period. Twelve cases were found, giving a cumulative risk of 8%. Fifty other members of the initial cohort could not be examined; 20 of these 50 could not be examined because they died. Which source of bias may have affected the study?

Information bias (interviewer/abstractor bias)

Hawthorne effect

Selection bias (survival bias)

Information bias (recall bias)

IncorrectQuestion 8
0 / 6 pts
Case-control study designs are useful for assessing the efficacy of interventions because the odds ratio is usually a good estimate of the relative risk.

True

False

Question 9
6 / 6 pts
The incidence rate of a disease is defined as the number of new cases of the disease over a time period divided by the total population (at risk) during the same time period times a multiplier (e.g., 100,000).

True

False

Question 10
6 / 6 pts
A causal association between factor and outcome can refer to:

A. Statistical independence

B. Secondary association

C. Indirect association

D. Direct association

E. Both C and D

Question 11
6 / 6 pts
The attributable risk estimates the:

Relative risk associated with an exposure

Absolute excess risk associated with an exposure

Odds of exposure among those with the outcome

Odds of the outcome among those who are exposed

Question 12
6 / 6 pts
Certain diseases can occur more than once in the same individual during a stated period of time. Repeated cases of the disease have no effect upon incidence rates.

True

False

IncorrectQuestion 13
0 / 6 pts
The fundamental tool for etiologic studies of both acute and chronic diseases

This is a use primarily for incidence data.

This is a use primarily for prevalence data.

This application could apply equally for both incidence and prevalence data.

This is a use for neither incidence data nor prevalence data.

Question 14
6 / 6 pts
For a chronic disease of low incidence and long duration, prevalence of the disease decreases relative to incidence.

True

False

Question 15
6 / 6 pts
The risk of acquiring a given disease during a time period is best determined by:

The mortality rate from that disease in the 0–4 age group

A spot map that records all cases of the disease in the past year

The period prevalence for that disease during the past year

The incidence rate (cumulative incidence) for that disease in a given period of time

IncorrectQuestion 16
0 / 6 pts
The strategy that is not aimed at reducing selection bias is:

Development of an explicit case definition

Encouragement of high participation rates

Standardized protocol for structured interviews

Enrollment of all cases in a defined time and region

Question 17
6 / 6 pts
To express the burden or extent of some condition or attribute in a population:

Incidence data is used.

Prevalence data is used.

Both incidence and prevalence data are used.

Neither incidence data nor prevalence data are used.

Question 18
6 / 6 pts
The odds ratio of exposure and the odds ratio of disease are mathematically equivalent.

True

False

Question 19
6 / 6 pts
If it is accepted that an observed association is a causal one, an estimate of the impact that a successful preventive program might have can be derived from:

Relative risk

Higher life expectancy

Attributable risk

Prevalence rates

All of the above

Question 20
6 / 6 pts
Successful treatment programs that would shorten the duration of a disease primarily affect:

The prevalence of the disease

The incidence of the disease

Both the incidence and the prevalence of the disease

None of the above
Question 1
6 / 6 pts
A causal association between factor and outcome can refer to:

A. Statistical independence

B. Secondary association

C. Indirect association

D. Direct association

E. Both C and D

Question 2
6 / 6 pts
The incidence of a disease is five times greater in men than in women, but the prevalence shows no sex difference. The most likely explanation is that:

The mortality rate is greater in women.

The case fatality rate is greater in women.

The duration of the disease is greater in women.

Women receive less adequate medical care for the disease.

Question 3
6 / 6 pts
For a chronic disease of low incidence and long duration, prevalence of the disease decreases relative to incidence.

True

False

Question 4
6 / 6 pts
If it is accepted that an observed association is a causal one, an estimate of the impact that a successful preventive program might have can be derived from:

Relative risk

Higher life expectancy

Attributable risk

Prevalence rates

All of the above

IncorrectQuestion 5
0 / 6 pts
Which of the following is NOT a method for controlling the effects of confounding in epidemiologic studies?

Randomization

Stratification

Matching

Blinding

Restriction

Question 6
6 / 6 pts
The crude death rate is defined as the number of deaths in a given year divided by a reference population (during mid-point of the year) times 100,000.

True

False

Question 7
6 / 6 pts
The purpose of matching in a case-control study is to select the controls in such a way that the control group has the same distribution as the cases with respect to certain confounding variables.

True

False

Question 8
6 / 6 pts
The risk of acquiring a given disease during a time period is best determined by:

The mortality rate from that disease in the 0–4 age group

A spot map that records all cases of the disease in the past year

The period prevalence for that disease during the past year

The incidence rate (cumulative incidence) for that disease in a given period of time

Question 9
6 / 6 pts
To provide a direct estimate of the risk of developing a disease:

Incidence data is used.

Prevalence data is used.

Both incidence and prevalence data are used.

Neither incidence data nor prevalence data are used.

Question 10
6 / 6 pts
The odds ratio of exposure and the odds ratio of disease are mathematically equivalent.

True

False

Question 11
6 / 6 pts
When the duration of a disease becomes short and the incidence is high, the prevalence becomes similar to incidence.

True

False

Question 12
6 / 6 pts
The attributable risk estimates the:

Relative risk associated with an exposure

Absolute excess risk associated with an exposure

Odds of exposure among those with the outcome

Odds of the outcome among those who are exposed

Question 13
6 / 6 pts
You are investigating the role of physical activity in heart disease and suggest that physical activity protects against having a heart attack. While presenting these data to your colleagues, someone asks if you thought about confounders, such as factor X. This factor could have confounded your interpretation of the data if it:

Is a factor for some other disease but not heart disease

Is a factor associated with physical activity and heart disease

Is part of the pathway by which physical activity affects heart disease

Has caused a lack of follow-up of test subjects

Question 14
6 / 6 pts
Successful treatment programs that would shorten the duration of a disease primarily affect:

The prevalence of the disease

The incidence of the disease

Both the incidence and the prevalence of the disease

None of the above

IncorrectQuestion 15
0 / 6 pts
The strategy that is not aimed at reducing selection bias is:

Development of an explicit case definition

Encouragement of high participation rates

Standardized protocol for structured interviews

Enrollment of all cases in a defined time and region

Question 16
6 / 6 pts
When an odds ratio is used to estimate the relative risk:

It tends to minimize the magnitude of the association.

An odds ratio should never be used to estimate the relative risk.

The odds ratio must take into account all possible confounders

It usually gives an estimate further from 1.0 than the relative risk would be.

Question 17
6 / 6 pts
Surgeons at Hospital A report a 15% mortality rate at the end of a 1-year follow-up after a new coronary bypass procedure. At Hospital B, the surgeons report a 1-year mortality rate of 8% for the same procedure. Before concluding that the surgeons at Hospital B have vastly superior skill, which of the following possible confounders would you examine?

The severity (stage) of disease of the patients at the two hospitals at baseline

The starting point of the 1-year follow-up at both hospitals (after operation versus after discharge)

Difference in the post-operative care at the two hospitals

Equally thorough follow-up for mortality

All of the above

Question 18
6 / 6 pts
The purpose of a double-blind study is to:

Achieve comparability of cases and controls.

Reduce the effects of sampling variation.

Avoid observer and interviewee bias.

Avoid observer bias and sampling variation.

Avoid interviewee bias and sampling variation.

Question 19
6 / 6 pts
The point prevalence of a disease is defined as the number of persons ill divided by the total number in the group at a point in time.

True

False

Question 20
6 / 6 pts
The major disadvantage of crude rates is that:

They may not allow for comparison of populations that differ in size.

They do not permit comparison of populations that vary in composition.

They are difficult to calculate from available data sources.

All of the above
Qu

 

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