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This assignment and the final assignment (in the next unit) involve the development of a hypothetical ethics workshop in which you identify and analyze a specific ethical situation or topic for a target population. You will build your workshop around the topic and professional code of ethics you selected in Unit 2 and which you have used in the previous assignments in this course. Your workshop must incorporate literature and code of ethics information from your Unit 4 assignment. It must incorporate case presentations that apply to your selected topic from the Unit 6 assignment. In the workshop, participants must gain skills for applying ethical expectations, models, and regulatory standards and for evaluating the intersection of the personal lens and ethical obligations. The workshop presenter will facilitate discussions related to the chosen topic area.

For this assignment, create a PowerPoint presentation that describes the content and activities that are part of your hypothetical ethics workshop. In addition to submitting your PowerPoint presentation in this assignment, you will post it in a discussion for this unit so your fellow learners can provide feedback.

For the assignment in the next unit, you will revise your PowerPoint presentation in response to the feedback you receive from other learners and your instructor. In that assignment, you also will record an introduction to the workshop based on the content of the PowerPoint presentation.

Your PowerPoint presentation for this assignment must include at least one slide for each of the following elements:

  • The title of the workshop.
  • Target audience.
  • Goals of the workshop.
  • An outline of the content and activities for the workshop, including time frames.
  • A list of sources and references for further study.
  • An outline of facilitated small group discussions in which participants use case studies to:
    • Apply ethical expectations and models to decision making.
    • Evaluate the difference between the personal lens and the ethical obligations of the profession.
  • An examination of how the information presented will meet the goals of the workshop.

Use the PowerPoint Notes feature to include additional talking points you would use as a presenter speaking to the PowerPoint slides.

Confidentiality and Hipaa 1


Confidentiality and implications of Hipaa

Taliegha Carter


Prof Holm-Hasen

Capella University


Confidentiality and implications of HIPAA and managed care in human services.

Confidentiality and privacy are very key concepts in any discussion about safety health information in the U.S. The HIPAA strongly supports the privacy of patient health information. All the concepts target to have a stronger and ethical practices in the clinical practice. Confidentiality is the responsibility and duty of  the professional healthcare workers who access patient information to handle it in a confidential manner. This professional duty to have the patient information kept safely is supported by professional association codes of ethics detailed in the American Health Information Management Association Code of Ethics (AHIMA, 2011).

When handling some sensitive health information that require high sense of confidentiality for instance the mental health treatment, then different statutes guide the professionals charged with the management of the patient health information. The federal HIPAA highlight the right of a patient to be given the opportunity to decide on how his/her personal information is utilized and or shared (Brodnik, Rinehart-Thompson, & Reynolds, 2017). HIPAA allows a good balance between the use patient information, while at the same time ensuring their privacy is protected through elaborate elements of control. This include the exclusive right to have access to their medical information and also right to ask for correction or amendment of any inaccurate health information.

The ethical code on confidentiality and privacy of the managed care in human services.

The American Health Information Management Association (AHIMA) Code of Ethics is applicable to all the AHIMA members, non-members, and learners who are undertaking degree programs that relate to the AHIMA’s guiding purpose irrespective of their professional responsibilities and work settings or the communities they serve in.

Healthcare clients increasingly have become very keen on the likely loopholes that could lead to loss of their information privacy and lack of capacity to have control on the utilization of their personal health information as well as disclosures. Of importance is what information has to be collected, its management, accessibility and how to dispose it and ensure that its confidentiality and privacy is safeguard. All the core issues pertaining patient information are addressed in compliance both the state and federal regulations, as well as the available policies and guidelines set by the employer.

The ethical obligations that bind the health information management professional include the safeguarding of privacy information and confidentiality, utilization of patient health information, and ensuring proper and safe accessibility and integrity of the same. The core guiding principles of this code on confidentiality and privacy are:

Advocate, uphold, and defend the consumer’s right to privacy and the doctrine of confidentiality in the use and disclosure of information” and “Preserve, protect, and secure personal health information in any form or medium and hold in the highest regard health information and other information of a confidential nature obtained in an official capacity, taking into account the applicable statutes and regulations.”

First article

The article discusses the role of social workers who work in a wide range of health care organizations and the intricate ethical dilemmas they face that relate to consent, privacy, and confidentiality of patient information (Reamer, 2018). The author includes detailed resources that social workers can adopt in the development of pragmatic ethical policies and protocols while observing and in respect to the requirements of the AHIMA Code of Ethics.

Second article

The article discuss the use and adoption of health records in electronic form in the healthcare system by all the stakeholders such as the patients, and clinical staff and the ethical questions that arise from the use of such information. This paper puts some a strong focus on the electronic health records and the accompanying patient–healthcare attendant relationship privacy and confidentiality. It takes an exploration on the emerging ethical challenges that are raised by physicians across the various healthcare disciplines, and whose role remain crucial to the development and application of technology in the patient service (Sulmasy, López, & Horwitch, 2017). It further delves into the key aspects that the electronic health records use must put into consideration to match the principles of the Code of Ethics in AHIMA.

Third article

The article discusses the rise in the use of technology in the provision of psychotherapy services majorly by the healthcare workers in the mental sections and where there occurs communication, information storage and relaying through digital means of patient information. Whereas professionals utilize technology to deliver services to third parties efficiently, concerns on digital privacy have increased the risk on clients having the confidentiality breached against the principles of the Code of Ethics by AHIMA (Lustgarten, Garrison, Sinnard, & Flynn, 2020). This article therefore takes out reviews on the commonly used technologies, considers what the vulnerabilities are and the offers proposals to strengthen privacy and confidentiality of patient information henceforth.


AHIMA. (2011). American Health Information Management Association Code of Ethics.
Brodnik, M. S., Rinehart-Thompson, L. A., & Reynolds, R. B. (Eds.). (2017). Fundamentals of law for health informatics and information management. AHIMA Press.

Lustgarten, S. D., Garrison, Y. L., Sinnard, M. T., & Flynn, A. W. (2020). Digital privacy in mental healthcare: current issues and recommendations for technology use. Current opinion in psychology36, 25-31.

Reamer, F. G. (2018). Ethical issues in integrated health care: Implications for social workers. Health & social work43(2), 118-124.

Sulmasy, L. S., López, A. M., & Horwitch, C. A. (2017). Ethical implications of the electronic health record: in the service of the patient. Journal of general internal medicine32(8), 935-939.



Confidentiality and Implications of HIPAA Annotated Bibliography

Taliegha Carter

Capella University

HMSV5320 Ethical Practice in HS

Prof Cherly Holm-Hasen


Confidentiality and Implications of HIPAA Annotated Bibliography

Pampati, S., Liddon, N., Dittus, P. J., Adkins, S. H., & Steiner, R. J. (2019). Confidentiality matters, but how do we improve implementation in adolescent sexual and reproductive health care?. Journal of Adolescent Health65(3), 315-322.

In this article, the authors focus on the privacy standards of adolescent medical records and health information. The authors argue that young adults are more concerned about their privacy and are more honest with medical practitioners when their data privacy is guaranteed. However, most adolescents are not assured of confidentiality when seeking treatment. The authors claim that the healthcare system should consider young adults’ privacy and improve confidentiality when offering healthcare services.

Due to the absence of well-organized literature on the topic, the authors apply a more flexible research method to synthesize the relevant literature. The authors reviewed literature that focused on confidentiality and teenagers, specifically in SRH service delivery. The literature is taken into consideration is majorly on young people and particularly those of below 18 years. To sum it all, HIPAA rules agree with the state law on cases concerning juveniles with specific issues. However, adolescents seeking treatment for STDs have the right to this protected information but not their parents.

I will use this source to give a background of how HIPAA laws relate to adolescents. The article will also support my claim of how HIPAA laws are meant to protect the right of adolescent’s personal medical information from their guardians.

Ceylan, S. S., & Çetinkaya, B. (2020). Attitudes towards gossip and patient privacy among pediatric nurses. Nursing Ethics27(1), 289-300.

The authors claim that HIPAA laws are created to protect the disclosure of patient’s health information. Nurses are by the HIPAA act required to uphold the confidentiality and privacy of their patient’s health information. The study focuses on determining the prevailing attitudes among individuals towards gossip and patient privacy practices among nurses in healthcare facilities.

In the study, a descriptive and cross-sectional design was used. Data was collected using various forms such as patient privacy scales, gossip, and rumor attitude scales. Over one hundred nurses working in healthcare facilities in Turkey were engaged in the study. The study found that nurses who had a high level of education were more concerned about the confidentiality and privacy of patient’s information. The nurses who dismissed gossip cared more about the confidentiality of their patients.

This article will assist in showing the necessity of HIPAA laws in the nursing fraternity and how the laws have positively impacted the career.

Agris JL, Spandorfer JM. HIPAA Compliance and Training: A Perfect Storm for Professionalism Education? J Law Med Ethics. 2016 Dec;44(4):652-656. doi: 10.1177/1073110516684812. PMID: 28661243.

The author of this journal focuses on the rules and regulations of the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act. He further outlines healthcare organizations’ efforts in ensuring their employees Adopt and implement HIPAA in their respective organizations. The authors further discuss the difficulties encountered in training healthcare workers as there are no HIPAA enforcement bodies. The journal brings out the importance of HIPAA training and requirements for the training. In addition, the article gives us an insight into a student-oriented program on privacy and confidentiality that happens at the Medical school of Thomas Jefferson University. The authors use sampling methods to show us how meaningful training on privacy has been achieved in the past. The article concludes by stating that compliance with HIPAA rules is of high priority and that activity on the best practices of confidentiality and privacy in healthcare is critical.

This journal will be helpful in my topic as it focuses on training healthcare workers on privacy and confidentiality, which are essential aspects when dealing with patient’s health information. I will use it to show how medical professionals should be trained to implement HIPAA laws in their medical facilities.

Rezaeibagha, F., & Mu, Y. (2016). Distributed clinical data sharing via dynamic access-control policy transformation. International journal of medical informatics89, 25-31.

Cloud computing is one of the most commonly used management approaches in the most prosperous businesses in the modern world. The authors claim that cloud computing in handling healthcare issues is achieved by using devices such as computers, phones, and tablets when dealing with health information. In this case, medical professionals can easily access patients’ health information by clicking on the button of an internet-enabled device without waiting for any approvals. Most healthcare organizations have adopted EHR systems. The shared data is usually encrypted to ensure the privacy and confidentiality of patients’ information are upheld.

The information in this article will be of great significance to my topic on confidentiality of patient’s health information. The report would give me an understanding of how healthcare providers can use cloud computing with the legal frameworks of the healthcare industry.

Greenberg, Y. (2016). Increasing Recognition of “Risk of Harm” as an Injury Sufficient to Warrant Standing in Class Action Medical Data Breach Cases—Walker v. Boston Medical Center Corp. American Journal of Law & Medicine, 42(1), 210-214.

The author wrote the article about a court case where patients’ privacy of medical data had been breached. Patients of Boston Medical Center noticed that their health information had been made public through a public website. The patients received news that there had been a breach in privacy of the data. However, the health facility claimed that there was no proof of any misuse of the patients’ health information. The notification to the patients through letters was according to laid down procedures followed when there is a violation in HIPAA laws. The article further claims that HIPAA cannot sue organizations that breach the privacy of patients’ information but allow them to learn of the violation and sue the parties involved.

The article will assist me during my research in showing the outcome of a case where a covered party is sued regarding HIPAA violations. The source also gives me an understanding of the right of patients whose medical data has been shared with the public against their will. In addition, the article provides an insight into the rights of covered entities and those of patients.

Agris JL. Currents in contemporary bioethics. Extending the minimum necessary standard to uses and disclosures for treatment. J Law Med Ethics. 2016 Summer;42(2):263-7. doi: 10.1111/jlme.12140. PMID: 25040388.

According to the article’s author, the HIPAA privacy rule states that the minimum necessary standard ensures that covered entities enhance medical data protection to limit inappropriate access. The law only applies when a covered entity discloses a patient’s information on request from another covered entity. The author further states that the rule does not apply to disclosures made to healthcare providers or patients. However, most of the covered entities rarely uphold the minimum necessary standard. These parties rely on the argument that disclosures are made for treatment purposes.

The author recommends that an amendment be made to the HIPAA privacy rule to apply the Minimum Necessary standard to disclosures for treatment, payment, and other care operations. By implementing this amendment, patients would be able to enjoy high-quality healthcare services

This article will help understand the minimum necessary standards in healthcare ad how they can be effectively implemented in healthcare delivery. It will also give insights into how the rule increases the risk of patients’ medical data breaches.


Case Presentation

Taliegha Carter

Capella University

HMSV5320 Ethical Practice in HS

Prof Cheryl Holm-Hasen


Ethical Code

The current era has had integrated healthcare has evolved into a mature healthcare model that has quickly become the standard of care. The social workers have now become engaged in a wide range of comprehensive healthcare organizations to help counter the increasingly complex and growing ethical challenges. Social workers often have dilemmas handling high-stakes problems with massive consequences (Reamer, 2018). The possibility of these high consequences necessitates a professional code of ethics to provide a decision-making model. Even though the social workers need to act on their judgment and instincts, they should act by the professional code of conduct.

Ethical dilemmas pose a great concern in matters that bring two potentially conflicting justifiable solutions in conflict. A good example has an older person who wants to live freely and independently, but her conditions make it difficult for them to do so. In such a situation, the dilemma comes from deciding which action would best solve the situation, the client’s need for assisted living, and the client’s right to self-determination. The answer is unclear because either option would satisfy all the ethical concerns (Reamer, 2018). This scenario shows how the social world dilemmas is often a high-stake issue with detrimental irreversible consequence. Thanks to the code of ethos, it offers guidelines and decision-making that would complement their judgment.

The health information management professionals include protecting the security and privacy of health information, the expansion, application, and maintenance of health information systems, and the appropriate disclosure of health information. The key responsibility of professionals is to stick to the ethical obligations regardless of the situation of collections storage and use of health information. According to the American Health Information management association, health practitioners must conduct their practice following the core values that advocate upholds and defends the patients’ rights (Reamer, 2018). The violations of the code of ethics do not automatically violate or imply legal liability. The American Health Information Management Association (AHIMA) code of ethics provides comprehensive ethical and unethical behaviors guidelines.

In this case, we need to understand the definition of dilemma. It is important to understand that dilemma is a complex phenomenon with no definitive rule to determine the process for a specific situation. There are there main situations that constitute an ethical dilemma. The first is that the dilemma comprises a complex web of morals, behaviors, and morals that social workers must manage within a regulatory and legal sphere. Secondly, ethical dilemmas have different ways to be solved, and lastly, none of the dilemmas is the best choice (Montreuil et al., 2019). A good example of ethical dilemmas is when social workers face the question of breaking their client’s confidentiality or even when a social worker encounters a conflicting situation where personal and professional values conflict with serving the client.

It is important to note that helping people in social work and health science is based on evidence-based discipline with standards and regulations for people with dilemmas. The National Association of Social Workers (NASW) offers a decision-making model that guides all social workers. It enables thee to follow the stipulated standards, maintain discipline, and avoid violations. The main mantra that should guise the social workers is to follow the ethical guidelines, and everything else will fall back. It is easier to memorize the ethical dilemmas but applying them can be tough. But through continuous training programs for the social workers, it is easy to follow through the procedure and ensure the accomplishment of the right task.

In America, healthcare delivery is growing rapidly to keep up with the ever-growing management of chronic diseases and the population’s health needs. The Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health (HITECH) Act passed in 2009 has enabled the high saturation of health documents meant to document health delivery and guide the healthcare delivery clinical decision making. One strength of this act is that it supports patient safety and quality in the context of ethical and professional codes of conduct. This policy helps apply frameworks and ethical issues to analyze the situation’s clinical scenarios to solve the daily problems experienced in clinical care.

Case Studies

One good scenario is of a nurse working in busy community hospital emergency departments. The patients have a heart rate of 110, respiratory rate of 30, oxygen saturation of 88%, and asepsis suspected due to possible pneumonia. The symptoms trigger EHR (Electronic Health Record) because the patient scores high CDS in that inbuilt in the EHR (McBride et al., 2018). This process would necessarily prompt the physician to conduct fluid resuscitation on the patients (Alkabba et al., 2018). But then, the nurse realized that the EHR indicates that the patient had evolving sepsis and was previously admitted for overload from heart failure. So, this realization raises her suspicion that the patient does not have sepsis and may be suffering from possible pulmonary edema and exacerbation of heart failure because the patient exhibited crackles in both lungs and 2+ pitting edema.

The Nurse questions the doctor about the patient’s condition and relays her concern that the patient is not sepsis, as she notes from the history of heart failure in the records. Heart failure increases the risk for fluid overload with bolus. The doctor agrees with the nurse this fact but instructs the nurse to drip in slow to comply with sepsis quality metrics for the hospital (McBride et al., 2018). The doctor’s main concern here was sending the patient to the ICU, and then it would later be evident that they did not follow the protocol in handling the case (Alkabba et al., 2018). The physician and the nurse did not follow the order for slow drip. The patient required direct admission to ICU, but that did not happen due to verbal instruction by the doctor on a buy shift in the emergency department. The ethical question here arises on the appropriateness of the physician’s orders. Still, the nurse follows the instructions anyways, which makes her more distressed because she wishes to give the patient the best outcome.

Another case study is of George, who is a twenty-three-year-old with Down syndrome. George had found a part-time job at a nearby restaurant as a dishwasher and lived with his parents. His parents decided to take him to a live-in group home to give him a good experience where he would get friends and interact with them regularly. He made friends with Stan at the developmentally disabled home, and his parent was happy that he had a found a friend (Flanigan, 2017). However, one Saturday, as both stand and George were waiting for a bus, the stand accidentally pushed George, who fell in front of a bus and suffered a brain injury.

This injury resulted in Georg being fed using a feeding tube for a long time without any consciousness. Those situations force the doctor to request a do not resuscitate order for George signed by the parents (Flanigan, 2017). The parents started to consult the doctor about removing the feeding tube and letting George die. Although letting him die would not improve his quality of life, it would be better. This poses an ethical question to the doctor on whether to continue.

Another case is that of Dr. Benson, full-time telemedicine working from home, consultation through a secure video link embedded in telehealth. Dr, Benson had a 29 year client Ms. Jones was using the telemedicine service for the first time (Snyder & Mueller, 2017). The patient said she experienced vaginal discharge, few days of dysuria, and some burning and itching. However, the patient is more reluctant to reveal her sexual history despite being sexually active (Snyder & Mueller, 2017). The doctor proposes to her to have a physical examination because this condition needs more in-depth examination. Still, the patient suggests that the doctor just give her prescription without a physical examination. In this case, the doctor is faced with the dilemma of misdiagnosing the patient and giving a wrong prescription or insisting on in-person evaluation. The patient ends up handing the phone because that service did not yield to prescription.

The Policies, Laws, And Ethical Guidelines That Influenced Decision Making In Human Services Case Studies

The healthcare service lies in the human service profession as it offers a critical response to the human problems and direction of human needs. The key characteristic of human service is to appreciate human diversities and offer critical service to the communities. The fundamental (Montreuil et al., 2019). The healthcare profession recognizes and builds the community strength and helps establish a formal way to protect patient privacy and confidentiality. Such confidentiality will create serious harm to life or individuals if they are not handled correctly.

Besides ethical justice, it is also critical to note that ethics is an essential aspect of healthcare and social work delivery. These two approaches are essentially blended to solve the modern challenges of the new public management on the public service (Kelly, 2018). As mentioned above, it is critical that the electronic health record, brought by modern technology, offers the physicians, patients, and clinical team a great benefit (McBride et al., 2018). However, the use of EHR. The modern era, where more processes are delivered online, needs more assessment of the EHR impacts the patient-physician relationship, patient care, and navigating the obstacle of providing care in this digital age.


In brief, the health law is utterly a complex and rapidly changing phenomenon that professionals require the most current and practical information to achieve legal compliance in the professional context. It is much common to encounter issues concerning professional boundaries (Boyle, 2019). More importantly, the ethical standard has evolved due to the increased integration in the healthcare setting and increased collaboration with professionals who follow different codes of ethics. In some instances, the ethical standard may be different compared with the related professionals regarding ethical issues such as privacy, consent, dual relationships, boundaries, and confidentiality (Boyle, 2019). Irrespective of what fields you work in in healthcare, the professionals must always navigate the question of the ethically correct chives that they encounter. The healthcare sector is a field that requires high ethical standards that incorporate moral decision-making into medical policies and practices. Therefore healthcare professionals must follow ethical principles to ensure they deliver good services to the patients.


Alkabba, A. F., Hussein, G. M., Albar, A. A., Bahnassy, A. A., & Qadi, M. (2018). The major medical ethical challenges facing the public and healthcare providers in Saudi Arabia. Journal of Family and Community Medicine19(1), 1.

Boyle, M. (2019). 6 Ethical Issues in Healthcare in 2020 | AHU Online. AHU Online. Retrieved 20 August 2021, from

Flanigan, R. (2017). Case Study – DNR for an Adult with Down syndrome. Retrieved 22 August 2021, from

Kelly, W. (2018). Retrieved 20 August 2021, from

McBride, S., Tietze, M., Robichaux, C., Stokes, L., & Weber, E. (2018). Identifying and addressing ethical issues with the use of electronic health records. Online J Issues Nurs23(1).

Montreuil, M., Martineau, J. T., & Racine, E. (2019). Exploring ethical issues related to patient engagement in healthcare: Patient, clinician and researcher’s perspectives. Journal of bioethical inquiry16(2), 237-248.

Reamer, F. G. (2018). Ethical issues in integrated health care: Implications for social workers. Health & social work43(2), 118-124.

Snyder Sulmasy, L., & Mueller, P. S. (2017). Ethics and the legalization of physician-assisted suicide: an American College of Physicians position paper. Annals of internal medicine, 167(8), 576-578.

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