# RES600 INTRODUCTORY TO DATA ANALYSIS MODULE 5

**Module 5 – Home**

**TYPICAL STATISTICAL TESTS**

**Modular Learning Outcomes**

Upon successful completion of this module, the student will be able to satisfy the following outcomes:

- Case
- Understand bi-variate tests to examine hypotheses.
- Be able to read and interpret the bi-variate analysis results in research reports.

- SLP
- Understand and be able to apply typical bi-variate tests to examine hypotheses.
- Understand and be able to run such tests in SPSS, and be able to read and interpret the output.
- Understand and be able to choose the right test.

- Discussion
- Develop critical thinking regarding statistical test selection.

**Module Overview**

After introducing the SPSS environment in Module 4, this model provides an overview and hands-on examples of typical statistical analyses, and explains which test fits to which situation. Specifically, we provide an overview of key inferential statistics tests and how they match different types of hypotheses. These include the t-test (independent and non-independent), chi-square test, non-parametric tests, ANOVA, Regression, and Logistic Regression. At the end of this module students should be able to decide which test to use when. All of these analyses will be demoed on SPSS.

# Module 5 – Background

## TYPICAL STATISTICAL TESTS

### Required Reading

**On the choice of statistical tests:**

*https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DcS6_I63PHs*

watch:

on correlation – *https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VOI5IlHfZVE*

on t-test: *https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=36PldkUpXH0*

on paired sample t-test: *https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MJGk2sg4EZU*

on one way ANOVA: *https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jYn5Jv7Gh4s*

on chi-square test in SPSS: *https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Ahs8jS5mJKk*

**On SPSS:**

*http://academic.udayton.edu/gregelvers/psy216/spss/cor.htm*

### Optional Reading

Materials from the UCLA SPSS site: *http://www.ats.ucla.edu/stat/spss/*

**Module 5 – Case**

**TYPICAL STATISTICAL TESTS**

**Assignment Overview**

Please read the methods sections of the following research papers available at Trident digital library and focus on the tests.

For t-test read:

Hung, I. C., Yanga, S., Fanga, W. C., Hwangb, G. J., Chena, S. C. (2014). A context-aware video prompt approach to improving students’ in-field reflection levels. *Computers & Education *(70), 80-91.

For ANOVA read:

Sandberg, S. (2013). Emerging market entry node pattern and experiential knowledge of small and medium-sized enterprises.* International Marketing Review, 30*(2), 106-129.

For Chi-Square read:

Chung-Herrera, B., Gonzalez, G. R., & Hoffman, K. D. (2010). When demographic differences exist: An analysis of service failure and recovery among diverse participants.* The Journal of Services Marketing, 24*(2), 128-141.

**Case Assignment**

Based on the above-mentioned dataset, write a paper, addressing the following issues:

- Summary of T-test article:
- What is one major finding from this article? Cite the test statistic, p-value, and the pattern in the finding. Was the use of this test appropriate? Why?
- What is one major implication of the finding reported in (a) (e.g., how do the findings inform potential actions or future research)?

- Summary of ANOVA article:
- What is one major finding from this article? Cite the test statistic, p-value, and the pattern in the finding. Was the use of this test appropriate? Why?
- What is one major implication of the finding reported in (a) (e.g., how do the findings inform potential actions or future research)?

- Summary of Chi-square article:
- What are two major findings from this article? Cite the test statistics, p-values, and the patterns in the findings. Was the use of this test appropriate? Why?
- What is one major implication of the finding reported in (a) (e.g., how do the findings inform potential actions or future research)?

Please organize your paper in a scholarly way. Add section titles when necessary. Explain your logic, and when appropriate, use external sources and use proper citations. Conclude your report with a paragraph or so evaluating the entire exercise in terms of what you have learned and your reflections on the topic.

The paper is usually between 5 and 12 pages long.

**Assignment Expectations**

- Student is able to read and understand research results pertaining to typical bi-variate tests.
- Student able to identify which bi-variate test should be used based on the situation.
- Student answers the questions with clarity, depth, and critical thinking.
- Completeness and coherence: Chain of thought is easy to follow.
- Student uses relevant evidence and additional papers/resources to support the propositions.
- Paper is clearly written with appropriate format. Reference list is complete. Citation is properly done.

Your assignment will be graded using the following criteria:

- Assignment-Driven Criteria: Student demonstrates mastery covering all key elements of the assignment.
- Critical Thinking: Student demonstrates mastery conceptualizing the problem. Viewpoints and assumptions of experts are analyzed, synthesized, and evaluated. Conclusions are logically presented with appropriate rationale.
- Scholarly Writing: Student demonstrates mastery and proficiency in scholarly writing following required structure and organization of the assignment, using relevant and quality sources to support ideas, using in-text citations of sources and properly formatting references (bibliography).
- Professionalism and Timeliness: Student demonstrates excellence in taking responsibility for learning, adhering to course requirement policies and expectations. Assignment submitted on time or with professor’s pre-approved assignment extension.

**Module 5 – SLP**

**TYPICAL STATISTICAL TESTS**

The data in the SPSS file *HealthData.sav* was collected from 66 senior citizens. Using these data (in SPSS):

- Test whether age is associated with the number of medications people take. What is the conclusion? Explain.
- Test whether the number of medications differs among those with high blood pressure and those without high blood pressure. What is the conclusion? Explain.
- Are systolic and diastolic blood pressures associated?
- Test whether having high blood pressure and experiencing a heart attack are associated. What is the conclusion? Explain.

**SLP Assignment Expectations**

- Answer all questions with clarity and depth. Show your critical thinking ability.
- Use appropriate SPSS analyses and outputs.
- Show necessary reasoning and steps for calculations.
- No need to write an essay in SLP, just answer the questions and use appropriate SPSS outputs.

Your assignment will be graded using the following criteria:

- Assignment-Driven Criteria: Expressing quantitative analysis of data to support the discussion showing what evidence is used and how it is contextualized.
- Interpretation: Explaining information presented in mathematical terms (e.g., equations, graphs, diagrams, tables, words).
- Presentation: Ability to convert relevant information into various mathematical terms (e.g., equations, graphs, diagrams, tables, words).
- Conclusions: Drawing appropriate conclusions based on the analysis of data.
- Timeliness and Professionalism: Student demonstrates excellence in taking responsibility for learning, adhering to course requirement policies and expectations. Assignment submitted on time or collaborated with professor for an approved extension on due date.

*Internal Use Only: This is the signature assignment for assessment of quantitative reasoning.*

**Module 5 – Outcomes**

**TYPICAL STATISTICAL TESTS**

- Module
- Understand and be able to apply typical bi-variate tests to examine hypotheses.
- Understand and be able to run such tests in SPSS, and be able to read and interpret the output.
- Understand and be able to choose the right test.

- Case
- Understand bi-variate tests to examine hypotheses.
- Be able to read and interpret the bi-variate analysis results in research reports.

- SLP
- Understand and be able to apply typical bi-variate tests to examine hypotheses.
- Understand and be able to run such tests in SPSS, and be able to read and interpret the output.
- Understand and be able to choose the right test.

- Discussion
- Develop critical thinking regarding statistical test selection.

# Module 5 Discussion

Please focus on a research area which is of interest to you (e.g., a topic you may want to do your dissertation on), and pick a hypothesis you may want to test. Define these variables, and briefly explain your logic. Which statistical test will you use for examining your hypothesis? Why?