POST PHL203 – ALL QUIZZES,ASSIGNMENTS,FINAL EXAM- The Term Arete is a Greek word that means

QUIZ 1

 

 

Question 1

The Term Arete is a Greek word that means:

 

A.Excellence or Virtue

B.Good or Happy

C.Pious

D.Logic or Reason

Question 2

According to Aristotle, the moral person cannot exist apart from ________ that enables him or her to develop the requisite virtues for the good life.

 

A.A religious setting

B.A social setting

C.A political setting

D.A family setting

Question 3

According to Carol Gilligan, what do women tend to focus on more intently than men (in relation to ethics)?

 

A.Style

B.Particular Relationships

C.Money

D.World Affairs

Question 4

What are Plato’s four primary integrated virtues?

 

A.Happiness, Piety, Honesty, and Frankness

B.Good will, Mirth, Whimsy, and Trust

C.Piety, Trust, Courage, and Faith

D.Wisdom, Courage, Temperance, and Justice

Question 5

What do humans use to understand and recognize natural law?

 

A. Prayer

B.Human Reason

C.The Human Heart

D.Education

Question 6

Who said this quote “there is in nature a common principle of the just and unjust that all people in some way divine [discern], even if they have no association or commerce with each other.”

 

A.Plato

B.Socrates

C.Hercules

D.Aristotle

Question 7

According to Aristotle, how do we learn virtue?

 

A.By habit

B.By faith

C.By divine intervention

D.Through luck

Question 8

What does Aristotle use the word Eudaimonia to mean?

 

A.Flourishing

B.Happiness

C.Success

D.All of the Above

Question 9

What Moral theory is Thomas Aquinas most commonly associated with?

 

A.Virtue Ethics

B.The Ethics of Care

C.Natural Law Theory

D.Utilitarianism

Question 10

According to The Golden Mean, __________ in all things is paramount.

 

A.Desire

B.Moderation

C.Vice

D.Charity

Question 11

In the ethics of care, the social and communal nature of humans is contrasted to the more______ perspective of rights based theories.

 

A.Individual

B.National

C.Constructive

D.Trendy

Question 12

In the Ethics of Care, which one of these people was NOT an influential contributor to the theory.

 

A.Carol Gilligan

B.Zora Neale Hurston

C.Virginia Held

D.Nel Noddings

Question 13

What moral theory is this quote attributed to: ‘The “conscience” is the pedagogue (teacher) to the soul.

 

A.Virtue Ethics

B.Ethics of care

C.Utilitarianism

D.Natural Law Theory

Question 14

Natural Law theory is a form of ______ ethics, while ethics of care and virtue ethics are examples of ______ ethics.

 

A.Character based and Deontological

B.Feminist and philosophical

C.Deontological and Character based

D.Good and Bad

Question 15

 

 

What is the goal of life in Aretic (Virtue) ethics?

 

A.To live well and achieve excellence

B.To become rich and famous

C.To serve others and humble oneself

D.To follow strict rules in all situations

UNIT 2

Question 1

Deontological ethics uses human reason to derive ______________.

 

A.facts, laws, or guesses

B.principals, rules, or duties

C.ideas, products, or styles

D.thoughts, time, or space

Question 2

Because they are based on human reason, deontological ethics are ____________.

 

A.finicky and limited

B.changing and subjective

C.relative and temporary

D.universal and eternal

Question 3

Which of the following is NOT one of the five types of deontological ethics?

 

A.Natural law theory

B.Divine command theory

C.Ethics of care

D.Classical liberalism

Question 4

Deductive logic starts with a ________ and concludes with a _________.

 

A.theory, confirmation

B.hope, prayer

C.hypothesis, observation

D.observation, theory

Question 5

Inductive logic is based on _______ so it is not 100% certain.

 

A.lies

B.absolute truth

C.time

D.probability

Question 6

For deontology, what is essential is the link between _____________.

 

A.right action, moral rule, & rationality

B.right virtue, caring, and pleasure

C.time, god, and the universe

D.men, women, and animals

Question 7

The theory that there are no absolute standards and that all truth is relative to a person or culture, is known as ________.

 

A.foolishness

B.truth

C.relativism

D.universalism

Question 8

The belief that there are definite and universal standards of ethical behavior, that we can know what they are, & that all people have an obligation to act on them, is known as _____.

 

A.absolutism

B.definitism

C.obligationism

D.specieism

Question 9

“Deontological” comes from the Greek word “deon”, meaning that which is binding. So, you are bound to your ________.

 

A.promises

B.dreams

C.desires

D.duty

Question 10

It holds that acts are right or wrong in and of themselves because of the kinds of acts they are and not simply because of their ends or consequences. Which one of the options below does not logically result from the preceding statement?

 

A.The ends do not justify the means.

B.You should choose the outcome with the most pleasurable results.

C.A good end or purpose does not justify a bad action.

D.You are duty-bound, no matter if the outcome is painful or pleasurable.

Question 11

This quote from Immanuel Kant, “Act in conformity with that maxim, and that maxim only, that you can will at the same time be a universal law,” is also known as the _______.

 

A.temporary goal

B.categorical imperative

C.biblical law

D.golden rule

Question 12

“Act in such a way that you always treat humans not merely as a means to an end but also as an end,” is also known as the ___________.

 

A.invisible hand of the economy

B.end goal hypothesis

C.second form of the categorical imperative

D.pleasure principle

Question 13

One of the terms below is something that is “not in any way derived from experience or dependent upon it”; concepts derived _________are universal rules that determine, in advance, the conditions for knowledge in a particular domain.

 

A.aposteriori 

B.hypothetically

C.magically

D.apriori

Question 14

According to Kant’s ethical system, when one diets in order to lose weight, they are doing an action (dieting) that is good only as a means to something else (losing weight). This is known as a ____________.

 

A.hypothetical imperative

B.good idea

C.categorical imperative

D.lifestyle change

Question 15

According to Kant, What is the right motive is acting out of a _________to do the right thing; only an act motivated by this concern for the moral law is right.

 

A.refusal

B.will

C.reluctance

D.pretense

UNIT 3

Question 1

In consequential ethics, an action is right if it promotes the ______________.

 

Answers:

A.easiest profit

B.best outcome

C.will of God

D.virtuous character

Question 2

Consequentialism forges a link between _________ & _________.

 

A.happiness & consequences

B.will & power

C.truth & lies

D.universalism & absolutism

Question 3

Saying that “we should always act to maximize our own individual interests,” is a form of consequentialism known as __________.

 

A.individualism

B.maximization theory

C.egoism

D.sinful

Question 4

Saying that “we should act to maximize the happiness of all those who are affected by the action,” is a form of consequentialism known as __________.

 

A.qualificationism

B.just war theory

C.eudaimonia

D.utilitarianism

Question 5

Those who are inherently against laws or rules, are known as __________.

 

A.anabaptists

B.anaerobic

C.atheists

D.antinomians

Question 6

Is this statement true: “In order to do determine the best consequence, some argue that you must add up the happiness in one person and then multiply the total happiness in the total number of people and subtract the total pain. If the result is positive then the action is good. If the result is negative then the action is bad”?

 

A.Yes

B.No

C.Maybe

D.I have no idea

Question 7

One argument against utilitarianism, is that utilitarian acts have no __________.

 

A.willpower

B.extrinsic worth

C.intrinsic value

D.worth

Question 8

Which philosopher/ethicist is NOT associated with utilitarian thought:

 

A.R.M. Hare

B.Immanuel Kant

C.John Stuart Mill

D.Jeremy Bentham

Question 9

Karl Popper’s idea, written about in The Open Society & Its Enemies (1945), argues that we should promote the least amount of evil or harm; and prevent the greatest amount of harm for the greatest number. This is known as ________.

 

A.Negative Utilitarianism

B.Qualified Utilitarianism

C.Speculative Utilitarianism

D.Deontological Utilitarianism

Question 10

John S. Mill argues that cultural, intellectual, and spiritual pleasures are of greater values than just mere physical pain or pleasure. Because his system is still based on the pursuit of pleasure, it is a form of _________ utilitarianism.

 

A.Principled

B.Pithy

C.Hedonistic

D.Automatic

Question 11

G. E. Moore argued that the rightness or wrongness of acts is determined by their actual consequences. He believed that our duty was to produce the best possible consequences. This is known as __________ utilitarianism.

 

A.Perfect

B.Religious

C.Military

D.Ideal

Question 12

In Consequentialism, whether an act is morally right depends only on consequences , NOT on _____________.

 

A.circumstances

B.the intrinsic nature of the act

C.anything that happens before the act

D.all of the above

Question 13

In Universal Consequentialism, moral rightness depends on the consequences for ____________________, as opposed to only the individual agent, present people, or any other limited group.

 

A.all people or sentient beings

B.all people in your own country

C.your immediate family and friends

D.humans but not animals

Question 14

Mill was an advocate of rule utilitarianism. In this system you obey those rules which experience has shown will produce the greatest happiness of the greatest number. When you always know what people will do you get _________________.

 

A.boredom and tedium

B.predictability and security

C.power and insight

D.truth and lies

Question 15

Although he favored democracy, Mill sees the possibility for domination of the minority (smaller groups) by the majority (larger groups) under a strict system of _________. Accordingly, Mill argues that safeguards be put in place to protect the interests and viewpoints of minorities in the political process. This is the idea behind our Bill of rights.

 

A. vote one person”

B.“cogito ergo sum”

C.“laissez fare”

D.“mob rule”

UNIT 4

Unit 4 Writing Assignment

Assignments submitted through this link will be checked using SafeAssign by Blackboard. Your work will not be used for any purpose other than preventing plagiarism in the University. Ownership of the intellectual property contained in your written work will not be transferred to any third party. Please submit your paper as a Word Document. If you have the 2010 version of Word, please save your paper in a previous version (Word 97-2003 document) as Safe Assign may not accept the most recent version.

The requirements for this assignment are to:

  • Create a thesis statement with three reasons that underlie your thesis.
  • Write a 5 paragraph essay that encompasses and explains your thesis statement, and your three supporting reasons.
  • Begin to think about how this paper will be transformed into your final paper.

Students: Be sure to read the criteria, by which your paper/project will be evaluated, before you write, and again after you write. Refer to the rubric document in Course Information.

For this assignment you will choose one of the applied ethics topics that we will be covering in this course (sexual ethics, abortion, capital punishment, war & terrorism, and animal rights) or any other ethical topic that interests you, and begin to write the framework for your final paper. The framework will consist of 5 paragraphs; an introduction, three body paragraphs, and a final paragraph.

Paragraph 1:In the first paragraph you should provide a brief introduction to the issue that allows the reader to understand the topic and where you will be going with the discussion. The first paragraph should contain a one sentence thesis statement. A thesis statement should contain your moral contention and three reasons why you hold that view. For examples of what is expected, please see the Thesis Statement Guide above in Readings and Resources. Your thesis should resemble example number 3 or 4 in the guide. The thesis statement is a very important aspect of this assignment and will constitute a good portion of the grade.

Paragraphs 2, 3, and 4:Here you will explain the three reasons why you hold the ethical or moral opinion that you do. These paragraphs should encompass the body of your essay, and will contain one reason per paragraph. Each paragraph should start by stating the reason that you will discuss and then explain that reason in further detail using any sources, data, or examples that are pertinent to backing up your opinion with facts.

Paragraph 5:Conclude your essay by very briefly reviewing the three reasons that you have used to demonstrate the strength of your opinion and why they show the issue is ethically significant. Your final paragraph should also contain a paraphrased restatement of your thesis.

This assignment is the first part of a three part process that will lead to a completed final essay in unit 8. The second element of this assignment will come in units 5, 6, and 7 and will require you to analyze your ethical question using three of the ethical theories we have discussed in the course, and choose which system you believe works best to back up your initial thesis statement from unit 4. Please go ahead and read the instructions for the Final Paper before starting this project. The third element will be completing the final paper in unit 8. The Final Paper will be five to seven pages, so please keep that in mind when developing your topic. You must choose a topic that you can cover adequately within the required page length. After you choose a topic, go to the unit that corresponds to your topic choice and begin to use the resources in those weeks to gather information for your paper.

The Unit 1 thesis statement paper must be 375 to 500 words in length (excluding title and reference pages), double spaced, and formatted according to APA style, using Times new Roman type and size 12 Font. You must use at least two scholarly resources to support your claims. Cite your sources within the text of your paper and on the reference page. For information regarding APA, please visit this tutorial from the American Psychological Association or refer to the Post University APA Style Guide.

Refer to the rubric document in Course Information before submitting.

Unit 5 Written Assignment

Assignments submitted through this link will be checked using SafeAssign by Blackboard. Your work will not be used for any purpose other than preventing plagiarism in the University. Ownership of the intellectual property contained in your written work will not be transferred to any third party. Please submit your paper as a Word Document. If you have the 2010 version of Word, please save your paper in a previous version (Word 97-2003 document) as Safe Assign may not accept the most recent version.

The requirements for this assignment are to:

  • Examine your thesis statement using one or two particular sub-types of deontological ethics.
  • Write a 5-6 paragraph essay that encompasses and explains how deontologists would generally view your topic, your thesis statement, and your three supporting reasons.
  • Remain cognizant of how this essay will fit into your final paper.

Students: Be sure to read the criteria, by which your paper/project will be evaluated, before you write, and again after you write. Refer to the rubric document in Course Information.

This Unit you will write an essay examining your chosen topic and thesis statement through the eyes of an ethical deontologist. More specifically you will choose a particular sub-type of deontologist ethics (Contractarianism of Rawls, Kantian theory, natural law, or libertarian ethics) to focus on in your essay. You must discuss the various strengths and weaknesses of the sub-type and how those who adhere to that system address the ethical issue you chose. This will require using the readings that are in the unit that corresponds to your topic, the readings on deontological ethics, and outside research that you conduct on your own. The paper should follow the structure outlined below:

Introduction:Your introductory paragraph must include your thesis statement and explain that you will be examining your topic through the eyes of a deontological ethicist. You must also list the various sub-types of deontological ethics that you will be examining in the body of this paper (generally, one to two sub-types is enough).

Body: The body of the paper should be broken up into three paragraphs:

Application:The first paragraph or two in the body should apply deontological ethical theory to your topic, and more specifically you must examine your particular chosen deontological sub-type and how it connects to your topic and thesis statement. In this paragraph you should cite deontological scholars and how they view your topic.

Strengths:In the next paragraph of the body of your paper you must show the strengths of your chosen deontological theory in relation to your topic, and the ways that you think this moral theory might work well with the thesis statement you are arguing.

Weaknesses:In the last paragraph of the body of your paper, you must examine the weaknesses of your chosen deontological theory in relation to your topic and the ways that you think this moral theory might not work well with the thesis statement you are arguing.

Conclusion:This should be one paragraph. The conclusion should very briefly review the main points of your essay and must contain a paraphrased restatement of your thesis.

The Unit 5 paper must be 375 to 500 words in length (excluding title and reference pages), double spaced, and formatted according to APA style, using Times new Roman type and size 12 Font. You must use at least two scholarly resources to support your claims. Cite your sources within the text of your paper and on the reference page. For information regarding APA, please visit this tutorial from the American Psychological Association or refer to the Post University APA Style Guide.

Unit 6 Written Assignment

Assignments submitted through this link will be checked using SafeAssign by Blackboard. Your work will not be used for any purpose other than preventing plagiarism in the University. Ownership of the intellectual property contained in your written work will not be transferred to any third party. Please submit your paper as a Word Document. If you have the 2010 version of Word, please save your paper in a previous version (Word 97-2003 document) as Safe Assign may not accept the most recent version.

The requirements for this assignment are to:

  • Examine your thesis statement using one or two particular sub-types of consequentialist ethics.
  • Write a 5-6 paragraph essay that encompasses and explains how consequentialist ethicists in your chosen sub-type would generally view your topic, your thesis statement, and your three supporting reasons.
  • Remain cognizant of how this essay will fit into your final paper.

Students: Be sure to read the criteria, by which your paper/project will be evaluated, before you write, and again after you write. Refer to the rubric document in Course Information.

This Unit you will write an essay examining your chosen topic and thesis statement through the eyes of an ethical consequentialist. More specifically you will choose a particular sub-type of consequentialism (Act, Rule, or Preference utilitarianism) to focus on in your essay. You must discuss the various strengths and weaknesses of the sub-type and how those who adhere to that system address the ethical issue you chose. This will require using the readings that are in the unit that corresponds to your topic, the readings on consequentialist ethics, and outside research that you conduct on your own. The paper should follow the structure outlined below:

Introduction: Your introductory paragraph must include your thesis statement and explain that you will be examining your topic through the eyes of a consequentialist ethicist. You must also list the various sub-types of consequentialist ethics that you will be examining in the body of this paper (generally, one to two sub-types is enough).

Body:The body of the paper should be broken up into three paragraphs.

Application: The first paragraph or two in the body should apply consequentialist ethical theory to your topic, and more specifically you must examine your particular chosen consequentialist (utilitarian) sub-type and how it connects to your topic and thesis statement. In this paragraph you should cite utilitarian scholars and how they view your topic.

Strengths: In the next paragraph of the body of your paper you must show the strengths of your chosen utilitarian theory in relation to your topic, and the ways that you think this moral theory might work well with the thesis statement you are arguing.

Weaknesses:In the last paragraph of the body of your paper, you must examine the weaknesses of your chosen utilitarian theory in relation to your topic and the ways that you think this moral theory might not work well with the thesis statement you are arguing.

Conclusion:This should be one paragraph. The conclusion should very briefly review the main points of your essay and must contain a paraphrased restatement of your thesis.

The Unit 6 paper must be 375 to 500 words in length (excluding title and reference pages), double spaced, and formatted according to APA style, using Times new Roman type and size 12 Font. You must use at least two scholarly resources to support this essay. Cite your sources within the text of your paper and on the

Written Assignment reference page. For information regarding APA, please visit this tutorialfrom the American Psychological Association or refer to the Post University APA Style Guide.

Unit 7 Written Assignment

Assignments submitted through this link will be checked using SafeAssign by Blackboard. Your work will not be used for any purpose other than preventing plagiarism in the University. Ownership of the intellectual property contained in your written work will not be transferred to any third party. Please submit your paper as a Word Document. If you have the 2010 version of Word, please save your paper in a previous version (Word 97-2003 document) as Safe Assign may not accept the most recent version.

 

The requirements for this assignment are to:

  • Examine your thesis statement using one or two particular sub-types of Character based ethics.
  • Write a 5-6 paragraph essay that encompasses and explains how character based ethicists in your chosen sub-type would generally view your topic, your thesis statement, and your three supporting reasons.
  • Remain cognizant of how this essay will fit into your final paper.

Students: Be sure to read the criteria, by which your paper/project will be evaluated, before you write, and again after you write. Refer to the rubric document in Course Information.

This Unit you will write an essay examining your chosen topic and thesis statement through the eyes of a character based ethicist. More specifically you will choose a particular sub-type of Character based ethics (ethics of care, and virtue ethics) to focus on in your essay. You must discuss the various strengths and weaknesses of the sub-type and how those who adhere to that system address the ethical issue you chose. This will require using the readings that are in the unit that corresponds to your topic, the readings on character based ethics, and outside research that you conduct on your own. The paper should follow the structure outlined below:

Introduction: Your introductory paragraph must include your thesis statement and explain that you will be examining your topic through the eyes of a character based ethicist. You must also list the various sub-types of character ethics that you will be examining in the body of this paper (generally, one to two sub-types is enough).

Body: The body of the paper should be broken up into three paragraphs.

Application: The first paragraph or two in the body should apply character based ethical theory to your topic, and more specifically you must examine your particular chosen character ethics sub-type and how it connects to your topic and thesis statement. In this paragraph you should cite virtue ethics or ethics of care scholars and how they view your topic.

Strengths: In the next paragraph of the body of your paper you must show the strengths of your chosen character ethics theory in relation to your topic, and the ways that you think this moral theory might work well with the thesis statement you are arguing.

Weaknesses: In the last paragraph of the body of your paper, you must examine the weaknesses of your chosen character ethics theory in relation to your topic and the ways that you think this moral theory might not work well with the thesis statement you are arguing.

Conclusion:This should be one paragraph. The conclusion should very briefly review the main points of your essay and must contain a paraphrased restatement of your thesis.

The Unit 6 paper must be 375 to 500 words in length (excluding title and reference pages), double spaced, and formatted according to APA style, using Times new Roman type and size 12 Font. You must use at least two scholarly resources to support this essay. Cite your sources within the text of your paper and on the reference page. For information regarding APA, please visit this tutorial from the American Psychological Association or refer to the Post University APA Style Guide.

UNIT 8

FINAL PAPER

Assignments submitted through this link will be checked using SafeAssign by Blackboard. Your work will not be used for any purpose other than preventing plagiarism in the University. Ownership of the intellectual property contained in your written work will not be transferred to any third party. Please submit your paper as a Word Document. If you have the 2010 version of Word, please save your paper in a previous version (Word 97-2003 document) as Safe Assign may not accept the most recent version.

 

The requirements for this assignment are to:

  • Compose a final paper from the unit 4-7 essays.
  • Choose one of the three ethical systems that you wrote about in units 5-7 and explain why this system most closely aligns with your thesis statement and why you think it most satisfactorily answers the ethical dilemma that your thesis is based upon.
  • Conclude your final paper by explaining the weaknesses that your chosen system might still have that might keep you from applying this system to all ethical dilemmas in your life.
  • The final paper must include a title page with the following:
    1. Title of paper
    2. Student’s name
    3. Course name and number
    4. Instructor’s name
    5. Date submitted

Students: Be sure to read the criteria, by which your paper/project will be evaluated, before you write, and again after you write. Refer to the rubric document in Course Information.

Now that you have examined your chosen topic using the three main categories of ethics (consequentialism, deontological ethics, and character ethics) you must choose one that you think works best with your thesis statement and the ethical topic you chose to write on from units 4-8. The vast majority of the unit 8 paper will be just rearranging excerpts from the essays you wrote in weeks 4-7, but the final paper must be a coherent and well-flowing research paper, and not a patchwork of paragraphs pasted together. The paper should follow the structure outlined below:

Introduction:In the first paragraph or two you should provide a brief introduction to the issue that allows the reader to understand the topic and where you will be going with the discussion. The first paragraph should contain your one sentence thesis statement that contains your moral contention and three reasons why you hold that view (from your week 4 essay). In addition you must include a brief description of the moral theory that you have chosen as the system that most closely aligns with your ethical beliefs and thesis statement.

Body:In the body of the final paper (which will likely be 8 to 10 paragraphs) you will explain the three reasons why you hold the ethical or moral opinion that you do, as you did in the unit 4 assignment, but you will now be able to add in-depth information on which ethical views support your reasoning and what views would disagree with your reasoning (from your unit 5, 6, and 7 essays). Please add any sources, data, or examples from your research that are pertinent to backing up your opinion with facts. If you feel that your reasoning has changed since you wrote your unit 4 essay in light of your research on the ethical theories, feel free to update your ideas.

Conclusion: Conclude your essay by briefly reviewing the three reasons that you have used to demonstrate the strength of your opinion and why they show the issue is ethically significant. Your final paragraph should also contain a paraphrased restatement of your thesis and why you ultimately chose the ethical theory you did to back up your beliefs, and what weaknesses remain in the theory that might keep you from being a 100% adherent to the ethical system..

The final paper must be 1500 to 2000 words (excluding title and reference pages) in length, double spaced, and formatted according to APA style, using Times new Roman type and size 12 font. In your final paper you must utilize at least two required readings or media, and two scholarly readings or media that you researched on your own to support your claims. Cite your sources within the text of your paper and on the reference page.