Nursing pathophysiology case study assignment

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Assignment #1: Musculoskeletal Conditions 

Please kindly use (APA, 7th ed.) references separately under each question.

Case Study 

Mrs. L is a 63-year-old woman who reports constant back pain. Further inquiry into her medical history revealed that over the past 3 years, she has suffered fractures of her femur and wrist after minor falls. She experienced menopause at age 49. Mrs. L has a secretarial job, drives to work, and she “does not have time for exercise.” She reports that she consumes 8 to 10 cups of coffee a day and has been a smoker most of her adult life. She has not seen her physician recently nor had a recommended bone density test because of the time and cost involved.

Questions

. Relate Mrs. L’s history to the diagnosis of osteoporosis. What risk factors are present,

  and how does each predispose to decreased bone density?

. Explain the cause of pathological fractures in this patient.

. How could osteoporosis have been prevented in Mrs. L? 

. Discuss the treatments available to the patient.

Assignment  #2: Cardiovascular system 

Please kindly use (APA, 7th ed.) references separately under each question.

Case Study: 

Mr. K. is a 57-year-old man who consulted his physician after noticing marked leg pains while playing golf. He had previously noticed increasing fatigue and discomfort in his legs associated with moderate exercise. When sitting for extended periods with legs dangling, his legs became red, and sometimes his feet felt numb. His history indicates he smokes cigarettes and is chronically overweight. His blood cholesterol and other lipid levels are abnormal, and his physician suspects peripheral atherosclerosis as the cause of his discomfort.

Questions

. Discuss the development of atherosclerosis, including the predisposing factors in this 

case and the pathophysiological changes. 

. Discuss the complications that might develop in this patient.

. Discuss the treatments for all aspects of the patient’s condition, including slowing the progress of the atherosclerosis, maintaining circulation in the leg, and treating complications.

Assignment #3: The Central Nervous system 

Please kindly use (APA, 7th ed.) references separately under each question.

Case Study 

Ms. J, a 19-year-old college student, has been living in a dormitory on campus. She began experiencing severe headaches, neck pain, and nuchal rigidity, along with irritability and nausea. She noticed that when lying with her hips flexed, she found it very hard to stretch out her legs. Within a day her condition deteriorated, she experienced a tonic-clonic seizure, and she was quickly admitted to the hospital. Tests revealed increased intracranial pressure, fever, and leukocytosis. Bacterial meningitis was suspected, and a lumbar puncture was scheduled.

Questions

. Describe the pathophysiologic changes associated with bacterial meningitis.

. Discuss the diagnostic tests available for identifying meningitis. What are the likely 

characteristics of the CSF to be found in this case?

. Which signs indicating elevated intracranial pressure are likely to be present?

. Discuss the treatments available to help this patient and possible long-term 

complications.

Assignment #4: Shock 

Please kindly use (APA, 7th ed.) references separately under each question.

Case Study 

Ms. L, a 19-year-old woman with no previous medical history, was involved in a serious automobile accident in which her best friend died. Examination by EMT personnel first on the scene revealed she had only minor scrapes and bruises and no sign of head trauma. While in route by ambulance to the hospital, Ms. L complained of thirst and appeared restless. Further examination indicated a rapid pulse and respirations, with her blood pressure now at 100/60 mm Hg. She appeared less responsive to the paramedics. She was slipping into circulatory shock as they checked her again for internal injuries.

Questions

. Discuss the contributing factors to shock in this case and the pathophysiologic 

changes causing the changes in vital signs. 

. Discuss the signs and symptoms of shock, including the rationale for each, as seen in 

the early stage, and as compensation mechanisms respond.

. Discuss emergency and follow-up treatment for shock and for complications that may

 arise if not treated quickly.

. Compare the types of shock, giving a specific cause, classification, and any significant 

changes in onset or manifestations.

Assignment #1: Musculoskeletal Conditions

Please kindly use (APA, 7th ed.) references separately under each question.

Case Study

Mrs. L is a 63-year-old woman who reports constant back pain. Further inquiry into her medical history revealed that over the past 3 years, she has suffered fractures of her femur and wrist after minor falls. She experienced menopause at age 49. Mrs. L has a secretarial job, drives to work, and she “does not have time for exercise.” She reports that she consumes 8 to 10 cups of coffee a day and has been a smoker most of her adult life. She has not seen her physician recently nor had a recommended bone density test because of the time and cost involved.

Questions

. Relate Mrs. L’s history to the diagnosis of osteoporosis. What risk factors are present,

and how does each predispose to decreased bone density?

. Explain the cause of pathological fractures in this patient.

. How could osteoporosis have been prevented in Mrs. L?

. Discuss the treatments available to the patient.

Assignment #2: Cardiovascular system

Please kindly use (APA, 7th ed.) references separately under each question.

Case Study:

Mr. K. is a 57-year-old man who consulted his physician after noticing marked leg pains while playing golf. He had previously noticed increasing fatigue and discomfort in his legs associated with moderate exercise. When sitting for extended periods with legs dangling, his legs became red, and sometimes his feet felt numb. His history indicates he smokes cigarettes and is chronically overweight. His blood cholesterol and other lipid levels are abnormal, and his physician suspects peripheral atherosclerosis as the cause of his discomfort.

Questions

. Discuss the development of atherosclerosis, including the predisposing factors in this

case and the pathophysiological changes.

. Discuss the complications that might develop in this patient.

. Discuss the treatments for all aspects of the patient’s condition, including slowing the progress of the atherosclerosis, maintaining circulation in the leg, and treating complications.

Assignment #3: The Central Nervous system

Please kindly use (APA, 7th ed.) references separately under each question.

Case Study

Ms. J, a 19-year-old college student, has been living in a dormitory on campus. She began experiencing severe headaches, neck pain, and nuchal rigidity, along with irritability and nausea. She noticed that when lying with her hips flexed, she found it very hard to stretch out her legs. Within a day her condition deteriorated, she experienced a tonic-clonic seizure, and she was quickly admitted to the hospital. Tests revealed increased intracranial pressure, fever, and leukocytosis. Bacterial meningitis was suspected, and a lumbar puncture was scheduled.

Questions

. Describe the pathophysiologic changes associated with bacterial meningitis.

. Discuss the diagnostic tests available for identifying meningitis. What are the likely

characteristics of the CSF to be found in this case?

. Which signs indicating elevated intracranial pressure are likely to be present?

. Discuss the treatments available to help this patient and possible long-term

complications.

Assignment #4: Shock

Please kindly use (APA, 7th ed.) references separately under each question.

Case Study

Ms. L, a 19-year-old woman with no previous medical history, was involved in a serious automobile accident in which her best friend died. Examination by EMT personnel first on the scene revealed she had only minor scrapes and bruises and no sign of head trauma. While in route by ambulance to the hospital, Ms. L complained of thirst and appeared restless. Further examination indicated a rapid pulse and respirations, with her blood pressure now at 100/60 mm Hg. She appeared less responsive to the paramedics. She was slipping into circulatory shock as they checked her again for internal injuries.

Questions

. Discuss the contributing factors to shock in this case and the pathophysiologic

changes causing the changes in vital signs.

. Discuss the signs and symptoms of shock, including the rationale for each, as seen in

the early stage, and as compensation mechanisms respond.

. Discuss emergency and follow-up treatment for shock and for complications that may

arise if not treated quickly.

. Compare the types of shock, giving a specific cause, classification, and any significant

changes in onset or manifestations.

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