Project 9 research

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9-1 Project: Humanitarian Aid Trip

Name of Grad Student

Southern New Hampshire University

IHP 501: Global Health and Diversity

Name of Professor/Instructor

Month, Day, Year

9-1 Project: Humanitarian Aid Trip

Begin your introduction paragraph here. Do not use the heading “Introduction”. This is where you introduce the topic, explain why the topic is important, and what will be addressed in the short paper (Please delete this statement prior to submitting assignment).


Purpose and Value


Resource Availability

Access to Care and Quality of Health Services

Cultural Context

Other Determinants






Social Justice

Strengthen Communities and Reduce Health Disparities

Effectiveness and Sustainability


Always end a scholarly assignment with a conclusion paragraph that summarizes the key points from the previous supporting paragraphs without introducing any new information (Please delete this statement prior to submitting assignment).


Encourage to incorporate more than ten scholarly, current, sources that support statements (Please delete this statement prior to submitting assignment).


IHP 501 Project Guidelines and Rubric: 9-1 Project: Humanitarian Aid Trip Research Paper
Guidelines & Instructions

In an increasingly interconnected age, it is now more possible—and pressing—than ever to engage with
global health issues. Healthcare professionals play critical roles in making the world a healthier and
more equitable place. In this project, you have the opportunity to share your own perspectives on global
health and diversity by researching and proposing a humanitarian aid trip.

Imagine that you volunteer for an interdisciplinary health team whose mission is to improve global
health outcomes. The SNHU Humanitarian Aid Foundation has offered your team a grant of $100,000 for
a humanitarian aid trip pending their approval.

Your task is to propose a humanitarian aid trip (approximately 2 weeks in length) addressing a particular
health challenge for a targeted population.

First, select an option from the list below that you are most interested in researching. If you choose
options 2, 3, or 4, you should focus your research on a specific country within the region mentioned:

• Option 1 is traveling to Zambia to address the health challenge of malaria within that country.
Your attention was drawn to this health issue after reading the scholarly article “Modeling
Malaria Reduction.” Option 1 identifies a single country (Zambia). You will focus on the
country of Zambia for the rest of the assignments leading to the Final Project due in Module

• Option 2 is traveling to West Africa to address the health challenge of Ebola. Your attention was
drawn to this health issue after reading this Ebola outbreak report from the World Health
Organization. Option 2 for West Africa, there are 16 countries that make up the continent of
West Africa: Benin, Burkina Faso, Cape Verde, Côte D’Ivoire, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-
Bissau, Liberia, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Togo. Select one country
in West Africa to focus on for the rest of the assignments leading to the Final Project due in
Module Nine.

• Option 3 is traveling to a location in East Asia or the Pacific to address the health challenge
of malnutrition among women, infants, children, and adolescents. Your attention was drawn to
this health issue after reading the scholarly paper “Trip Trouble.” Option 3 for East Asia or the
Pacific, there are 26 countries that make up the continent of East Asia/Pacific: Cambodia, China,
Cook Islands, Fiji, Indonesia, Kiribati, DPR Korea, Lao PDR, Malaysia, Marshall Islands,
Micronesia, Mongolia, Nauru, Niue, Palau, Papua New Guinea, Philippines, Samoa, Solomon
Islands, Thailand, Timor-Leste, Tokelau, Tonga, Tuvalu, Vanuatu, and Vietnam” (p. 1). Select one
country in East Asia or Pacific to focus on for the for the rest of the assignments leading to the
Final Project due in Module Nine.

• Option 4 is traveling to a location in South America to establish an immunization clinic to
provide local residents with COVID-19 vaccination. Your attention was drawn to this health
issue after reading the scholarly paper “Public Health Matters” on the subject. Option 4 for
South America, there are 17 countries that make up the continent of South America: Argentina,
Bolivia (Plurinational State of), Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, El Salvador,


Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, the Dominican Republic and
Uruguay. Select one country in South America to focus on for the rest of the assignments
leading to the Final Project due in Module Nine.

Based on your selection, you will investigate current, scholarly evidence to learn about the population
and health issue. You must analyze their determinants of health, evaluate the broader social and
political context, and recommend specific interventions for improving the population’s health outcomes.
Ultimately, you will present your findings and recommendations in a research paper designed to
persuade your sponsor to award you grant funding for your proposed trip.

Note that all the claims in your research paper should be evidence-based. Your citations should be from
your independent research (not from the scenario or textbook) of credible sources and be current
within the last five years. You are required to cite a minimum of ten sources overall. Refer to the Shapiro
Library Guide: Nursing—Graduate located in the Start Here section of the course for additional support.

To complete your research paper, be sure to include the following elements:

1. Introduction: Begin by introducing your audience to the selected location and health challenge.
Specifically, address the following:

A. Overview: Provide a brief, evidence-based overview, including a description of the
chosen country, its socioeconomic and demographic profile, and the prevalent health
concerns within the population.

B. Purpose and Value: Clearly state the goal of this trip, including a general identification
of the intervention that will be proposed. Defend the proposed value of this venture by
discussing the extent to which this humanitarian aid trip will promote health equity,
human rights, and social justice.

2. Analysis: In this next section of your research paper, analyze the specific determinants of health
that drive the population’s health outcomes. Specifically, address the following:

A. Resource Availability: Evaluate the impact of resource availability (including water,
sanitation, food, and air) as a determinant of health for the population. Provide specific
evidence to support your claims.

B. Access to Care and Quality of Health Services: Analyze the impacts of access to care
and quality of health services on morbidity and mortality for the population. Provide
specific evidence to support your claims.

C. Cultural Context: Describe how the specific cultural context influences their perceptions
of health and disease. How do these perceptions impact health issues and outcomes for
the population? Provide specific evidence to support your claims.

D. Other Determinants: Identify any other environmental, biological, or social
determinants of health relevant for the population. Provide specific evidence to support
your claims.


3. Evaluation: Building on your analysis, shift your focus to the larger systems and policy
landscape. What are the organizational mechanisms that can be leveraged to address the
determinants identified in your analysis section? Specifically, address the following:

A. Policies: Assess the impact of relevant health and non-health policies on healthcare
access, equity, and social justice. How are the existing policies contributing to negative
health outcomes or disparities for the target population? Provide specific evidence to
support your claims.

B. Systems: Evaluate the impacts of the healthcare infrastructure and systems on
healthcare access, equity, and social justice. How are the existing systems contributing
to negative health outcomes or disparities for the target population? Provide specific
evidence to support your claims.

4. Recommendations: Synthesize your analysis and evaluation to develop specific, feasible
interventions that could be delivered in a humanitarian aid trip. At this stage, you should focus
on your strategy and methods rather than your budget, but know that your funding source is
limited. The budget details will be worked out at a later stage upon approval of the concept. Be
sure to address the following:

A. Intervention: Explain the nature and requirements of your intervention. What,
specifically, do you propose to do and how would you implement your intervention
within the context of a humanitarian aid trip? You do not need a line-item budget for
the $100,000 grant, but you should include considerations of overall cost. Be sure to
address the following aspects:

i. How does your intervention address the environmental, biological, and
sociocultural aspects discussed in your analysis section? Draw specific
connections between your research and your proposed intervention.

ii. How does your intervention address the political and systemic aspects discussed
in your evaluation section? Draw specific connections between your research
and your proposed intervention.

B. Social Justice: Defend your recommendation in terms of the extent to which your plan
applies social justice and human rights principles. Provide specific evidence to support
your claims.

C. Strengthen Communities and Reduce Health Disparities: Defend your recommendation
in terms of the extent to which your plan will strengthen communities and reduce
health disparities for marginalized and vulnerable populations. Provide specific evidence
to support your claims.

D. Effectiveness and Sustainability: Defend your recommendation in terms of the evidence
that supports the effectiveness and sustainability of your plan for the target population.
Provide specific evidence to support your claims.

What to Submit
To complete this project, you must submit the following:
Your research paper should be an 8- to 10-page Word document, not including the title page and
references. Use 12-point Times New Roman font, double spacing, and one-inch margins. Sources should
be cited according to APA style.


References (always starts on new or separate page)
Note that you are required to cite a minimum of ten sources overall. The evidence should not be older
than five years. To access the Shapiro Library Guide: Nursing—Graduate, go to the Start Here section of
the course (see page 4 for scholarly articles to assist in the 9-1 Research Paper).



Blankenship, J. L., Rudert, C., & Aguayo, V. M. (2020, October). Triple trouble: Understanding

the burden of child undernutrition, micronutrient deficiencies, and overweight in East

Asia and the Pacific. Maternal & Child Nutrition, 16(Supplement S2), 1-7.

DOI: 10.1111/mcn.12950

Martinez-Valle, A. (2021). Public health matters: Why is Latin America struggling in addressing

the pandemic? Journal of Public Health Policy, 42(1), 27-40.

Nawa, M., Halwindi, H., & Hangoma, P. (2020). Modelling malaria reduction in a highly endemic

country: Evidence from household survey, climate, and program data in Zambia. Journal of

Public Health in Africa, 11(1), 22-28. DOI: 10.4081/jphia.2020.1096

World Health Organization. (2021). Ebola: N’Zerekore, Guinea, February-June 2021. WHO.

IHP 501 Module One Project Preparation Worksheet-Liberia

Precious Teasley

Southern New Hampshire University

IHP-501-Q2461 Global Health and Diversity


Professor Carolina Baldwin

February 2, 2023

“IHP 501 Module One Project Preparation Worksheet; Liberia”


According to the World Health Organization’s assessment of the Ebola epidemic in West Africa in 2014, Liberia was one of the nations most affected by the EVD outbreak that started in 2013. The first instances were recorded in March 2014, and the pandemic quickly expanded nationwide, resulting in widespread transmission and several fatalities. While the country was officially proclaimed Ebola-free on May 9, 2015, it saw two further minor outbreaks in 2015 and 2016 (WHO, 2014).

Population The whole population in Liberia is at risk for Ebola. However, the high-risk groups include healthcare professionals. Those individuals who often contact infected people, and weaker demographics like children and women, are more susceptible (WHO, 2014).

Geographic Region:

Size: [There are 111,369 square kilometers of land in Liberia (Sommer et al.,2017)

Location: [Liberia is situated on West Africa’s coast. The Atlantic Ocean, Cote d’IvoireGuinea, and Sierra Leone are its neighbors to the west, north, southwest, and east. Liberia is divided into fifteen counties, which are political subdivisions (Sommer et al.,2017).

Climate: Southern Liberia has an equatorial climate with consistent precipitation throughout the year, whereas northern Liberia is tropical and heavily impacted by the West African Monsoon (Preethi et al.,2015).

B. Socioeconomic Profile:

Capital City: Liberia’s capital is Monrovia

Major Districts or Territories: Liberia is divided into 15 first-level administrative divisions. These include Bomi, Lofa, Bong, Grand Gedeh, Gbarpolu, Grand Kru, Margibi, Maryland, Sinoe Montserrado, Nimba, Grand Bassa, Rivercess, and River Gee.]

Income Standard: Liberia, with a population of 5.2 million, is a fragile, low-income nation. In 2021, annual per capita income was at $680 U.S, or roughly a third of what it had been during the civil conflicts in 1989-2003. According to the UNDP’s Human Development Index for 2022, Liberia is ranked 175th out of 189 nations. (Arthur et al.,2022).

Common Occupations: Climate-wise, Liberia is ideal for farming, which is essential since the bulk of the population relies on subsistence farming. The majority of Liberia’s exports are primary materials like rubber and iron ore. Multinational conglomerates hold almost all domestic manufacturing. (Arthur et al.,2022).

GDP Estimate: Liberia’s GDP in 2021 was projected by the World Bank to be $3.3 billion, up 4.9 percent from 2020 estimates. (World Bank,2021).

Source of Funding for the Education System: Liberia’s government provides most of the funding for the country’s public school system; however, other foreign and non-profit groups also contribute significantly (NGOs).

To ensure that all students in Liberia have access to a high-quality education, the government has pledged to increase school financing. The government has expanded its spending on schools in recent years, putting more money into teacher salaries and classroom supplies (Vandzura, 2021)]

Source of Funding for the Healthcare System: Government, foreign organizations, and private sector entities are the primary funders of the Liberian healthcare system. (Richards-George, 2021).

C. Demographic Profile:

Rate: The birth rate in Liberia was predicted to reach 36.8 per 1,000 in 2021. (Richards-George, 2021).

Aging Trends: The number of senior citizens in Liberia is rapidly growing, a problem that the country must now address. To protect the health and safety of the nation’s aging population, policymakers and other interested parties must adopt appropriate measures (Richards-George, 2021).

Death Rates: According to the World Bank 2020 report, the mortality rate in Liberia is projected to be 7.1 per 1,000 people. (World Bank,2021).

Prevalent Health Concerns: Malaria, tuberculosis, cholera, Lassa fever, Ebola, and HIV/AIDS are just a few of the health issues Liberia is facing. High death rates and severe threats to public health are direct outcomes of these conditions. Since the healthcare system was already fragile, the 2014 Ebola epidemic was devastating. The health issues are made worse by malnutrition, particularly in youngsters. Lack of qualified medical experts, insufficient medical facilities, and restricted access to healthcare are all contributing factors. There has to be rapid focus and investment in the healthcare system to address these issues (Richards-George, 2021).

Social Determinants: In Liberia, the socioeconomic determinants of health comprise poverty, poor living circumstances, lack of education, restricted access to healthcare, and financial disparity. The country’s history of civil conflict has also had a lasting effect on its social and economic structure, leading to many Liberians’ poor health results.

Education: Low literacy rates and restricted access to education are major problems in Liberia. Due to a lack of funding and materials, education in the country is of poor standard. The situation is especially dire in rural regions (Richards-George, 2021).

Healthcare: Liberia struggles with a lack of qualified medical experts, poor medical facilities, and limited access to high-quality healthcare. There are many cases of Malaria, Ebola, Cholera, Tuberculosis, Lassa fever, and HIV/AIDS. Health issues are exacerbated by malnutrition. Investment in healthcare is urgently required (WHO, 2014).

Economic Stability: The Liberian economy is unstable due to high unemployment, high poverty levels, and reliance on exports. Efforts are being made to raise investment, diversify the economy, and enhance the nation’s infrastructure so that economic growth may be maintained (World Bank,2021).

Inequity: Inequality is prevalent in Liberia, where unequal access to education, economic opportunities, and healthcare adversely impacts marginalized groups and women. There is widespread poverty, and the wealth disparity worsens (World Bank,2021).






Arthur, R. F., Horng, L. M., Bolay, F. K., Tandanpolie, A., Gilstad, J. R., Tantum, L. K., & Luby, S. P. (2022). Community trust of government and non-governmental organizations during the 2014-16 Ebola epidemic in Liberia. PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, 16(1), e0010083.

Omata, N. (2018). Who takes advantage of mobility? Exploring the nexus between refugees’ movement, livelihoods and socioeconomic status in West Africa. African Geographical Review, 37(2), 98-108.

Preethi, B., Sabin, T. P., Adedoyin, J. A., & Ashok, K. (2015). Impacts of the ENSO Modoki and other tropical Indo-Pacific climate-drivers on African rainfall. Scientific reports, 5(1), 16653.


Sommer, J. M., Shandra, J. M., & Restivo, M. (2017). The World Bank, contradictory lending, and forests: A cross-national analysis of organized hypocrisy. International Sociology, 32(6), 707-730.

Vandzura, A. (2021). Inclusive Education in El Salvador: Ensuring Quality Education and Gender Equality at the Primary Level.

World Bank. (2021). Republic of Liberia Economic Update, June 2021: Finding Fiscal Space. World Bank.

World Health Organization. (2016). Ebola response roadmap update. Retrieved from

Humanitarian Aid Trip: Major Stakeholders

Precious Teasley

Southern New Hampshire University

IHP-501-Q2461 Global Health and Diversity


Professor Carolina Baldwine

February 16, 2023

Humanitarian Aid Trip

Some stakeholders and groups have the potential to help me fulfil my humanitarian aid trip. The first stakeholder is the state and federal government. Government agencies play a critical role in implementing humanitarian aid trips through their budget planning, where funds are allocated to facilitate the trips. The second stakeholders are the Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs) (Lewis et al., 2020). NGOs have the potential to implement humanitarian aid trips because of their ability to generate funds required for the facilitation of the trips. Lastly are the logistic companies. Logistic companies earn more profits from their daily activities, thus giving them the potential to assist me in implementing the project as part of their social corporate responsibility.

There are various decision-makers among these stakeholders who will potentially impact the trip. Key potential decision-makers include government officials and policymakers. These individuals oversee the health care system’s activities and develop policies on how to manage and run the system. Legislators are also key decision-makers within the government (Burton et al., 2019). Legislators make laws regarding humanitarian aid trips and propose a budget to serve all the activities. They also determine areas where funds are to be allocated for efficiency.

Key participants in my humanitarian aid trips include the beneficiaries (Carroll et al., 2018). These individuals benefit from humanitarian aid trips and are key participants in the trips as they are used in determining where the emphasis is required. Further, those who participate in financing the trip, such as the logistic NGO, are key participants as they ensure the trip has been successfully facilitated. These stakeholders can serve as my potential partners. NGO organizations would finance my aid trip to areas that need assistance. Secondly are logistics companies. Logistic companies are business entities that have the potential to partner with me and facilitate my trip to areas experiencing challenges. The government will come in handy by supplementing my budget.


Burton, J. W., Stein, M. K., & Jensen, T. B. (2019). A systematic review of algorithm aversion in augmented decision making.
Journal of Behavioral Decision Making,
33(2), 220–239.

Carroll, P., Witten, K., Calder-Dawe, O., Smith, M., Kearns, R., Asiasiga, L., Lin, J., Kayes, N., & Mavoa, S. (2018, June 8).
Enabling participation for disabled young people: Study protocol – BMC public health. BioMed Central. Retrieved February 15, 2023, from

Lewis, D., Kanji, N., & Themudo, N. S. (2020). Non-governmental organizations and development.

Great going! Now that you have selected the stakeholders for your humanitarian aid trip, it is time for you to do a deeper investigation into the specific health challenge attached to the scenario of your choice. Health challenges may and will vary across developing and developed countries. This week you gained insight surrounding the prevalence, incidence, and impacts of global nutrition and mental health challenges. For this assignment, you will engage in a similar investigation of your selected scenario.


Building on your prior project preparation assignments, you will go a step further to analyze the specific health challenge for your humanitarian aid trip by crafting a short paper.

Note that you should cite at least three scholarly sources from your investigation. The evidence should not be older than five years. To access the Shapiro Library Guide: Nursing—Graduate, go to the Start Here section of the course.

Specifically, you must address the following rubric criteria:

Health Challenge Analysis: Analyze the nature of your selected health challenge.

Clinical Presentation: Briefly describe the etiology and symptomology of the health challenge. How does the disease present and what are the symptoms?

Prevalence: Analyze the prevalence and impact of the health challenge in the location. Supply quantitative evidence from credible sources to illustrate your claims.

Which populations (for example, according to age, gender, race, education level, socioeconomic status) are most at risk?

Briefly describe the morbidity and mortality related to this challenge.

What are the prevalent trends over time related to your health challenge?

Inequities: Assess the unequal impacts of the health challenge for different groups.

Socioeconomic Groups: To what extent are different socioeconomic levels unequally impacted by the health challenge?

Race/Ethnicity: To what extent are different races/ethnicities unequally impacted by the health challenge?

Gender: To what extent are different genders unequally impacted by the health challenge?

Other: To what extent are other population groups unequally impacted by the health challenge?

Other Determinants of Health: In your first project preparation assignment, you analyzed the social determinants of health. In this activity, you will now consider other determinants of health to gain a fuller picture of the health challenge.

Environmental: Describe the environmental determinants of health for this challenge.

Biological: Describe the biological determinants of health for this challenge.

Policy Evaluation: Identify any current policies that exist related to the health challenge.

Ethnographic Analysis

Precious Teasley

Southern New Hampshire University

IHP-501-Q2461 Global Health and Diversity


Professor Carolina Baldwine

February 23, 2023

Ethnographic Analysis

Ethnicity: Analyze the impact of ethnicity on population identification. What impact does ethnicity have on cultural notions of identity?

Ethnicity is a complex and multifaceted concept that can influence how individuals view themselves and their identities. It is commonly described as a shared cultural heritage and identity based on shared ancestry, language, religion, and traditions. Ethnicity can significantly shape an individual’s identity and impact their beliefs, behaviors, and experiences.

For many individuals, ethnicity is a fundamental aspect of their identity and can be a source of pride and belonging. Ethnic identity can influence how individuals view themselves and their place in society and relate to others from similar or different ethnic backgrounds (Stets& Fares, 2019). When members of various ethnic groups have opposing goals or worldviews, ethnicity can become a divisive factor.

Cultural conceptions of identity can vary widely across different ethnic groups and may be influenced by various factors, including history, geography, language, religion, and political systems. For example, some cultures may put a lot of value on individual success and achievement, while others may put a lot of value on how close people are to their families and communities. In some cultures, a person’s ethnic identity may be closely tied to their religious beliefs, while in others, ethnicity may be primarily based on shared ancestry and cultural traditions.

Ethnic identity can also be influenced by broader social and cultural factors, such as discrimination, prejudice, and stereotyping. For example, individuals from ethnic minorities may experience discrimination based on ethnicity, which can impact how they view themselves and their place in society. On the other hand, individuals from majority ethnic groups may take their ethnic identity for granted and not consider its influence on their worldview and experiences.

Assess the risks associated with the health concern for the patients and their loved ones.

The stakes of a health issue for patients and their loved ones can be incredibly high and may vary depending on the specific health condition and its severity (Wynn, 2020). Health difficulties can generally impact a patient’s physical, mental, and social health and other aspects of their life. Some potential stakes of a health issue for patients and their loved ones may include Physical health: Health issues can have significant impacts on a patient’s physical health, including pain, discomfort, limited mobility, and reduced quality of life. Sometimes, health issues may be life-threatening and require urgent medical intervention.

Emotional well-being: Health issues can also significantly impact a patient’s emotional well-being, including stress, anxiety, depression, and fear. Patients may experience various emotions related to their diagnosis, including shock, disbelief, and anger. Social relationships: Health issues can also impact a patient’s social relationships and support systems. Patients may experience isolation, loneliness, and social stigma related to their health condition. Loved ones may also experience stress and anxiety related to supporting the patient and managing the impact of the health issue on their own lives.

Explain how patients in this population conceptualize sickness.

Patients’ conceptualizing of illness can vary widely based on cultural, social, and personal factors. Patients’ beliefs about illness are generally shaped by their cultural background, religious beliefs, education, socioeconomic status, and previous experiences with healthcare. Understanding how patients in a particular population conceptualize illness is important for healthcare providers to provide effective care.

In some cultures, illness is conceptualized as being caused by supernatural or spiritual factors, such as a curse or divine punishment (Fox et al., 2018). In these cases, patients may seek the help of traditional healers, shamans, or religious leaders, in addition to seeking medical treatment. In other cultures, illness may be viewed as being caused by imbalances in the body’s energy or by environmental factors, such as climate or pollution. Patients in some populations may also have specific beliefs about the causes of certain illnesses and may attribute illness to factors such as diet, lifestyle, genetics, or exposure to toxins. Patients may also have beliefs about the progression of illness and may expect certain symptoms or stages to occur over time.

Determine the social stressors that patients may face due to their condition.

Patients with illnesses may experience a range of social stresses that can impact their overall well-being and quality of life (Alnazly et al., 2021). Some social stresses that patients may experience due to illness include Social isolation: Patients with illnesses may experience social isolation due to physical limitations, the stigma associated with their illness, or a lack of understanding and support from family and friends. Financial stress: Illness can be expensive to manage, and patients may experience financial stress due to medical expenses, lost income, or changes in insurance coverage. Cultural barriers: Patients may also experience cultural barriers when seeking care, including language barriers or a lack of understanding of their cultural beliefs and practices.

Consider the impact of the clinical environment on your interaction with the patient.

The clinical setting can significantly impact the relationship between healthcare providers and patients. Some potential impacts of the clinical setting on the relationship between healthcare providers and patients include Power dynamics: The clinical setting can create a power dynamic between healthcare providers and patients in which the healthcare provider is perceived as having more knowledge and expertise.

This power dynamic can impact the patient’s willingness to share information, ask questions, and actively participate in their care. Time constraints: Healthcare providers in clinical settings are often under time constraints, which can limit the amount of time they spend with each patient. This can impact the quality of the relationship between healthcare providers and patients, as patients may feel rushed or not fully heard. Physical environment: The physical environment of the clinical setting can impact the patient’s comfort and sense of safety. For example, a cold, sterile environment may create a sense of discomfort or anxiety for patients.


Alnazly, E., Khraisat, O. M., Al-Bashaireh, A. M., & Bryant, C. L. (2021). Anxiety, depression, stress, fear and social support during the COVID-19 pandemic among Jordanian healthcare workers. 
Plos one
16(3), e0247679.

Fox, A. B., Earnshaw, V. A., Taverna, E. C., & Vogt, D. (2018). Conceptualizing and measuring mental illness stigma: The mental illness stigma framework and critical review of measures. Stigma and health, 3(4), 348.

Stets, J. E., & Fares, P. (2019). The effects of race/ethnicity and racial/ethnic identification on general trust. 
Social Science Research
80, 1-14.

Wynn, Franklin. “Burnout or Compassion Fatigue? A Comparative Concept Analysis for Nurses Caring for Patients in High-Stakes Environments.” 
International Journal for Human Caring 24.1 (2020).

Health Challenge Intervention

Precious Teasley

Southern New Hampshire University

IHP-501-Q2461 Global Health and Diversity


Professor Carolina Baldwine

March 15, 2023

Health Challenge Intervention

The team involved in this research will travel to Western Liberia to conduct studies on Ebola disease. As the selected members traveled, health challenges prone to this region were identified, including malaria, acute respiratory infection, and tuberculosis. Consequently, two conventional and complementary interventions are proposed to protect the team from health challenges.

Part 1: Conventional Intervention

Conventional medicines are mostly used in Western cultures. The conventional intervention that will be adopted to reduce risks to healthcare issues discussed previously is insecticide-treated bed nets (ITNs). ITNs have proven effective in dealing with malaria disease. These nets have pyrethroid insecticides that the World Health Organization has approved for mosquito nets. The insecticide has proved to be safe for human beings, and thus, it is recommended for this use.

The aim of using these nets will be to protect the population from malaria, a prevalent disease in the research area. Malaria is a common disease caused by female anopheles mosquitoes. The pyrethroid spread on the notes kills mosquitos and thus reduces the risk of contracting malaria. One of the reasons for using ITNs is that they are safe for human beings, as WHO has recognized pyrethroid as harmless (Pryce et al., 2022). Studies have also revealed that ITNs have significantly lowered malaria prevalence in every part of the world. According to Killeen, using ITNs contributed to most of the 1.3 billion reduced cases of malaria reported between 2005 and 2015 (Killeen, 2020). Further, data show that the use of indoor residual spraying can entirely lead to the elimination of malaria (Killeen, 2020. Consequently, this intervention has proven effective based on existing studies and thus will be applied during the trip. The population will be required to undertake indoor spraying of ITNs to reduce malaria risks further.

Implementing this intervention will require one nurse specialist from the team I will travel with and another from the research area. The intervention will not require a thorough interdisciplinary team because it is easy to implement. The two specialists will be needed to offer more guidance on the intervention in case issues arise. We shall contact the hospitals in the research area to supply us with ITNs. The cost of implementing this intervention during the research period is estimated to be 5000 dollars. However, the costs may vary due to shifts in charges.

Complementary Health Intervention

Complementary medicines are not part of Western medicines but can be used in treating some diseases. The complementary intervention that will be used to reduce exposure to health challenges is the
Allium sativum herb. Its common name is garlic. Garlic is a plant that is common in Africa and thus can be easily accessed. The plant belongs to the family of onions and is mainly planted in the Mediterranean area. This complementary treatment aims to reduce malaria, tuberculosis, and respiratory infection vulnerability. The rationale for using this intervention is that research has found it effective in mitigating malaria and other diseases. A research study conducted to determine the efficacy of this plant, which is used as a herb, showed that it prevents human beings from viral pathogens that can be contaminated by other people and spread by animals or plants (Rouf et al., 2020). Also, the herb is common in Liberia and readily available.

The team will require the local traditional medicine expert to help it adopt the right procedures for using
Allium sativum to treat various diseases. A herbalist will be required because they know the local use of such herbs to treat disease. Garlic plant is readily found in groceries; thus, we shall liaise with the local sellers to supply the product. The expected cost of this intervention is set at 2000 dollars, but the actual price may be low or high depending on market dynamics.


Killeen, G. F. (2020). Control of malaria vectors and management of insecticide resistance through universal coverage with next-generation insecticide-treated nets. 
The Lancet
395(10233), 1394-1400.

Pryce, J., Medley, N., & Choi, L. (2022). Indoor residual spraying for preventing malaria in communities using insecticide-treated nets. 
Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews

Rouf, R., Uddin, S. J., Sarker, D. K., Islam, M. T., Ali, E. S., Shilpi, J. A., Nahar, L., Tiralongo, E., & Sarker, S. D. (2020). Antiviral potential of garlic (Allium sativum) and its organosulfur compounds: A systematic update of pre-clinical and clinical data. 
Trends in Food Science & Technology
104, 219-234.

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