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According to World Health Organization (WHO), it is estimated that 10-14% of the global
population  has  chronic  kidney  disease,  with  the  highest  prevalence  in  low-  and  middle-income
countries  (Ammirati,  2020).  Chronic  kidney  disease  (CKD)  is  a  condition  in  which  the  kidneys
gradually  lose  function  over  a  period  of  time.  The  kidneys  play  a  vital  role  in  filtering  waste
products and excess blood fluid, regulating blood pressure and maintaining healthy electrolytes in
the body.
The effects of CKD are always serious in most instances as they result in anemia, bone
disease,  cardiovascular  diseases  and  end-stage  renal  disease,  which  requires  dialysis  or  kidney
transplant for one to survive (Ammirati, 2020). Several public health interventions can be applied
to  minimize  the  burden  of  CKD.  The  primary  intervention  would  involve  early  detection  and
screening programs to identify individuals at risk for the disease. Screening can be done through
blood and urine tests to measure kidney function (Ammirati, 2020).
The secondary intervention would be providing education and resources to patients with
CKD to effectively manage their conditions which include; lifestyle changes, access to specialized
care  and  medrvention would be providing education and resources to patients with
CKD to effectively manage their conditions which include; lifestyle changes, access to specialized
care  and  medication  management.  Secondary  interventions  can  be  effected  by  teaching  patients
how to manage their blood sugar and blood pressure levels properly. Patients can also be provided
with information on healthy eating habits and the importance of exercise.
The tertiary intervention would involve providing patients with access to kidney
replacement  therapies,  including  dialysis  and  kidney  transplant  in  individuals  having  advanced
Chronic  Kidney  Disease,  to  improve  their  quality  of  life  and  prolong  their  survival.  This  can
involve providing patients access to kidney centres and kidney transplant programs. To
significantly decrease the burden of CKD globally and improve the quality of life of those living
with the disease, a combination of these public health interventions should be implemented.ication  management.  Secondary  interventions  can  be  effected  by  teaching  patients
how to manage their blood sugar and blood pressure levels properly. Patients can also be provided
with information on healthy eating habits and the importance of exercise.
The tertiary intervention would involve providing patients with access to kidney
replacement  therapies,  including  dialysis  and  kidney  transplant  in  individuals  having  advanced
Chronic  Kidney  Disease,  to  improve  their  quality  of  life  and  prolong  their  survival.  This  can
involve providing patients access to kidney centres and kidney transplant programs. To
significantly decrease the burden of CKD globally and improve the quality of life of those living
with the disease, a combination of these public health interventions should be implemented.

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