PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSOCIATION

The American Psychological Association referencing style (or APA as it is more commonly known) is used across a variety of disciplines. The sixth and latest edition was published in 2010.
IN-TEXT REFERENCES
• APA uses the ‘author-date’ style of referencing. That is, in-text references (generally) appear in the following format:
(Author’s Last Name, Year of Publication).
Example: (Austen, 1813).
• You are also permitted to include the Author’s name in a sentence, omitting it from the brackets.
Example: Austen (1813)
• When directly quoting from a source, you must include page number(s) and enclose the quote in double quotation marks.
Example: “A woman must have money and a room of her own if she is to write fiction” (Woolf, 1929, p. 6).
Note: For multiple pages, use the abbreviation ‘pp.’ Include the full page range, i.e. ’64-67’.
Example: Woolf (1929, pp. 64-67) observes that…
• When paraphrasing or referring to an idea contained in another work, the Publication manual of the American Psychological Association advises: “you are encouraged to provide a page or paragraph number, especially when it would help an interested reader locate the relevant passage in a long or complex text” (American Psychological Association [APA], 2010, p. 171). It is recommended you verify this advice with your unit of study coordinator, lecturer or tutor for each subject.
• If you are referring to an entire work, include only the Author’s Last Name and Year of Publication in brackets. If you are referring to part of a work, you must include Page Numbers or their equivalent (see specific examples for more information).
• When citing a source you have not read yourself, but which is referred to in a source you have read (also known as ‘secondary referencing’), use the following method:
Moore (as cited in Maxwell, 1999, p. 25) stated that…
Important: You would cite Maxwell, not Moore, in the Reference List.
Note: It is always preferable to cite the original source. “Use secondary sources sparingly when the original work is out of print, unavailable through usual sources, or not available in English” (American Psychological Association [APA], 2010, p. 178).
REFERENCE LIST
• The Reference List should appear at the end of your work on a separate page.
• Only include references you have cited in your work.
• All references should have a hanging indent. That is, all lines of a reference subsequent to the first line should be indented (see examples in the tables below).
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• In general, references should be listed alphabetically by the last name of the first author of each work.
• Special Reference List cases:
o In the case of works by different authors with the same family name, list references alphabetically by the authors’ initials.
o In the case of multiple works by the same author in different years, list references chronologically (earliest to latest).
o In the case of multiple works by the same author in the same year, list references alphabetically by title in the Reference List.
• When referring to Books, Book Chapters, Article Titles or Webpages, capitalise only the first letter of the first word of a title and subtitle, and proper nouns.
Example: Exploring gifted education : Australian and New Zealand perspectives
• When referring to Journal Titles, capitalise all major words (do not capitalise words such as ‘of’, ‘and’, & ‘the’ unless they are the first word in the title).
Example: Journal of Exercise Science and Fitness
USEFUL LINKS
REFERENCING AND CITATION STYLES SUBJECT GUIDE: http://libguides.library.usyd.edu.au/citation
ENDNOTE SUBJECT GUIDE: http://libguides.library.usyd.edu.au/endnote
HOW TO REFERENCE TUTORIAL: https://library.sydney.edu.au/help/online-training/referencing/
ACADEMIC LIAISON LIBRARIANS: https://library.sydney.edu.au/contacts/subjectcontacts.html
Acknowledgement: The material contained in this document has been adapted, with permission of the authors, from the following publication:
University of Canberra Library & Academic Skills Program. (2010). A guide to referencing with examples in the APA & Harvard styles (6th ed.). Retrieved from the University of Canberra
Library website: http://www.canberra.edu.au/library/attachments/pdf/apa.pdf
Document originally revised by K. Masters, July 2014
Updated by E. Tam and J. Ulyannikova, January 2016
Updated by M. Cassin, March 2017
Updated by J. Guo, June 2018
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IN-TEXT REFERENCE
REFERENCE LIST
BOOKS & BOOK CHAPTERS
One author – in-text reference placement
Note: There are two main ways to use in-text references. Firstly, to focus on the information from your source – ‘information prominent’. Secondly, to focus on the author – ‘author prominent’.
‘Information prominent’ (the author’s name is within parentheses):
The conclusion reached in a recent study (Cochrane, 2007) was that…
OR
‘Author prominent’ (the author’s name is outside the parentheses):
Cochrane (2007) concluded that…
Cochrane, A. (2007). Understanding urban policy: A critical approach. Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing.
One author – when fewer than 40 words
are quoted
Include the material in the paragraph and
include specific page number/s.
Use quotation marks to show the
exact words.
An interesting view was expressed that “the connection of high profile
developments to their surrounding environment has increasingly been
questioned” (Cochrane, 2007, p. 117).
OR
An interesting view was expressed by Cochrane (2007) that “the
connection of high profile developments to their surrounding environment has increasingly been questioned” (p. 117).
Cochrane, A. (2007). Understanding urban policy: A critical approach. Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing.
One author – when 40 or more
words are quoted
Begin quoting the material on a new line,
indent it 5 spaces (use the indent tool to keep all lines of the quote evenly indented),
and include specific page number/s.
Omit the quotation marks.
Use double spacing for both your text and the indented quote.
Make sure the quote is exactly as it was published.
Much has been written about acute care. Finkelman (2006), for example, points out that:
There are many changes in acute care services occurring almost daily, and due to the increasing use of outpatient surgery, surgical services have experienced major changes. Hospitals are increasing the size of their outpatient or ambulatory surgery departments and adjusting to the need of moving patients into and out of the surgical service in 1 day or even a few hours. (p. 184).
Recently, this trend has been seen in some Australian hospitals and
research here…
Finkelman, A. W. (2006). Leadership and management in nursing. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall.
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IN-TEXT REFERENCE
REFERENCE LIST
Two authors
When considering the Howard Government’s Indigenous health expenditure, Palmer and Short (2010) maintain that…
Palmer, G. R., & Short, S. D. (2010). Health care and public policy: An Australian analysis (4th ed.). Melbourne, Australia: Palgrave Macmillan.
Three to five authors
For the first in-text reference, list all the
authors’ family names, then use the first author’s family name followed by ‘et al.’ for subsequent entries.
A recent study (Seeley, VanPutte, Regan, & Russo, 2011) concluded that…
Subsequent in-text reference/s:
(Seeley et al., 2011).
Seeley, R., VanPutte, C., Regan, J., & Russo, A. (2011). Seeley’s anatomy & physiology. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.
Six to seven authors
For all in-text references, list only the first author’s family name followed by ‘et al.’ All authors are included in the Reference List.
For books with eight or more authors, please follow the guidelines for journal articles with eight or more authors on page 7.
The Russian Revolution may never have succeeded if there hadn’t already been widespread discontent among the Russian populace (Bulliet et al., 2005).
Bulliet, R. W., Crossley, P. K., Headrick, D. R., Hirsch, S. W., Johnson, L. L., & Northrup, D. (2011). The earth and its peoples: A global history (5th ed.). Boston, MA: Wadsworth.
Works by different authors with the same family name
For in-text references, include the initials of the authors in question to enable readers to differentiate between them.
List references alphabetically by the authors’ initials in the Reference List.
These techniques have been shown to improve test scores among primary school aged children (R. Smith, 2010).
If funding were enhanced, it is arguable these problems could be ameliorated (C. J. Smith & Laslett, 1993).
Smith, C., & Laslett, R. (1993). Effective classroom management: A teacher’s guide (2nd ed.). London,United Kingdom : Routledge.
Smith, R. (2010). Rethinking teacher education: Teacher education in the knowledge age. Sydney, Australia: AACLM Press.
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IN-TEXT REFERENCE
REFERENCE LIST
Several works by the same author in different years
When citing references separately, no special rule needs to be observed. When citing references collectively, separate years with a comma and insert years earliest to latest.
List references chronologically (earliest to latest) in the Reference List.
These techniques have changed markedly in the last decade (Greenspan, 2000, 2011).
Greenspan, A. (2000). Orthopedic radiology: A practical approach (3rd ed.). Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
Greenspan, A. (2011). Orthopedic imaging: A practical approach (5th ed.). Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
Several works by the same author in the same year
Arrange alphabetically by title in the Reference List. Place lowercase letters (“a”, “b”, “c”, etc.) immediately after the year.
Leadership and change in schools have been major topics of discussion for several years (Fullan, 1996a, 1996b) and this conference…
“Educational change” has taken on a new meaning in recent years
(Fullan, 1996b) …
Fullan, M. (1996a). Leadership for change. In International handbook for educational leadership and administration. New York, NY: Kluwer Academic .
Fullan, M. (1996b). The new meaning of educational change. London,United Kingdom: Cassell.
Several authors, different years, referred to collectively in your work
List sources alphabetically by family name
in the in-text reference in the order in which
they appear in the Reference List.
Separate each reference with a semicolon.
The cyclical process (Carr & Kemmis, 1986; Dick, 2000; Kemmis
& McTaggart, 1988; MacIsaac, 1995) suggests…
Carr, W., & Kemmis, S. (1986). Becoming critical: Education knowledge and action research. London,United Kingdom: Falmer Press.
Dick, B. (2000). A beginner’s guide to action research. Retrieved from http://www.scu.edu.au/schools/gcm/ar/arp/guide.html
Kemmis, S., & McTaggart, R. (Eds.). (1988). The action research planner (3rd ed.). Melbourne, Australia: Deakin University Press.
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IN-TEXT REFERENCE
REFERENCE LIST
eBook – online book

  • If the URL leads to information about how
    to obtain the book, use “Available from” instead of “Retrieved from”.
  • If the eBook has a DOI, add this in.
    We found helpful information about deaf children (Niemann, Greenstein, & David, 2004) that meant we could…
    OR
    Schiraldi (2001) offers solutions to PTSD.
    Niemann, S., Greenstein, D., & David, D. (2004). Helping children who are deaf: Family and community support for children who do not hear well. Retrieved from http://www.hesperian.org/ publications_download_deaf.php
    Schiraldi, G. R. (2001). The post-traumatic stress disorder sourcebook: A guide to healing, recovery, and growth [Adobe Digital Editions version]. doi:10.1036/0071393722
    An article/ chapter in eBook
    If the article/ chapter has a DOI, add this in.
    Screening is helpful to identify major depression in adults (Williams & Nieuwsma, 2016) …
    Williams, J., & Nieuwsma, J. (2016). Screening for depression in adults. In J. A. Melin (Ed.), UpTpDate. Retrieved from https://www.uptodate.com/contents/screening-for-depression-in-adults
    Chapter in edited book
    A discussion about Australia’s place in today’s world (Richards, 1997)
    included reference to…
    OR
    Richards (1997) proposed that…
    Richards, K. C. (1997). Views on globalization. In H. L. Vivaldi (Ed.), Australia in a global world (pp. 29-43). Sydney, Australia: Century.
    Brochure – author is also publisher
    The security of personal information is addressed in the TransACT
    brochure (TransACT, n.d.)
    TransACT . (n.d.). Guide to equipment and service [Brochure]. Canberra, Australia: Author.
    Editor
    In discussing best practice, Zairi (1999) identified…
    OR
    Best practice indicators in management have been identified (Zairi, 1999) and…
    Zairi, M. (Ed.). (1999). Best practice: Process innovation management. Oxford,United Kingdom: Butterworth-Heinemann.
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    IN-TEXT REFERENCE
    REFERENCE LIST
    Compiler, or Reviser, or Translator
    Use the following abbreviations after
    the person’s name in the Reference List:
    Comp.
    Rev.
    Trans.
    This novel by Gaarder (1991/1994) provides an appealing approach to…
    OR
    Socrates has been described as “enigmatic” (Gaarder, 1991/1994, p. 50) which provides us with…
    Gaarder, J. (1994). Sophie’s world: A novel about the history of philosophy (P. Møller, Trans.). London,United Kingdom: Phoenix House. (Original work published 1991).
    Corporate author – when the author is also the publisher
    Spell out the full name of the body each
    time it is cited in-text, unless it is long and has a familiar/easily understood abbreviation. In the latter case, give the full name with the abbreviation for the first in-text reference. Use the abbreviation only for subsequent references.
    A recent study (Australian Institute of Health and Welfare [AIHW], 2009) highlighted …
    Subsequent in-text reference/s:
    The AIHW (2009) found that…
    Australian Institute of Health and Welfare. (2009). Indigenous housing needs 2009: A multi-measure needs model (AIHW cat. no. HOU 214). Canberra, Australia: Author.
    Corporate author – commissioned reports
    The report prepared by the South Australian Centre for Economic Studies (2009) was discussed.
    South Australian Centre for Economic Studies. (2009). Local government’s current and potential role in water management and conservation: Final report. Commissioned by the Local Government Association of South Australia. Adelaide, Australia: Author.
    No date of publication
    Some aspects of forensic science are more challenging than others
    (Browne, n.d.) and for this reason…
    Browne, J. D. (n.d.). Forensic science as a career. London, England: Tower.
    Second or later edition
    Peters (2001, p. 6) argued that “…”
    Peters, T. (2001). The elements of counselling (2nd ed.). Brisbane, Australia: Macmillan.
    Multi-volume work
    Inge, Duke and Bryer (1978, p. 27) claim that there is much to learn
    about these writers which results in…
    OR
    There is so much to learn about our country (Clark, 1978, p. 42)
    that we kept returning to…
    Inge, M. T., Duke, M., & Bryer, J. R. (Eds.). (1978). Black American writers: Bibliographical essays (Vols. 1-2). New York, NY: St. Martins.
    Clark, C. M. H. (1978). A history of Australia: Vol. 4. The earth abideth for ever, 1851-1888. Australia: Melbourne University Press.
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    IN-TEXT REFERENCE
    REFERENCE LIST
    DICTIONARY / ENCYCLOPAEDIA
    Dictionary / Encyclopaedia – print
    Include information about editions, volume
    numbers and page numbers in parenthesis
    following the title in the Reference List.
    According to one definition of “bivalence” (VandenBos, 2007, p. 123)…
    VandenBos, G. R. (Ed.). (2007). APA dictionary of psychology. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
    Dictionary / Encyclopaedia – online
    Include information about editions, specific volume numbers or page numbers in parenthesis following the title in the Reference List.
    A psychological overview of ADHD (Arcus, 2001)…
    Arcus, D. (2001). Attention deficit / hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). In B. Strickland (Ed.), The Gale encyclopedia of psychology. Retrieved from http://www.gale.cengage.com/
    Note: If retrieved from a database, do a Web search for the home page of the publisher of the encyclopaedia and use the URL in the reference.
    JOURNAL, NEWSPAPER & NEWSLETTER ARTICLES
    Journal article with one author – separated paging (paginated by issue)
    If each issue of a journal begins on page
    1, include the issue number in parenthesis
    immediately after the volume number in
    the Reference List.
    If the journal article has a DOI, add this in.
    In an earlier article, it was proposed (Jackson, 2007)…
    Jackson, A. (2007). New approaches to drug therapy. Psychology Today and Tomorrow, 27(1), 54-59.
    Dempsey, I. (2012). The use of individual education programs for children in Australian Schools. Australasian Journal of Special Education, 36(1), 21-31. doi:10.1017/jse.2012.5
    Journal article with two authors – continuous paging throughout a volume.
    If the journal volume page numbers run
    continuously throughout the year, regardless of issue number, do not include the issue number in your Reference List entry.
    If the journal article has a DOI, add this in.
    Kramer and Bloggs (2002) stipulated in their latest article…
    OR
    This article on art (Kramer & Bloggs, 2002) stipulated that…
    Kramer, E., & Bloggs, T. (2002). On quality in art and art therapy. American Journal of Art Therapy, 40, 218-231.
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    IN-TEXT REFERENCE
    REFERENCE LIST
    Journal article with three to five authors
    For the first in-text reference, list all the
    authors’ family names, then use the first
    author’s family name followed by ‘et al.’
    for subsequent entries.
    If the journal article has a DOI, add this in.
    A recent study to investigate the effects of an organisational stress
    management program on employees (Elo, Ervasti, Kuosma, & Mattila,
    2008) concluded that…
    Subsequent in-text reference/s:
    (Elo et al., 2008)
    Elo, A., Ervasti, J., Kuosma, E., & Mattila, P. (2008). Evaluation of an organizational stress management program in a municipal public works organization. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 13(1), 10-23. doi: 10.1037/1076-8998.13.1.10
    Journal article with six to seven authors
    For all in-text references, list only the first author’s family name followed by ‘et al.’ All authors are included in the Reference List.
    If the journal article has a DOI, add this in.
    A simple ALMA is described in a recent study (Restouin et al., 2009).
    Restouin, A., Aresta, S., Prébet, T., Borg, J., Badache, A., & Collette, Y. (2009). A simplified, 96-well–adapted, ATP luminescence–based motility assay. BioTechniques, 47, 871–875. doi: 10.2144/000113250
    Journal article with eight or more authors
    For all in-text references, list only the first author’s family name followed by ‘et al.’ In the Reference List, include the first six authors’ names, then insert three ellipsis points (…), and add the last author’s name.
    If the journal article has a DOI, add this in.
    Traumatic injury is the leading cause of death and disability worldwide (Steel et al., 2010).
    Steel, J., Youssef, M., Pfeifer, R., Ramirez, J. M., Probst, C., Sellei, R., … Pape, H. C. (2010). Health-related quality of life in patients with multiple injuries and traumatic brain injury 10+ years postinjury. Journal of Trauma: Injury, Infection, and Critical Care, 69(3), 523-531. doi: 10.1097/TA.0b013e3181e90c24
    Journal or magazine article with no volume or issue number
    If the journal article has a DOI, add this in.
    Wychick and Thompson (2005) foreshadow that scam will still be enticing…
    OR
    An interesting approach to scam (Wychick & Thompson, 2005)
    suggested that…
    Wychick, J., & Thompson, L. (2005, November 24). Fallen for a scam lately? AustraliaToday, 54-60.
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    IN-TEXT REFERENCE
    REFERENCE LIST
    Journal article retrieved from a database – with a DOI (Digital Object Identifier)
    A DOI is a unique, permanent identifier
    assigned to articles in many databases.
    Always include the DOI if one is provided
    (usually in the article’s full-text, abstract
    or database record). If there is a DOI, no
    other retrieval information is necessary.
    A study examining priming (Johns & Mewhort, 2009) discovered …
    Johns, E., & Mewhort, D. (2009). Test sequence priming in recognition memory. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory and Cognition, 35, 1162-1174. doi: 10.1037/a0016372
    Journal article – in press
    Influence of music in running performance (Lee & Kimmerly, in press)

    Lee, S., & Kimmerly, D. (in press). Influence of music on maximal self-paced running performance and passive post-exercise recovery rate. The Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness.
    Journal article –
    Cochrane Review with DOI
    Overweight and obesity are increasing throughout the industrialised world (Shaw, O’Rourke, Del Mar, & Kenardy, 2005) …
    Shaw, K., O’Rourke, P., Del Mar, C., & Kenardy, J. (2005). Psychological interventions for overweight or obesity. The Cochrane database of systematic reviews (2). doi:10.1002/14651858.CD003818.pub2
    Journal article retrieved from a database – without a DOI
  • If there is no DOI, do a Web search to
    locate the URL of the journal’s home page & include it in the Reference List. The journal URL can sometimes be found in the database record or in the full text view of the article.
  • If the online article is ONLY available from
    a database (e.g. for discontinued journals
    where the journal home page doesn’t exist), include the entry page URL of the database where it was found. Give the database name if not in the URL.
    The effects of climate change on agriculture are studied by Ramalho,
    Da Silva and Dias (2009)…
    Primary care is one area marked for improvement (Purtilo, 1995).
    Example using URL of journal home page:
    Ramalho, M., Da Silva, G., & Dias, L. (2009). Genetic plant improvement and climate changes. Crop Breeding and Applied Biotechnology, 9(2), 189-195. Retrieved from http://www.sbmp.org.br/cbab
    Example using URL of database (where there is no journal home page):
    Purtilo, R. (1995). Managed care: Ethical issues for the rehabilitation professions. Trends in Health Care, Law and Ethics, 10, 105-118. Retrieved from http://www.proquest.com
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    IN-TEXT REFERENCE
    REFERENCE LIST
    Book review in a journal
    In his review of Thomas Samaras’ latest book, Marson (2009) identifies…
    Marson, S. M. (2009). How big should we be? A Herculean task accomplished [Review of the book Human body size and the laws of scaling: Physiological, performance, growth, longevity and ecological ramification, by T. Samaras]. Public Health Nutrition, 12, 1299–1300. doi:10.1017/S1368980009990656
    Newspaper article – with an author
    The notion of a Bill of Rights may be inappropriate in the Australian
    context (Waterford, 2007).
    Waterford, J. (2007, May 30). Bill of Rights gets it wrong. The Canberra Times, p. 11.
    Newspaper article – without an author
    The redesign of the Internet (“Internet pioneer”, 2007) is said to…
    Internet pioneer to oversee network redesign. (2007, May 28). The Canberra Times, p. 15.
    Newspaper article retrieved from a database
    Do a Web search to locate the URL of the
    newspaper’s home page & include it in the
    Reference List.
    In an attempt to save the tiger, Darby (2002) provided…
    Darby, A. (2002, August 20). Rarest tiger skin a rugged survivor. Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved from http://www.smh.com.au
    Article in an online newsletter
    Australia’s casualty rate was almost 65 per cent – the highest in the
    British Empire (“Australians and the Western Front”, 2009)
    Australians and the Western Front. (2009, November). Ozculture newsletter. Retrieved from http://www.cultureandrecreation. gov.au/ newsletter/
    CONFERENCE / SEMINAR PAPERS
    Conference or seminar papers in published proceedings – print
    If the paper is from a book, use the Book
    chapter citation format. If it is from regularly
    published proceedings (e.g. annual), use the Journal article citation format.
    In a paper about conservation of photographs (Edge, 1996),
    the proposition that…
    Edge, M. (1996). Lifetime prediction: Fact or fancy? In M. S. Koch, T. Padfield, J. S. Johnsen, & U. B. Kejser (Eds.), Proceedings of the Conference on Research Techniques in Photographic Conservation (pp. 97-100). Copenhagen, Denmark: Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts.
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    IN-TEXT REFERENCE
    REFERENCE LIST
    Conference or seminar papers in published proceedings – online
    Tester (2008) points to the value of using geothermal sources for
    power and energy.
    Tester, J. W. (2008). The future of geothermal energy as a major global energy supplier. In H. Gurgenci & A. R. Budd (Eds.), Proceedings of the Sir Mark Oliphant International Frontiers of Science and Technology Australian Geothermal Energy Conference, Canberra, Australia: Geoscience Australia. Retrieved from http://www.ga.gov.au/image_cache/ GA11825.pdf
    GOVERNMENT PUBLICATIONS
    Government department as author
    Spell out the full name of the body each
    time it is cited in-text, unless it is long and has a familiar/easily understood abbreviation. In the latter case, give the full name with the abbreviation for the first in-text reference. Use the abbreviation for subsequent references.
    The need for guidelines to manage and use multiple channels to deliver e-government services (Department of Finance and Administration [DOFA], 2006) presents Australian Government agencies with…
    Subsequent in-text reference/s:
    DOFA (2006) identified …
    Department of Finance and Administration. (2006). Delivering Australian Government services: Managing multiple channels. Canberra, Australia: Author.
    Government publication – with identifying number
    Includes report numbers, catalogue
    numbers, etc.
    Recently released statistics from the Australian Bureau of Statistics
    (ABS) (2007) reveal interesting changes in Australian society.
    Subsequent in-text reference/s:
    The ABS (2007) reported that …
    Australian Bureau of Statistics. (2007). Australian social trends (Cat. no. 4102.0). Canberra, Australia: ABS.
    Government report – online
    First in-text reference:
    A recent government report (Department of the Prime Minister and Cabinet [PM&C], 2008) examines a selection of key topics …
    Subsequent in-text reference/s:
    Families in Australia were highlighted (PM&C, 2008)…
    Department of the Prime Minister and Cabinet. (2008). Families in Australia: 2008. Retrieved from http://www.dpmc.gov.au/ publications/families/index.cfm#contact
    Government approved standards
    …and “including data in computer systems, created or received and
    maintained by an organisation” (Standards Australia, 1996, p. 7) as well as…
    Standards Australia. (1996). Australian Standard AS 4390: Records Management. Sydney, Australia: Author.
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    IN-TEXT REFERENCE
    REFERENCE LIST
    LEGISLATION
    Note: For more comprehensive information please consult the following publication: The bluebook: A uniform system of citation (19th ed.). (2010). Cambridge, MA: Harvard Law Review Association.
    Act – print
    According to s. 8.1 of the Anti-Discrimination Act 1977 (NSW), it is unlawful for an employer to discriminate against a person on the ground of race.
    Anti-Discrimination Act 1977 (NSW) s. 8.1 (Austl.).
    Follow this convention:
    Short Title of the Act (in italics) Year (in italics) (Jurisdiction abbreviation) Section number Subdivision, if relevant (Country abbreviation).
    Bill – print
    The Mental Health Bill 2013 (WA) prohibits…
    Mental Health Bill 2013 (WA) (Austl.).
    Follow this convention:
    Bill Name (no italics) Year (Jurisdiction abbreviation) (Country abbreviation).
    Act & Bill – online
    According to s. 8.1 of the Anti-Discrimination Act 1977 (NSW), it is unlawful for an employer to discriminate against a person on the ground of race.
    Anti-Discrimination Act 1977 (NSW) s. 8.1 (Austl.). Retrieved from http://www.legislation.nsw.gov.au/maintop/scanact/inforce/NONE/0
    Case
    According to Ellis v. Wallsend District Hospital (1989)…
    …in a land right case (Mabo v. Queensland, 1988)…
    Ellis v. Wallsend District Hospital 1989 17 NSWLR 553 (Austl.).
    Mabo v. Queensland 1988 166 CLR 186 (Austl.).
    Follow this convention:
    Case Name (in italics) Year Volume number Reporter abbreviation First page number (Country abbreviation).
    IMAGES, MUSIC & AUDIOVISUAL MEDIA
    CD recording
    Lyrics from Paul Kelly’s song “From Little Things Big Things Grow” (Kelly, 1997, track 10) were used in recent television advertisements.
    Kelly, P. (1997). From little things big things grow. On Songs from the south: Paul Kelly’s greatest hits [CD]. Melbourne, Australia: Mushroom Records.
    DVD / Videorecording
    Jane Austen’s world came alive in Sense and sensibility (Lee, 1995)
    Lee, A. (Director). (1995). Sense and sensibility [DVD]. Australia: Columbia TriStar Home Video.
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    IN-TEXT REFERENCE
    REFERENCE LIST
    Figure, Table, Graph, Map or Chart
    Cite each of these as you would for a book.
    Include, in square brackets, the type of entry immediately after the title:
    [Figure].
    [Table].
    [Map].
    [Graph].
    [Chart].
    Graph
    The internal processes were well described (Kaplan & Norton, 2004)
    which led to…
    Map
    To locate a property just outside the Australian Capital Territory, use the 1:100 000 map produced by Geoscience Australia (2004) which covers…
    Graph
    Kaplan, R. S., & Norton, D. P. (2004). Internal processes deliver value over different time horizons [Graph]. In Strategy maps: Converting intangible assets into tangible outcomes (p. 48). Boston, MA: Harvard Business School.
    Map
    Geoscience Australia NATMAP. (2004). ACT region, New South Wales and Australian Capital Territory [Map]. Canberra, Australia: Author.
    Image – online
    The effective use of light in Monet’s ‘Haystacks’ (Monet, 1890)…
    Monet, C. (1890). Haystacks, midday [Painting]. National Gallery of Australia, Canberra. Retrieved from http://artsearch.nga. gov.au/ Detail-LRG.cfm?IRN=29073&View=LRG
    Liner notes
    The American jazz trombonist, bandleader and composer Jack Teagarden (Weiner, 1995)…
    Weiner, D. J. (1995). [Liner notes]. J. Teagarden (Composer), Big ‘T’ jump [CD]. USA: Jass Records.
    Score
    Craig Scott is one of Australia’s leading bassists (Scott, 2013)
    Scott, C. (2013). C minor waltz: For jazz quintet [Score]. Sydney, Australia: Craig Scott
    Streamed music
    An analysis of the jazz piano style of “What’s Your Story Morning Glory” (Williams, 1978, track 8) reveals…
    Williams, M. L. (1978). What’s your story morning glory. On Mary Lou Williams: Solo recital, Montreux Jazz Festival [CD]. Fantasy. Retrieved from Naxos Music Library Jazz.
    Interview – on radio
    In a recent interview with the Prime Minister (Mitchell, 2009)…
    Mitchell, N. (Presenter). (2009, October 16). Interview with the Prime Minister, Kevin Rudd. In Mornings with Neil Mitchell [Radio broadcast]. Melbourne, Australia: Radio 3AW.
    Interview – on television
    He demonstrated his professionalism and sensitivity in an interview with Raelene Boyle (Denton, 2006) and…
    Denton A. (Producer and Interviewer). (2006, September 25). Interview with Raelene Boyle. In Enough Rope with Andrew Denton. [Television broadcast]. Sydney, Australia: Australian Broadcasting Corporation.
    Motion picture (movie)
    Jackson and Pyke (2003) provide evidence that belief in a world…
    Jackson, P. (Director), & Pyke, S. (Producer). (2003). The lord of the rings: The return of the king [Motion picture]. New Zealand: Imagine Films.
    Note: Give the country where the movie was made – not the city.
    16
    IN-TEXT REFERENCE
    REFERENCE LIST
    Podcast (audio)
    Listening to the news on my MP3 player (Nolan, 2007) was a new
    experience and I decided…
    Nolan, T. (Presenter). (2007, April 28). AM: News & current affairs [Audio podcast]. Retrieved from http://abc.net.au/news/ subscribe/amrss.sml
    Radio program – broadcast
    When discussing how people write about music, Koval (2009)…
    Koval, R. (Presenter). (2009, November 19). The Book Show [Radio broadcast]. Melbourne, Australia: ABC Radio National.
    Radio program – transcript
    The views of the internationally renowned author and public speaker, De Bono, prompted me to follow up one of the interviews (Mascall, 2005) which…
    Mascall, S. (Reporter). (2005, February 14). Are we hardwired for creativity? In Innovations [Radio program] [Transcript]. Melbourne, Australia: ABC Radio Australia. Retrieved from http://www.abc.net.au/ra/innovations/stories/s1302318.htm
    Speech – online