I have to write a reply to each of the texts in the document attached below, they must be 200 words each and have references.
Surrogate Role in Nursing
Hildegard Peplau posited the theory of interdependence to explain the nurse-client relationship. Peplau, one of the eminent nurse theorists of the twentieth century, is widely credited for laying the foundational principles for patient-centered care. According to Arabacı and Taş (2019), Peplau’s interpersonal theory postulates that the edifice supporting the therapeutic outcomes in nursing care is the nurse-patient relationship. She proposes enhancing nursing care by creating strong interpersonal relations (Arabacı and Taş, 2019). Peplau posits that the nurse-patient relationship evolves through four distinct stages.
The first stage is referred to as orientation, which is where the patient approaches the nurse for help, and the nurse identifies their problem (Peplau, 2021). Identification is the second stage, and it involves determining the goals of therapy and planning for care. The third stage is the exploitation phase, where the patient takes responsibility for their role in the therapeutic process, and the nurse promotes professional cooperation (Peplau, 2021). The final stage, resolution, aims to empower the patient to take charge of the therapeutic process and prevent becoming dependent on the nurse. According to Peplau, a nurse fulfills six essential roles in developing these interpersonal relations, one of which is the surrogate role.
As a surrogate, the nurse is tasked with helping the patient navigate the domains of dependence, interdependence, and independence throughout their dyadic interpersonal relationship (Peplau, 2021). Furthermore, as a surrogate, the nurse also serves as the patient’s advocate. However, despite the pivotal role of nursing surrogacy, this professional duty has recently been relegated to the backburners and rarely receives much attention in education, research, and nursing practice. Despite the inattention paid to this crucial nursing role, it is essential in today’s nursing practice environment. Applying Peplau’s theory can help nurse practitioners improve the quality of care offered to patients.
Moreover, fulfilling the surrogate role empowers nurses to serve as patient advocates, thus leading to better care standards and, consequently, more positive health outcomes. Thus, the surrogate role is vital since it helps nurses recognize the services patients need. Applying the interpersonal theory in practice can help guide nurse-patient relationships by empowering nurses to guide patients through Peplau’s four stages of interpersonal relationships. Each stage enhances the therapeutic relationship for nurses serving as surrogates and guides patients from dependence to independence as they regain their health. Lastly, the surrogate roles promote advocacy, which is central to preserving dignity, respecting patients’ rights, and ensuring freedom from suffering.
Arabacı, L. B., & Taş, G. (2019). Effect of Using Peplau’s Interpersonal Relation Nursing Model in the care of a juvenile delinquent.
Journal of Psychiatric Nursing/Psikiyatri Hemsireleri Dernegi,
Peplau, H. (2021). Interpretive Summary: Examples of Broad Theoretic Frameworks Defining the Scope, Philosophy, and General Characteristics of Nursing.
Knowledge Development in Nursing E-Book: Theory and Process,
In 1952, Hildegard Peplau created the theory of interpersonal relations which is a nursing theory that integrates psychology into everyday nursing practice (Arabacı, 2019). In this week’s student learning outcomes, I was able to critique nursing theories, and specifically, I critiqued the theory of interpersonal relations, which demonstrates the interactions of nurses and their patients in healthcare settings. I was also able to examine the influence of this theory on nursing practice as I explored how nurses apply this theory in creating and maintaining therapeutic and effective relationships between themselves and the patients they attend to daily.
In his theory, Peplau shed light on the various roles that nurses take up when attending to their patients. One of the most significant roles is the surrogate role. According to Peplau, in this role, nurses take up the place of a parent, sibling, or relative to the patient (Wasaya et al., 2021). In so doing, nurses act in the interest of the patient, where they advocate and fight for the highest level of well-being of the patient. This role encourages nurses to go beyond providing clinical services and attention to the patients. It makes nurses go beyond what they would occasionally do when attending to their patients as they ensure that they are there for the patients even after providing them with medication and other healthcare attention. The surrogate role makes nurses ensure that the patients are comfortable in the healthcare settings and that their concerns and questions are responded to as effectively as possible.
While the surrogate role is in most cases obscure and barely seen because other roles, such as educators, strangers, counselors, and resource persons, are more visible, it would be incorrect to negate the impact of nurses’ role as surrogates in healthcare settings as it brings forth important benefits on the patient and the health. There are times when nurses have to perform the functions typically performed by the parents or caregivers of patients, such as bathing, feeding, and dressing the patient among others (Arabacı, 2019). In all these, nurses act as surrogates which strongly supports the patients’ overall well-being. By being available when no one is in the vicinity, nurses act as the sibling, parent or relation that the patient would need even during their healing and recovery. In the long run, this ensures that patients have the emotional and physical support they need to recover fully.
Arabacı, L. B. (2019). Effect Of Using A Peplau’s Interpersonal Relation Nursing Model In The Care Of A Juvenile Delinquent. Journal of Psychiatric Nursing, 10(3).
Wasaya, F., Shah, Q., Shaheen, A., & Carroll, K. (2021). Peplau’s Theory of Interpersonal Relations: A Case Study. Nursing Science Quarterly, 34(4), 368–371.