Saddleback College Learning and Memory Discussion and Responses

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Think about what you’ve learned this week regarding memory, and about how you study for tests. On the basis of what you have learned, is there something  you want to try that might help your study habits? 

What does Elizabeth Loftus, in her TED Talk,  have to tell us about false memories? 

Share your general thoughts on learning and memory based on the reading of BOTH Chapter 5 and Chapter 6, and also respond to the question above on Memory, as well as the question posed in your Introduction to Learning (Chapter 5) about more contemporary interpretations of the 3 standard theories of Learning (conditioning).

What new light do they shed on this question of human behavior?

Since we only have 1 Discussion Board this week you will need to incorporate all of these topics into your single response, so make sure you cover everything required. Your initial post should be thorough and include supportive detail from the material….both the Tutorial as well as the reading. Merely indicating that you “liked” something is not sufficient. 

Discussions and replies will be judged on quality of content (indicating a grasp of the concepts being discussed).  

Hi, there is the link for the video 5:Lesson 1: Learning and ConditioningBasic principles of learning are always operating and always influencing human behavior.Chapter 5 in your text discusses the two most fundamental forms of learning — classical (Pavlovian) and instrumental (operant) conditioning. Through them, we respectively learn to associate 1) stimuli in the environment, or 2) our own behaviors, with significant events, such as rewards and punishments. The two types of learning have been intensively studied because they have powerful effects on behavior, and because they provide methods that allow scientists to analyze learning processes rigorously. The chapter describes some of the most important things you need to know about classical and instrumental conditioning, and it illustrates some of the many ways they help us understand normal and disordered behavior in humans. Part of the chapter also  introduces the concept of observational learning, which is a form of learning that is largely distinct from classical and operant conditioning.In this lesson we will cover three primary explanations for how we learn to behave and interact with the world around us. Considering your own experiences, how well do these theories apply to you? Maybe when reflecting on your personal sense of fashion, you realize that you tend to select clothes others have complimented you on (operant conditioning). Or maybe, thinking back on a new restaurant you tried recently, you realize you chose it because its commercials play happy music (classical conditioning). Or maybe you are now always on time with your assignments, because you saw how others were punished when they were late (observational learning). Regardless of the activity, behavior, or response, there’s a good chance your “decision” to do it can be explained based on one of the theories presented here in this discussion of the 3 primary and well-established approaches to understanding human behavior. Having said that, are there newer, more contemporary interpretations of how we as humans make choices and decisions that are not necessarily covered by these 3 theories? Consider that question as  you do your reading. You will be asked to address that in this week’s Discussion Board.Lesson 2: Memory“Memory” is a single term that reflects a number of different abilities: holding information briefly while working with it (working memory), remembering episodes of one’s life (episodic memory), and our general knowledge of facts of the world (semantic memory), among other types. Remembering episodes involves three processes: encoding information (learning it, by perceiving it and relating it to past knowledge), storing it (maintaining it over time), and then retrieving it (accessing the information when needed). Failures can occur at any stage, leading to forgetting or to having false memories. The key to improving one’s memory is to improve processes of encoding and to use techniques that guarantee effective retrieval. Good encoding techniques include relating new information to what one already knows, forming mental images, and creating associations among information that needs to be remembered. The key to good retrieval is developing effective cues that will lead the rememberer back to the encoded information. Classic mnemonic systems, known since the time of the ancient Greeks and still used by some today, can greatly improve one’s memory abilities.This week we will be learning about how no single model yet explains all the aspects of human memory, and also the problems of false memories and memory of the reasons why “eye witness testimony” in prosecuting a crime is often the least reliable. You’ll see a short video about the “Misinformation Effect” and also a Tutorial.

now I just need two replies to two students please, student 1:Loftus exposes that the majority of people believe that “memory works like a recording device” however, she proves them wrong through her studies of false memories. She states how memory is interchangeable; memories can be changed by oneself, but even other people have the ability to change one’s memories. She explains her recent military study as a piece of evidence of false memory, she explains that under a stressful event a person will misidentity a person or an object if someone leads them to believe the wrong identifican. A person has the ability to misfeed information to someone in order to change their memory. By planting a false memory in someone, there are repercussions that change one’s behavior throughout their lifetime. The student video made in 2014 perfectly summarized and captured the important aspects of the TED talk and gave a visual representation of the information provided. Conditioning is considered to be the “process of learning associations between environmental events and behavioral responses”, there are two main types of conditioning, classical and operant. Classical conditioning involves a reflexive behavior that causes a pre-existing behavior to happen; this necessarily means pairing something you’ve learned with an unlearned response. An example of classical conditioning is a dog salivating. People have the ability to create phobias from traumatic experiences because they have created a response to that experience for instance, snakes and spiders are a common fear developed through traumatic experiences. Operant conditioning is more of an everyday life explanation of learning; operant conditioning is when there is a probability that a voluntary response will happen repeatedly if the response is manipulated. Operant conditioning involves the idea of reinforcement, both positive and negative that allows a person to either increase or decrease their likelihood of repeating the action again. Through punishment the likelihood of an action to be repeated is unlikely which allows behavior and actions to be controlled. Observational learning is a way of learning by observing other peoples actions. Everyone has heard the phrase “you are who you hangout with”, this phrase makes sense because as a human we have the ability to imitate and be influenced by the people around us, even young babies and children will imitate and follow the actions of those around them by just mocking simple facial gestures. Ultimately, by surrounding yourself with positive influences, your actions and behaviors will improve through your observations of the positive role model. Memory is the ability to retain information, through some situations I have a short term memory and in other situations I retain long term memory. However, most commonly I experience the tip of the tongue which is when you know the information because it has been stored in long-term memory however, for a short amount of time it is nearly impossible to retain the information. When I study for tests I do not make the information long-term, but more of a “remember for the test, forget after the test”. I believe I need to change this habit and mindset, so I can gain a long term memory of the information and not forget when test day comes up. After learning about the cued recall and recall, I think it is important to practice multiple choice questions rather than just fill in the blank because by being given a couple of options your brain has the recognition measurement that allows you to recognize the correct answer out of a variety of choices. Personally, I believe I have been trained to utilize the recognition measurement because I excel on multiple choice tests but do not do as well on fill in the blank. After learning about the different reasons we tend to forget in life, I found each theory to be interesting but I believe when talking about school or tests, the encoding failure is most accurate. Human behavior has many aspects that are affected through environmental pressures or biological processes, but overall the brain has the ability to retain information in various ways but also has the ability to manipulate information. Everyone retains information nearly similar however, the way in which we have the ability to recall the information in different situations varies. As Loftus discussed, the human brain has the power to be manipulated from the world around it, changing information to believe what it wants. student 2:This week, I learned that memory can be altered by misinformation. As stated in Elizabeth Loftus’ Ted Talk, your memory is like a Wikipedia page, and you can edit it and so can others as time goes by. Your memory can be edited to what you want it to be or what others want it to be, as seen through various studies involving leading questions, hypnosis and planted memories. In essence, someone else implying a memory or planting some sort of false detail can lead to a person internalizing that information and assuming it was always there. An example of this phenomenon is when I study for tests by looking over material if the test is not planned to be open-note or open-book. However, I learned that as I study, a good strategy would be to take notes on the material and restate it in my own words, as that will help my memory. This is not something I always do, but I am more inclined to do so given the research on how it can help me do better with memory retention. Elizabeth Loftus told us about false memories that can lead to serious consequences for others, as someone could even go to jail for something he or she had zero involvement in based on another person’s false memory. This is why witness statements and how witnesses are questioned, and by whom, is very important because there is a chance it can create memories rather than just reveal them. Misleading questions can also alter your memory; as in the studies, Loftus’ group would simulate a car crash and ask the witnesses questions, with one of the questions involving a yield sign. However in reality, there was no yield sign, as there was a stop sign. But many of the witnesses did not even notice that and went on to internalize this as their own memory. In summary, one’s memory unfortunately is vulnerable to alteration by others.Learning refers to a relatively enduring change in knowledge or behavior as a result of experience. Learning false memories can change your knowledge and/or behavior and that can make a big impact. False memories also form conditioning in our minds, as the false memories can condition us to think that such a memory is true. Operant conditioning and false memories relate because for example when hypnotists hypnotized patients in the studies of a memory of the patient being attacked by a certain animal at a young age, the patient then would have an inclination to feel afraid of that animal from that point on.  Classical conditioning and false memories have a relationship, as the patients for example are hypnotized into having a good or bad memory of a certain food, and later during a picnic, they eat the food if they had a good memory or don’t if they associate it with a bad memory. As far as the relationship between observational learning and false memories, you can also associate the animal experience example with it.  False memories shed new light on human behavior, as it is so dangerous to the point where it can falsely sentence innocent people to life sentences in prison.

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