(organizational behavior)

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The instructions are in the file uploaded. 

Rubrics for Team Exercise and Individual Assignment

Team Exercise

0     3 4 5
No submission     No connection to what we learn without efforts. Relevant to, but covers too little (not much effort) Touches on most of key points

Individual Assignments

0     3 4 5
No submission/ Copying others’ work     No connection to main OB topics, concepts, or theories in the chapter. Well linked to one of the main OB topics, concepts, or theories in the chapter. Sounds specific as action plans

Rubrics for Exam Answers

Short-answer Q

0     50% 75% 100%
No submission     No connection to what we learn at all. Touches on some main points without showing understanding Puts key points with clear understanding

Essay or Case-study Q

0     50% 75%-83% 100%
No submission/ Copying others’ work     No connection to what we learn. Touches on only some of the main points without clear understanding/
Simply summarizing the textbook or pp slides
Touches on most of main points with good understanding of them

Individual Assignment (Sample)

Ch. 6

Chapter 6

Idea 1: Job Design (Empowerment)

As a manager, it will be important for me to delegate tasks for a project in a way that makes the most of the employees I am working with. In order for them to work to their fullest potential and feel that their work is meaningful, I will need to consider designing each of their jobs uniquely. One way I can do this is through job enrichment. By giving my employees more autonomy and giving them more responsibility, I will hopefully be able to create a feeling of empowerment within them. As a result, I believe that this will increase their intrinsic motivation, as their increased responsibility and autonomy will make them believe that their work is important. This will allow me to improve my employees’ motivation without incentives and hopefully make them enjoy and appreciate their job more. Keeping them happy and motivated is my managerial goal in designing the job uniquely for each employee.

Idea 2: SMART Goals

In order to assure that my employees can continue to be motivated, I will encourage them to make SMART goals, whether that be in a team setting or individually. These goals will be essential in making sure that continued motivation is attainable. By having employees create a smart goal (both for themselves and for their team members), they will be able to have something to provide adequate driving force and direction for their work. As a manager, I will need to make sure that the goals made follow the SMART guidelines. Each employee will have a goal that is specific, measurable, aggressive, realistic, and time-bound so that the goal is as effective as possible in motivating them. I think it would also be beneficial to encourage them to share these goals with their coworkers. This will create accountability for these goals and will increase the likelihood of them following through with the goals.

Idea 3: Performance Reviews (Feedback)

Performance reviews (feedback) will be extremely important for me to do as a manager. It will let my employees know what they are doing right and what they are doing wrong, as well as outline ways that they can improve. However, if I get to know my employees well, which I hope to do, I will need to be aware of the bias that might present itself in these reviews. When reviewing an employee, I will need to make sure that my feelings don’t get in the way of the review. As stated in the textbook, it would be helpful for me to monitor employee performance through something like a journal or spreadsheet so that I can truly address the history of their performance. Similarly, I will need to make sure that I am not too lenient with the reviews if someone is truly performing poorly. If I am managing an employee who is not doing their job well, this will need to be properly reflected in their performance review. Lastly, as we have mentioned before, I need to be aware of any potential stereotype bias that might present itself. I should be relying on employee performance alone, as this is the sole purpose of the appraisal. Generalizations will not help me, as they’re not accurate. I will need to avoid them entirely so that they do not cause any harm.

Individual Assignment instructions

Individual Assignment: This assignment is to help you to summarize the lessons for your future managerial jobs. After each group of chapters (Ch. 2 & 9), you shall write a short essay (i.e., action plans) about the main takeaways to be applied to your future (or current) managerial job. Your essay will be graded based on

following criteria.

1) Each assignment starts with answering this question: What kind of manager do I want to be? Then, you should create 2-3 practical ideas (i.e., action plans) based on some of the main OB concepts, topics or theories in the chapter. The rubric for this assignment is 1) be specific in terms of what you will do as a manager based on the takeaways, 2) clearly connected to main OB concepts or theories in the chapters, and 3) not copying the textbook or other sources (must be your own

action plans).

2) One paragraph should be enough for each idea (So, 2-3 paragraphs per assignment). You should submit your ideas within 2 days (by midnight) after we finish the second (last) chapter in the groups of chapters.

Chapter 9 Managing Groups and Teams in Organizations

Learning Objectives

Recognize and understand group dynamics and development

Compare and contrast different types of teams

Understand how to design effective teams

Understand threats and barriers to effective teams

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BUILDING TEAMS WITH KINDNESS: THE CASE OF KIND

  • Kind LLC is a food company that sells products such as snack bars, granola bars, and granola. Daniel Lubetzky, an immigrant from Mexico and the son of a holocaust survivor, founded the company in 2004.
  • The company’s values include ownership, teamwork, transparency, caring, and developing self & others.

Kind’s mission is to “make the world a little kinder, one snack at a time.” How does the organization demonstrate this mission in the way it treats its employees?

How do you think values such as honesty, empathy, and shared ownership impact the way teams work together? What other values have you experienced that contribute to effective teamwork?

How would you describe the nuances between the terms, “employees” and “team members?” Do you think this type of vocabulary matters to members of an organization?

*

  • Informal groups are made up of two or more individuals who are associated with one another in ways not prescribed by the formal organization.
  • A formal work group is made up of managers, subordinates, or both with close associations among group members that influence the behavior of individuals in the group.

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9.1. Group Development Models

What should a manager focus on at each stage of the group development? I mean at each stage of the group development what role a team leader should play to be an effective team.

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Tuckman’s Five-Stage Theory

of Group Development

Individual

Issues

Forming

Storming

Norming

Performing

“How do I fit

in?”

“What’s my

role here?”

“What do the

others expect

me to do?”

“How can I

best

perform my

role?”

Group

Issues

“Why are we

here?”

“Why are we

fighting over

who’s in

charge and

who

does what?”

“Can we agree

on roles and

work as a

team?”

“Can we do

the

job properly?”

Figure 10-3

*

“Changes in group occur in rapid, radical spurts rather than

gradually over time”

What is punctuated equilibrium model?

Managerial implications?

*

Test Your Knowledge

True or False?

All groups go through the stages in this order and don’t regress to earlier stages.

Knowledge of these stages helps members and leaders understand the group’s behavior and take appropriate action.

Participative leadership is more important in earlier stages, while structured leadership is more important in later stages.

Feedback becomes more general, less frequent, and more negative as teams progress through the stages.

Unclear deadlines make work teams less efficient.

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OB Toolbox: Avoid Getting Stuck in the Storming Phase

9.2. Group Cohesion

OB Toolbox: Steps to Creating and Maintaining a Cohesive Team

Low task commitment High task commitment
Low group cohesion Low performance Performance ranges depending on a number of factors
High group cohesion Low performance High performance

Test Your Knowledge

  • True (A) or False (B)

Too much team cohesiveness can be a problem for the organization.

In general, success leads to cohesion, rather than cohesion causing success

Smaller teams are more cohesive

External threats hurt team cohesiveness

Members of cohesive teams enjoy more satisfaction and less turnover

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9.3. Threats to Group Effectiveness

  • Asch Effect
  • Groupthink
  • Social Loafing

The Asch Effect

1 2 3

Standard Line Card

Comparison Lines Card

Asch Effect: the distortion of individual judgment by a unanimous but incorrect opposition.

Table 10-5

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This is about conformity. Peer pressure

Groupthink

  • Groupthink: When you feel a high pressure to conform and agree and are unwilling to realistically view alternatives
  • What are some of the reasons or factors that promote groupthink?
  • What can be done to prevent groupthink?

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Social Loafing

Why do you think social loafing occurs within groups?

What can be done to combat social loafing?

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Task interdependence is a necessary condition for forming a team.

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Team Role Typology

These 10 roles include task roles (light yellow), social roles (medium orange), and boundary spanning roles (dark orange)

Chart1

Contractor
Creator
Contributor
Completer
Critic
Cooperator
Communicator
Calibrator
Consul
Coordinator
Sales
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

Sheet1

Sales
Contractor 1
Creator 1
Contributor 1
Completer 1
Critic 1
Cooperator 1
Communicator 1
Calibrator 1
Consul 1
Coordinator 1

9.4. Types of Teams

How to Manage Virtual Teams

  • Establish regular times for group interaction
  • Set up firm rules for communication
  • Use visual forms of communication where possible
  • Emulate the attributes of co-located teams
  • Give and receive feedback and offer assistance on a regular basis
  • Agree on standard technology so all team members can work together easily

*

Self-Managed Teams

Designing Effective Teams

What would be the main determinant of these?

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9.5. Team Norms and Contracts

9.6. Barriers to Effective Teams

What do we need for our team?

Step 1. Please share your good and/or bad team experience. (10 Minutes)

Step 2. Reflecting on the previous experiences, come up with 10 things an effective team needs

(10 minutes)

Step 3. Please rank the 10 things from extremely

important to less important with team

discussion (15 Minutes)

Step 4. Please submit the 10 ranked things to Canvas

(Assignments  Team activity (Ch. 9))

*

Learning Objectives

Understand what constitutes diversity

Explain the benefits of managing diversity

Describe challenges of managing a workforce with diverse demographics

Describe the challenges of managing a multicultural workforce

Understand diversity and ethics

Understand cross-cultural issues regarding diversity

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Chapter 2 Managing Demographic and Cultural Diversity

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OPEN TO ALL AND COLOR PROUD: THE

CASE OF GAP INC.

  • Ranked in top 10 of the world’s most diverse and inclusive companies in 2018 and 2019
  • “Open to All” business pledge affirms that stakeholders are treated with dignity and respect
  • Be One Get One (BOGO) mentoring program develops careers of employees, Employee resource networks include Asians Supporting Inclusion
  • Awareness (ASIA), Gap Parents, and Women in Leadership (GAPWIL).

CASE DISCUSSION QUESTIONS

What do you think are the stated and unstated reasons for Gap’s commitment to diversity and inclusion?

The case described Open to All, Color Proud, mentoring, employee resource networks, and This Way Ahead as some of the specific ways in which Gap manages diversity. What are your thoughts about these practices?

How important do you think Gap’s diversity and inclusion practices are in regard to in hiring and retaining its workforce?

2.1. What is Diversity?

How Diversity Affects organizations?

What is diversity?

What is the difference between Diversity and Individual differences?

*

Benefits of Diversity?

*

Similarity-attraction phenomenon

Faultlines

Stereotypes and unconscious biases

*

How Diversity Affects?

Social Categorization Theory

Information/Decision Making Theory

*

This model synthesizes the finding of both theories and suggests that diversity is likely to cause more strained interpersonal dynamics, but task-relevant processes and improved decision-making are also attributed to diverse groups.

Social categorization theory proposes that people tend to socially categorize themselves into social groups (e.g., Asians, Women, Hispanics, PSU student,…) and better interact with those who belong to the social group. In other words, people from different social categories tend to have hard time in working together.

Information decision making theory argues that different ideas, knowledge, perspectives, … from diverse team members result in better decision making, problem solving, and creativity.

Therefore the challenge for organizations is to encourage, reward, and train employees on how to effectively interact with diverse others to minimize the conflict, feelings of alienation, etc. to realize the tremendous advantages of diverse teams and groups.

The question is how to minimize the potential disadvantages and how to maximize the potential advantages. Any ideas?

Challenges of Diversity

Deep level diversity

  • Values
  • Attitudes
  • Beliefs

Surface level diversity

  • Gender
  • Race
  • Age
  • Physical Abilities

Managerial implications for each type of diversity?

How to manage these different types of diversity?

*

Specific Diversity Issues

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2.2. How to Manage Diversity?

Attitudes Toward Diversity

  • Affirmative Action (Responsive- Lowest level)

To correct previous discrimination.

2. Valuing diversity (Ethically driven)

To be aware of , understand, and respect

differences.

3. Managing diversity (Proactive- Highest level)

To enable diverse employees to work effectively together

To enable employees to perform up to their maximum

potential.

Inclusion – based on managing diversity attitude.

*

Managing Demographic Diversity

AA- preferential treatment – reverse discrimination- illegal.

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OB Toolbox

Dealing with Being Different

From the minority’s view point.

*

  • What does it mean for a company to manage diversity effectively? How would you know if a company is doing a good job managing diversity?
  • Do you think that laws and regulations are successful in eliminating discrimination in the workplace? Why or why not?

Discussion

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2.3. Cultural Diversity

Cultural Diversity

Culture refers to values, beliefs, and customs that exist in a society.

© 2010 Jupiterimages Corporation

How national culture influence people’s behavior?

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Individualism-Collectivism

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Power Distance

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Uncertainty Avoidance

Low Uncertainty Avoidance
Cultures where individuals are comfortable in unpredictable situations and have a high tolerance for ambiguity.
High Uncertainty Avoidance
Cultures where individuals prefer predictable situations and have a low tolerance for ambiguity.
Denmark
Jamaica
Singapore
China
Sweden
Belgium
El Salvador
Greece
Guatemala
Portugal

*

Aggressive-Nurturing (Masculinity-Femininity)

Masculinity
Cultures where individuals value achievement, competitiveness, as well as acquisition of money and other material objects.
Femininity
Cultures where individuals value maintaining good relationships, quality of life, and caring for the weak.
Slovakia
Japan
Hungary
Austria
Venezuela
Norway
Netherlands
Sweden
Costa Rica
Chile

Aggressive vs. nurturing

*

Tightness-Looseness of Culture: The Strength of Social Culture that reside in a culture

Build Cultural Intelligence

Cultural intelligence is the capability to understand how a person’s cultural background influences behavior.

© 2010 Jupiterimages Corporation

Sensitive to culture differences…

*

Avoid Ethnocentrism

Ethnocentrism is the belief that one’s own culture is superior to other cultures.

*

Do Not Always Assume Culture Is the Problem

When marketing people from the United States interact with engineers in other countries, misunderstanding can occur due to the difference in viewpoint between marketing and engineering employees rather than different cultural backgrounds.

*

  • Reflect on a time when you went to a different country or interacted with someone from a different culture. How did the cultural differences influence your interaction?
  • How does culture influence the proper leadership style and reward system that would be suitable for organizations?
  • Imagine that you will be sent to live in a foreign country different from your own in a month. What are the types of preparations you would benefit from doing?

Discussion

*

Cross-Cultural/Diversity Competency Skits

Step 1. Divide into small groups of 5-6 members based on ethnic or cultural diversity.

Step 2. As a group, make up a two-part skit that lasts no more than 4 minutes. The first part should portray an ineffective way to handle a cross-cultural or intercultural interaction that you might face at work or elsewhere. The second part should present effective handling of the same interaction, demonstrating the Diversity/Intercultural Competencies shown in the previous slide. Be as creative as possible and have fun with your skit. (15 minutes)

Step 3. Each group presents its skit and ask the rest of the class to identify what was ineffective in the first part and effective in the second part. (Each group 3 minutes)

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