Ppt for research and global health

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Topics : Covid 19

global health topic ganga river 

With the information you gathered for your Research Paper, you will now create an intriguing visual presentation and present it to the class. ( Ganga river project)

Presentation should include following slides:

  1. Title Slide (1 slide) – 5 point 
  2. Background (1 slide) – 5 points 
  3. Literature review (1 slide) – 20 points 
  4. Proven Program (1 slide) program goal and objectives (1 slide) – 10 points 
  5. Program (3 slides) – 30 points 
  6. Recommendation (1 slide) – 10 points 
  7. Conclusion (1 slide) – 10 points 
  8. References – 10 points 


Rubric for PowerPoints

Please check off where your PowerPoint is on each criterion in this rubric

and submit it with your assignment

Criteria

Excellent

Not yet excellent

Not yet satisfactory

Few words

per slide,

any art or graphics are relevant, and professional

(slides are a backdrop to what you say, not substituting for what you say)

Few words per slide, and art is relevant and professional

Few words in some slides, or some art is not professional

Most/all slides wordy, or much of the art is not professional

Type size is a minimum of 32 points even in graphics

Font type is the same throughout the presentation

Type size is a minimum of 32 points even in graphics

Font type is the same throughout the presentation

Type size is a minimum of 32 points even in graphics in most slides or font type is the same throughout the presentation in most slides

Type size is a minimum of 32 points even in graphics, in few slides or

font type is the same throughout the presentation in few slides

Bulleted lists are prepared in parallel construction (see your Manual)

Bulleted lists are prepared in parallel construction

Some bulleted lists are prepared in parallel construction

Few bulleted lists are prepared in parallel construction

All slides lead to main point the presenter wants to make

All slides lead to main point the presenter wants to make

Some slides lead to main point the presenter wants to make

Few slides lead to main point the presenter wants to make

KG 604

Research Paper Presentation Instructions

· With the information you gathered for your Research Paper, you will now create an intriguing visual presentation and present it to the class.

· Presentation should include slides-

· Introduction (1 slide) – 5 points

· Research question (1slide) – 10 points

· literature review (2 slide) – 25 points

· Analysis of the literature (1 slide) – 15 points

· Discussion paragraphs (3 slides) – 30 points

· Slide 1 – Paragraph 1 (State Problem, Population and Location)

· Slide 2 – Paragraph 2 (Summary of recommendations from study articles)

· Slide 3 – Paragraph 3 (Summarize an existing program or policy and include your “unique contribution” to the paper)

· Conclusion (1slide) – 5 points

· Title page and reference list (2 slides) – 10 points

· Your presentation should be between 5-7 minutes long; practice it several times beforehand!

Effects of Covid-19 on Cybersecurity in the US

ES, MSCS

1

Agenda

Introduction

Literature Review

Analysis of Literature

Discussion

Conclusion

References

Tuesday, February 2, 20XX

Sample Footer Text

2

Introduction

Tuesday, February 2, 20XX

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3

Since the novel coronavirus (Covid-19) in 2019, cybercrime has been seen to be growing rapidly at a pace never seen before.

This research will study in detail the relationship between cybercrime and COVID-19, as well as solutions to this growing problem.

The number of cyberattacks launched in the United States surged by 500% during COVID-19 (Williams et al., 2020).

Major institutions such as World Health Organization (WHO), California State University, and Gilead Sciences, all fell victim to cybercrime (ransomware, malware, and phishing) with heavy repercussions (Evans et al., 2020).

3

Literature Review

Tuesday, February 2, 20XX

Sample Footer Text

4

Three articles were studied in this review: Cyberattacks and Threats During COVID-19 Chigada et al. (2021), Healthcare Cybersecurity Challenges and Solutions Under the Climate Of COVID-19 Evans et al.(2020) and Cybersecurity Risks in a Pandemic Williams et al. (2020)

The First article by Chigada et. al. (2021) studied the entire US, information was gathered by conducting a systematic literature review gathering articles relating to “cyberattacks and threats”

They found that Cyber threats have risen exponentially since the 2019 pandemic and that organizations had placed cybersecurity on backburners despite being reliant on technology (Chigada et al., 2021)

The Second study by Evans et al., was conducted by a literature review gathering information from scholarly databases using keywords such as (covid OR healthcare considering the entire United States

They found that there has been a rise in cyberattacks mainly phishing, and ransomware, due to bad actors capitalizing on the chaos of the Covid-19 pandemic to exploit vulnerabilities in people, technology, and changes to workplace protocols

The third study by Williams et al., was carried out by a literature review gathering information from authoritative sources on the matter e.g. FBI

They found that the number of cyberattacks launched in the US surged by 500% during the COVID-19 epidemic and during that time people were most susceptible to being hacked

Literature Review Cont’d

Tuesday, February 2, 20XX

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5

Key Areas of weaknesses

Endpoint device management

Human aspects in cybersecurity

A lack of security knowledge

Poor board-level risk assessment communication,

Poor business continuity planning

Lack of coordinated incident response

Recommendations were similar across all three articles which include:

Apply endpoint device management tools

Secure the remote work environment

Increase security awareness

Ensure business continuity

Regularly test systems for gaps and vulnerabilities

Develop policies and laws

Implement incident reporting

Analysis of Literature

Tuesday, February 2, 20XX

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6

Literature Analysis

Tuesday, February 2, 20XX

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7

Chigada et. al. (2021) and Evans et al. (2020) both use literature reviews to gather documents from scholarly databases using search terms like “covid OR healthcare AND cybersecurity”

Williams et al. (2020) did not use any scholarly databases instead, documents were gathered from authoritative sources like World Health Organization (WHO), and the Federal Bureau of Investigations (FBI)

All three studies concluded that cybercrime was impacted by covid-19 and due to the pandemic, cyberattacks and cyber threats rose exponentially

The most predominant methods of cyberattacks across all three studies were found to be ransomware, distributed denial of service (DDOS), phishing, and malware

Recommendations were common across the three studies which included: securing the remote work environment, increasing security awareness, and implementing incident reporting and cyber threat intelligence support.

Discussion

Tuesday, February 2, 20XX

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8

The problem identified in the first article by Chigada et al. (2021) that I studied is that Cybersecurity threats are estimated to cost the world $6 trillion USD a year by 2021 and that the number of attacks has increased five-fold after COVID-19

During COVID-19 cyberattacks surged to over 500%. (Evans et al., 2020)

The identified population for the article by Chigada et al. (2021) is healthcare organizations, patients, adults, and employees; studying the entire United States not limited to any specific region or community.

It was also reported that cybercrime is the leading cause of healthcare security breaches and denial/disruption of services

Companies like Fortinet and KnowBe4 are providers of cybersecurity awareness and cybersecurity solutions such as intrusion prevention systems which are great for combating the known and unknown cybersecurity threats impacting the US and Health sector

Frameworks and policies like the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and International Organization for Standardization (ISO) 27000 which are industry leaders in Cybersecurity are recommended to use to create policies, standards, and guidelines

These policies and guidelines are used by many organizations to protect themselves like Microsoft, Boeing, JP Morgan Chase, Intel Bank of England, and more. (Bresnahan et al. 2021)

Just Imagine investing $50 in the stock market and it rose 500% that would be $25,000

8

Discussion Cont’d

Tuesday, February 2, 20XX

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9

Recommendations from Article 1 (Chigada et al. 2021)

Increase cyber-hardening on all infrastructure

Recommendations from Article 2 (Evans et al. 2020)

Applying endpoint device management tools,

securing the remote work environment,

increasing security awareness,

ensuring business continuity,

implementing technical controls,

developing policies and laws,

implementing incident reporting and cyber

Recommendations from Article 3 (Williams et al. 2020)

Increasing security awareness

IT teams send phishing emails to its staff members and mandate training for anyone who clicked on the email

My recommendations

Utilize industry frameworks such as NIST and ISO to create standards, policies, and guidelines

Employ a cybersecurity consultant to conduct a cyber program activation and roadmap assessment

Conclusion

Cybercrime has a proportional relationship with pandemics as is the case with the COVID-19 pandemic

The study proved that the change in the work culture, the utilization of more third-party software like zoom, and the lack of human risk control influenced by the pandemic, were the weak points that contributed greatly to the 500% increase in cybercrime

Increasing hardening on all infrastructure, increasing awareness, and business continuity are great ways to combat cybercrime but implementing the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) framework and policies are seen to be incredibly effective at identifying, protecting, recovering, responding, and detecting cybercrime (Bresnahan, 2021)

Tuesday, February 2, 20XX

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10

10

Thank You

Eric Smith, MSCS

Tuesday, February 2, 20XX

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11

References

Tuesday, February 2, 20XX

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Bresnahan, E. (2022). What Are the Benefits of the NIST Cybersecurity Framework. CyberSaint Security. https://www.cybersaint.io/blog/benefits-of-nist-cybersecurity-framework#:~:text=Ahttps://www.nist.gov/industry-impacts/cybersecurity-framework#:~:text=Companies%20from%20around%20the%20world,and%20the%20Ontario%20Energy%20Board.s%20we%20discussed%20with%20George,of%20controls%20of%20any%20framework

Chigada, J., & Madzinga, R. (2021). Cyberattacks and threats during COVID-19: A systematic literature review, South African Journal of Information Management, 23(1), 1-11. https://doi. org/10.4102/sajim.v23i1.1277

Evans M., He Y., Aliyu A., & Luo C. (2021). Healthcare cybersecurity challenges and solutions under the climate of COVID-19. Journal of Internet Medical Research, 23(4), 1-18.
https://doi:10.2196/21747

Fortinet. (2022, 01). What is a Data Breach? Retrieved from www.fortinet.com:
https://www.fortinet.com/resources/cyberglossary/data-breach

Stu Sjouwerman. (2022, 01 18). Train Employees And Cut Cyber Risks Up To 70 Percent. https://blog.knowbe4.com/:
https://blog.knowbe4.com/train-employees-and-cut-cyber-risks-up-to-70-percent

United States Chamber of Commerce. (2017, 05). Cybersecurity Framework. NIST.
https://www.nist.gov/industry-impacts/cybersecurity-framework#:~:text=Companies%20from%20around%20the%20world,and%20the%20Ontario%20Energy%20Board.

Williams CM., Chaturvedi R., & Chakravarthy K. (2020). Cybersecurity risks in a pandemic. Journal of medical Internet research, 22(9), 1-4.
https://doi:10.2196/23692

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Before we start on how to create effective and impactful PowerPoints…

Let’s talk about your

FINAL PAPER – The submission box is in this week’s folder

You will cut and paste the parts of your FINAL EXAM into the FINAL PAPER

Each part already has a grade; this assignment and the others will be averaged for your final exam grade

You do NOT need to write ANYTHING new.

ALL you will be evaluated on is:

ARE ALL THE PARTS THERE?

ARE THEY IN THE CORRECT ORDER?

THAT IS IT!!!!

So now….
   PowerPoint and presentation skills!

  

Let’s go BACK in time:

Remember YOUR “why”!

WHY were

your topic and
your research question
important to YOU?

What SERVICE did you want to perform by conducting this research?

How can you best tell that “story?”

Stories:

Your story will be like a story for children in some ways!

It will:

lay out the problem your research wanted to mitigate or solve

give information you learned about the problem from the research

end with your recommendation BASED on the research

It will:
– lay out the problem your research wanted to mitigate or solve
– give information you learned about the problem from the research
– end with your recommendation BASED on the research

Oh wow!!!

Doesn’t that sound a LOT like the discussion section

you just wrote???

Hmmmm

I think it does!

You just need to turn that into an impactful

presentation!

What “story” will YOU tell about YOUR topic?

STOP AND JOT IT DOWN – you will need it!

REMEMBER:

You need to turn that into

an impactful presentation!

HOW???

First, let’s make sure your PowerPoint has IMPACT (leads to action)

Presentation Action

Your presentation needs to tell YOUR “story”

in a way that makes people want

to take some form of action as a result.

Now, let’s see HOW you can tell your story BEST!

1st

prize

H. A. T. S.

Headings – for easy navigation

H. A. T. S.

Headings – for easy navigation

Access – for finding and understanding

Typeface – for ease of reading

H. A. T. S.

Headings – for easy navigation

Access – for finding and understanding

Typeface – for ease of reading

Space – for effective document design

H. A. T. S.

Headings – for easy navigation

Access – for finding and understanding

Typeface – for ease of reading

Space – for effective document design

Let’s take a look!

Compare the 4 following slides

They have the SAME exact words!

1. Pay attention to:

Headings to promote easy navigation

Access to promote the finding and understanding of information

Typography to promote ease of reading and clear levels of information hierarchy

Space to promote effective document design

2. Pay attention to headings to promote easy navigation, access to promote the finding and understanding of information, typography to promote ease of reading and clear levels of information hierarchy, and space to promote effective document design.

3. Pay attention to:

Headings to promote easy navigation

Access to promote the finding and understanding of information

Typography to promote ease of reading and clear levels of information hierarchy

Space to promote effective document design

4. Pay attention to:

 

Headings to promote easy navigation

 

Access to promote the finding and

understanding of information

 

Typography to promote ease of reading

and clear levels of information

hierarchy

 

Space to promote effective

document design

Below they are featured on a single slide

Which is hardest, and which is easiest to read, and WHY?

1. Pay attention to:

Headings to promote easy navigation

Access to promote the finding and understanding of information

Typography to promote ease of reading and clear levels of information hierarchy

Space to promote effective document design

3. Pay attention to:

Headings to promote easy navigation

Access to promote the finding and understanding of information

Typography to promote ease of reading and clear levels of information hierarchy

Space to promote effective document design

4. Pay attention to:

 

Headings to promote easy navigation

 

Access to promote the finding and

understanding of information

 

Typography to promote ease of reading and

clear levels of information

hierarchy

 

Space to promote effective document

design

2. Pay attention to headings to promote

easy navigation, access to promote the

finding and understanding of

information, typography to promote

ease of reading and clear levels of

information hierarchy, and space to

promote effective document design.

Slides are a backdrop to your words

Slides are a backdrop to your words

Your slide

Slides are a backdrop to your words

Your slide

YOU!

Slides almost NEVER need to stand alone

Slides almost NEVER need to stand alone

*yawn*

They need YOU to tell the story

GAME!
Compare slides

Look at the following 3 pairs of slides

GAME!
Compare slides

Look at the following 3 pairs of slides

(Each pair has the SAME information!)

For each pair, identify the ways in which

the second one

is a “slam dunk”

(or better)?

Our 20th President

PDie

He served as president for only 6 months, from March 4, 1881, until his assassination later that year

James A. Garfield

20th U.S. President

served 6-months

3/1881

to

9/1881

(assassinated)

James A. Garfield

According to the Coalition for the Homeless, in December 2022, there were 68,884 homeless people, including 21,805 homeless children, sleeping each night in New York City’s main municipal shelter system.

68,800+ people in shelters

21,800+ of them children

Each night

The Apes of Africa

The following presentation is about the apes of Africa.

It looks at the differences in ape behavior depending on their gender.

It explores the cause of the reduction in ape population.

40

Apes of Africa

differences in behavior by gender

cause of reduction in population

41

What did you notice about the 2nd slide in each pair?

Be “LEAN and MEAN!!!”

Be “LEAN and MEAN!!!”

LESS is MORE!

Be “LEAN and MEAN!!!”

LESS is MORE!

Each word costs you…

Be “LEAN and MEAN!!!”

LESS is MORE!

Each word costs you !

Font sizes

Which do you think is the smallest everyone can reasonably see

44 point

40 point

36 point

32 point

28 point

24 point

20 point

A

B

C

D

E

F

G

Font sizes

44 point

40 point

36 point

32 point

28 point

24 point

20 point

A

B

C

D

E

F

G

Your answer may have been different!

Please do not go below this anyway!

48

Parallel Construction

Which of these sets of lines is parallel?

A

B

C

D

Puppies are

Cute

Frisky

I love them

Which is NOT parallel?

Puppies are

Cute

Frisky

I love them

Can you fix it?

Puppies are

Cute

Frisky

Lovable

Patient factors in medical care

Type of insurance

Is the doctor qualified

Pre-existing conditions

Which is not parallel?

Patient factors in medical care

Type of insurance

Is the doctor qualified

Pre-existing conditions

Can you fix it?

Patient factors in medical care

Type of insurance

Doctor qualifications

Pre-existing conditions

Develop YOUR PowerPoint
to tell YOUR story!

Workshop!

This Photo by Unknown Author is licensed under
CC BY-SA

Time to check

Time to check

1. Few words per slide, any art or graphics are
relevant, and professional. (slides are a backdrop to
what you say, not substituting for what you say)

Time to check

1. Few words per slide, any art or graphics are
relevant, and professional. (slides are a backdrop to
what you say, not substituting for what you say)
 
2. Type size is a minimum of 32 points even in the graphics
Font type is the same throughout the presentation

Time to check

1. Few words per slide, any art or graphics are
relevant, and professional. (slides are a backdrop to
what you say, not substituting for what you say)
 
2. Type size is a minimum of 32 points even in graphics
Font type is the same throughout the presentation
 
3. Bulleted lists are prepared in parallel construction
(see your Manual)
 

Time to check

1. Few words per slide, any art or graphics are
relevant, and professional. (slides are a backdrop to
what you say, not substituting for what you say)
 
2. Type size is a minimum of 32 points even in graphics
Font type is the same throughout the presentation
 
3. Bulleted lists are prepared in parallel construction
(see your Manual)
 
4. All slides lead to main point the presenter wants to
make

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MENTAL HEALTH EFFECTS OF THE COVID-19 PANDEMIC 10


Discussion: What have Researcher found about the Effects of Covid 19 Pandemic on Mental Health of the Individuals

Student’s Name

Department, Institution

Course Title

Instructor’s Name

Due Date


Literature Review

Introduction

Following the COVID-19 epidemic, an alarming 55% burnout rate among French medical residents reveals a concealed mental health catastrophe (Mion et al., 2021). The GHQ-12 score indicates that professionals working in high-intensity domains have significantly worse mental health outcomes (Laurent et al., 2020). The necessity for focused support systems is highlighted by the elevated stress levels in these zones, which are caused by an increase in effort and emotional stress. According to Ramiz et al. (2021), there is a subtle decline in self-rated mental health accompanied by an increase in anxiety symptoms. Amid COVID-19-induced mental impairment, there is an urgent need for focused treatments and comprehensive assistance to confront the rising obstacles to persons’ well-being successfully. The MHFA program offers significant benefits, particularly in breaking down barriers associated with mental health stigma and promoting public awareness about mental well-being, because it equips individuals with the knowledge and skills needed to identify and address mental health issues (Forthal et al., 2022).

Introduction to Literature Review

The long-term effects of COVID-19 on individuals’ mental health have emerged as a critical area of concern on mental well-being and peritraumatic distress of individuals (Laurent et al., 2020). Addressing the long-term effects of COVID-19 on mental health is essential to mitigate potential societal and healthcare burdens, safeguard individuals’ psychological well-being, and improve overall resilience in the face of future health crises. The literature review exclusively comprises research articles, and the central theme among them is the profound impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on individuals’ mental health. The studies included multiple factors contributing to the pandemic’s impact on mental health, encompassing burnout among healthcare workers, regional variations in stress levels, peritraumatic distress associated with specific health conditions, and changes in anxiety and self-rated mental health during lockdown. The literature review utilized the ProQuest and Medline databases available at the Monroe College library. Keywords and phrases included in the search for the articles documented in the literature review reflect a broad spectrum of relevant topics, ranging from the mental health impact of the COVID-19 pandemic, burnout among healthcare professionals, and specific symptoms like anxiety and depression to stress factors, ICU settings, and the experiences of residents during the pandemic. Keywords and phrases included in the search for the articles documented in the literature review include residents, burnout, COVID-19 pandemic, maslach burnout inventory, anxiety symptoms, COVID-19, depression symptoms, lockdown, mental health, stress factors, ICU, and healthcare professionals.

Review of Literature

Impact of the COVID-19 Pandemic on the Mental Health of Healthcare Workers

Mion et al. (2021) conducted a study between March 7 and March 21, 2020, to investigate how the COVID-19 pandemic affected the mental health and burnout of medical residents in France, looking at how it made them feel and if it caused them to feel burnt out. The researchers used numbers and data to learn more about French medical residents, asking them questions using an online survey, including those who are training to be skin specialists or anesthesia experts. The survey included questions related to personal life, work, mental health, and the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic, and responses from 1050 participants were collected and analyzed, employing non-parametric tests and statistical methods to conclude the residents’ mental health and burnout during the pandemic. The study found that 55% of French medical residents experienced burnout during the COVID-19 pandemic, as measured by the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI). Only 25% of the study participants claimed they had returned to their usual mental state since the outbreak of the pandemic began, and a significant number showed indicators of sadness. In more detail, 32% of the respondents acknowledged having difficulty focusing or making decisions, 42% blamed themselves, and 48% had difficulty sleeping. Furthermore, 22% of respondents said they had increased their alcohol use since the outbreak began, and 33% said they had used alcohol (Mion et al., 2021).

In the same way, Laurent et al. (2020) conducted a study in 2020 to assess the impact of the COVID-19 crisis on the mental health of healthcare professionals working in French ICUs and to understand how this impact varied based on the intensity of the epidemic in different regions of France. The quantitative study was conducted in 77 hospitals across France between April 22 and May 13, 2020. The people working in ICU were invited to participate through an online questionnaire. The study found that healthcare practitioners in high-intensity COVID-19 epidemic zones had substantially poorer mental health outcomes, as measured by the GHQ-12 score than those in low-intensity zones (p0.001) (Laurent et al., 2020). Additionally, the professionals working in high-stress areas said they felt more stressed overall, pointing out that specific things like how much work they had to do, how they managed their staff, and the emotional stress from patients and their families were all much higher (with a significance level of p≤0.001).


Peritraumatic Distress and Vulnerability Factors during the COVID-19 Pandemic

Unlike the first two studies, Chaix et al. (2020) performed a study between March 31 and April 7, 2020. The researchers set the study in France, focusing on those individuals with specific health conditions to determine whether they were at higher risk of peritraumatic distress (PD) due to the pandemic. The researchers used quantitative methods and recruited participants using four chatbots (Vik chatbots). Eligible individuals were invited to complete a survey to measure their degree of stress during the COVID-19 incident. Data was collected and analyzed using statistical approaches such as binomial logistic regression and ANOVA, as well as quantitative methods such as the Psychological Distress Inventory (PDI). Out of the 1,771 people in the study, 674 of them, which is about 38.06%, said they felt psychologically uncomfortable (they had a PDI score of 14). The prevalence of this illness varied by health condition, with 42% for asthma, 34% for breast cancer, 54% for major depression, and 39% for migraine (Chaix et al., 2020). The analysis also revealed significant associations between higher PDI scores and factors such as unemployment, depression, female gender, and increased smartphone/computer usage.

Similarly, Ramiz et al. (2021) conducted a study in 2020 to figure out how the COVID-19 lockdown in France affected the mental health of adults and to find out what made some people more vulnerable to mental health issues and what helped others stay mentally strong. The research was conducted quantitatively as a secondary analysis of data from the MAVIE cohort, a web-based prospective cohort study in France. The study invited eligible participants to complete an online questionnaire during the COVID-19 lockdown, comparing their responses to data collected over an average follow-up period of 4.8 years, focusing on changes in mental health, living conditions, and related factors during the lockdown period. The study discovered that while France was in lockdown due to COVID-19, the number of people with anxiety symptoms went up, increasing from 17.3% to 20.1%. At the same time, people’s own assessment of their mental health went down a little, from an average score of 7.77 to 7.58. On the other hand, people’s assessment of their physical health got better, with the percentage of those who rated their physical health as a 9 or 10 increasing from 25.7% when they first joined the study to 43.1% during the lockdown (Ramiz et al., 2021). These findings suggest a deterioration in mental health during the lockdown period, with specific demographic and environmental factors associated with increased vulnerability, while self-rated physical health showed improvement for a significant portion of the participants.

Analysis of Literature

The reviewed studies exhibit both similarities and differences in their methodologies. Methodologically, all studies employed quantitative research methods and utilized surveys or questionnaires to collect data. Mion et al. (2021) and Laurent et al. (2020) conducted their studies by administering online surveys to their participants, which included healthcare professionals in various specialties and regions. In contrast, Chaix et al. (2020) used innovative chatbots to recruit participants in France, focusing on individuals with specific health conditions. Ramiz et al. (2021) conducted a secondary analysis using data from the MAVIE cohort, a web-based prospective cohort study in France. While they all utilized statistical analyses, the specific statistical tests varied among the studies, including non-parametric tests, GHQ-12 scores, binomial logistic regression, and Psychological Distress Inventory (PDI) scores, showcasing some methodological diversity.

In terms of findings, the studies reveal several vital insights. Mion et al. (2021) reported that 55% of French medical residents experienced burnout during the COVID-19 pandemic, as measured by the MBI. Laurent et al. (2020) found that healthcare practitioners in high-intensity COVID-19 epidemic zones had substantially poorer mental health outcomes, as indicated by the GHQ-12 score than those in low-intensity zones. In high-stress areas, professionals reported elevated stress levels due to increased workload, staff management challenges, and emotional stress from patients and their families. Chaix et al. (2020) identified varying prevalence rates of peritraumatic distress among individuals with different health conditions, such as 42% for asthma, 34% for breast cancer, 54% for major depression, and 39% for migraine. Ramiz et al. (2021) observed a rise in anxiety symptoms during the COVID-19 lockdown in France, increasing from 17.3% to 20.1%. Additionally, they noted a slight decrease in self-rated mental health from 7.77 to 7.58, indicating the pandemic’s impact on mental well-being. The studies’ findings highlight the significant mental health challenges posed by the COVID-19 pandemic, impacting various groups differently.

Regarding recommendations, while not explicitly mentioned in the provided text, it is imperative to emphasize the shared implications and suggestions that can be inferred from the findings. Collectively, the studies underscore the pressing need for proactive mental health support and targeted interventions. Healthcare workers, especially those in high-intensity COVID-19 epidemic zones, require additional resources to cope with elevated stress levels. Individuals with specific health conditions, as identified in the Chaix et al. (2020) study, may benefit from tailored support and interventions to address peritraumatic distress. In response to the observed increase in anxiety symptoms and the slight decrease in self-rated mental health during lockdown (Ramiz et al., 2021), it is vital to implement mental health programs and resources to mitigate these

Discussion

Introduction to Discussion

Analyzing burnout among healthcare professionals unveils a poignant reality, with Mion et al. (2021) disclosing a staggering 55% incidence rate among French medical residents. This indicates a pressing concern for the psychological welfare of frontline healthcare workers. Laurent et al.’s (2020) exploration of mental health outcomes in varying epidemic zones further accentuates the severity, with professionals in high-intensity areas exhibiting substantially poorer outcomes, as evidenced by the GHQ-12 score. Elevated stress levels in these zones, attributable to increased workload and emotional stress, underscore the need for targeted support systems (Laurent et al., 2020). Turning the focus to peritraumatic distress, Chaix et al. (2020) delve into its prevalence among individuals with specific health conditions, unearthing significant associations with unemployment, depression, female gender, and increased technology usage. These findings spotlight vulnerable cohorts necessitating tailored interventions. Meanwhile, Ramiz et al.’s (2021) investigation into the lockdown period exposes a rise in anxiety symptoms, coupled with a nuanced decrease in self-rated mental health. This signals a complex interplay between external stressors and internal well-being during crises. The implications of these findings reverberate across public health strategies, demanding targeted interventions, resource allocation, and the cultivation of proactive support systems to mitigate the profound consequences of the COVID-19 crisis on mental well-being.

Evidence-Based Recommendations


Recommendations from Literature Review

Healthcare workers in high-intensity COVID-19 zones require additional resources to manage escalating stress levels (Laurent et al., 2020; Mion et al., 2021). Addressing the vulnerability of individuals with specific health conditions, as illuminated by Chaix et al. (2020), calls for specialized support and interventions targeting peritraumatic distress. The observed rise in anxiety symptoms and a modest dip in self-rated mental health during lockdown (Ramiz et al., 2021) necessitate the urgent implementation of targeted mental health programs. These recommendations collectively advocate for a comprehensive and proactive approach, recognizing the diverse mental health needs stemming from the challenges imposed by the COVID-19 pandemic. Immediate and tailored interventions are pivotal in fostering resilience and mitigating the lasting impact on mental well-being.


Program Recommendation: Mental Health First Aid (MHFA)

The Mental Health First Aid (MHFA) program was globally disseminated to train the public in recognizing and responding to mental health issues (Forthal et al., 2022). The study sought to assess the efficacy of MHFA in terms of trainee behaviours and the impact on individuals experiencing mental health problems. The findings, based on nine rigorously evaluated studies, revealed mixed effects on trainees’ use of MHFA skills and no significant improvements in the helpfulness of their actions or the mental health of recipients. Despite these mixed results, MHFA has demonstrated positive outcomes in trainee knowledge, attitudes toward mental illness, and intent to help (Forthal et al., 2022). Implementations of MHFA have been widespread, particularly in high-income Western countries, including Australia, where the program originated. It has been licensed and adapted in 24 countries, reflecting a growing global desire to address mental health issues. The MHFA program offers significant benefits. Notably, the MHFA dismantles barriers associated with mental health stigma and advances public education on mental well-being. The program equips individuals with the knowledge and skills to recognize and respond to mental health issues (Forthal et al., 2022). Such empowerment by the MHFA contributes to fostering a more informed and supportive community. The current study recommends that organizations and institutions continue to implement MHFA. Such institutions should acknowledge the positive effects on trainee knowledge and attitudes that the MHFA bears. However, investing in further research to refine and enhance the program’s efficacy is crucial, addressing the limitations identified in the systematic review. This includes using more dynamic follow-up times, evaluating the specific training components that affect behaviour, and conducting evaluations in various settings, including low- and middle-income countries, to ensure the generalizability of findings. As MHFA continues to gain popularity, prioritizing comprehensive and rigorous evaluations will contribute to a more nuanced understanding of its impact and enhance its potential to support mental health in communities effectively.

Conclusion

Due to COVID-19’s adverse effects on mental health, organizations in the public health sector should implement the MHFA program that equips individuals with the knowledge and skills needed to identify and address mental health issues, proving instrumental in breaking down barriers associated with mental health stigma and promoting public awareness about mental well-being (Forthal et al., 2022). According to Laurent et al. (2020), professionals employed in high-intensity domains had considerably lower mental health outcomes, as per their GHQ-12 score. A rise in anxiety symptoms is correlated with a small quantity of deterioration in self-rated mental health (Ramiz et al., 2021; Mion et al., 2021; Chaix et al., 2020). Focused therapies and all-encompassing support are desperately needed in the middle of COVID-19-induced mental impairment in order to address the growing barriers to people’s well-being effectively. The MHFA program is crucial because it equips participants with the information and abilities needed to address and manage mental health concerns successfully. It has been shown that mental health significantly impacts overall well-being.

References

Chaix, B., Delamon, G., Guillemassé, A., Brouard, B., & Bibault, J. E. (2020). Psychological distress during the COVID-19 pandemic in France: a national assessment of at-risk populations. 
General psychiatry
33(6). https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7692000/

Forthal, S., Sadowska, K., Pike, K. M., Balachander, M., Jacobsson, K., & Hermosilla, S. (2022). Mental health first aid: A systematic review of trainee behavior and recipient mental health outcomes. 
Psychiatric services
73(4), 439-446. https://ps.psychiatryonline.org/doi/pdf/10.1176/appi.ps.202100027

Laurent, A., Fournier, A., Lheureux, F., Louis, G., Nseir, S., Jacq, G., … & Quenot, J. P. (2021). Mental health and stress among ICU healthcare professionals in France according to intensity of the COVID-19 epidemic. 
Annals of intensive care
11(1), 1-10. https://annalsofintensivecare.springeropen.com/articles/10.1186/s13613-021-00880-y

Mion, G., Hamann, P., Saleten, M., Plaud, B., & Baillard, C. (2021). Psychological impact of the COVID-19 pandemic and burnout severity in French residents: A national study. 
The European Journal of Psychiatry
35(3), 173-180. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/am/pii/S0213616321000203

Ramiz, L., Contrand, B., Rojas Castro, M. Y., Dupuy, M., Lu, L., Sztal-Kutas, C., & Lagarde, E. (2021). A longitudinal study of mental health before and during COVID-19 lockdown in the French population. 
Globalization and Health
17(1), 1-16. https://globalizationandhealth.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12992-021-00682-8

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