Statin Mechanism of Action Case Study Questions

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Description

Lecture material

https://mediaplus.asu.edu/lti/embedded?id=d04fb139…

Case

A 57-year old executive comes into your office for his annual check-up. His is 6 foot 2 inches tall and weighs 220 pounds. His waist circumference is 44 inches. He jogs daily and plays golf nearly every weekend. His LDL cholesterol on prior check-ups was 177 mg/dL. He has a history of hypertension.

The patient was started on an antihypertensive medication as well as a statin. His blood pressure at follow-up was 150/88 mmHg and his cholesterol was 220 mg/dL (LDL 140 mg/dL, HDL 36 mg/dL). His fasting blood sugar was 120 mg/dL. Because he feels so good, he decides to stop his statin medication.

1.Why would this patient be prescribed a statin drug? Explain how statin medications work. What enzyme do they block and what effect does that have? (i.e. what is their mechanism of action?)

2. Explain in 100+ words how oxidative stress happens with overnutrition and how it can lead to symptoms of MetS (which symptoms). What happens in the mitochondria?

3. Reactive oxygen species are produced routinely in our bodies as a part of normal metabolic processes. Do ROS exhibit any normal functions in the body (include at least 1 not discussed in class)? Would it be bad to inhibit all ROS production in the body? When might increasing antioxidants be warranted? (be sure to provide citations and write at least 100 words).

4.People with obesity and diabetes are at higher risk of severe complications from Covid-19. Recent evidence suggests that anti-inflammatory medications may help prevent cytokine storms and death in these individuals. What is a cytokine storm? How does Covid provoke cytokine storms? Why are people with obesity and diabetes at greater risk of experiencing a cytokine storm? 

Can you also answer this question? :

The patient was started on an antihypertensive medication as well as a statin. His blood pressure at follow-up was 150/88 mmHg and his cholesterol was 220 mg/dL (LDL 140 mg/dL, HDL 36 mg/dL). His fasting blood sugar was 120 mg/dL. Because he feels so good, he decides to stop his statin medication.

Does he meet any of the diagnostic criteria for metabolic syndrome? If so, which criteria?

  • hypertension
  • High LDL cholesterol
  • Low HDL cholesterol <40
  • He does not meet any of the criteria for MetS
  • Fasting hyperglycemia >100,
  • Increased waist circumference 
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