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Use these questions to begin your thinking about the Chapter. Answer the questions give short paragraph for each answers.
- Define globalization and discuss how it impacts intercultural communication. Discuss why it is important to study intercultural communication in the context of globalization.
- Using the scenarios that introduced the chapter or other examples, discuss the role of power in intercultural communication.
- Using examples to illustrate your answer, discuss the intercultural dimensions of economic, political and cultural globalization.
There is a document attached. Use these questions to begin your thinking about the Chapter. Answer the questions give short paragraph for each answers. Define globalization and discuss how it impac
Sorrells, Intercultural Communication, Instructor Resources Chapter 2 Understanding the Context of Globalization Lecture Notes: Chapter Overview, Objectives and Outline Chapter Overview This chapter situates everyday intercultural interactions within the broader macro context of globalization. The central role history plays in defining and shaping interactions among cultural groups today is highlighted. A brief review of world migration since the colonial period underscores how our current context of globalization is inextricably intertwined with the past. The chapter also introduces the importance of relationships of power for understanding intercultural communication. The chapter begins with a set of scenarios that illustrate the complexity of intercultural communication in the context of globalization. The face-paced, rapidly changing, interconnected and inequitable context of globalization has a tremendous impact on intercultural communication today. Globalization is defined as the complex web of forces and factors that have brought people, cultures, cultural products, and markets, as well as beliefs and practices into increasingly greater proximity to and interrelationship with one another within inequitable relations of power. Particularly salient forces that propel globalization include advances in communication and transportation technologies as well as changes in economic and political policies in the past thirty years. The resulting global web of interdependence leads to shared interests, needs, and resources as well as greater intercultural misunderstanding, tension, and conflict. Intensified interaction and magnified inequities among people from diverse cultures couple with historic legacies of colonization, Western domination and U.S. hegemony to shape intercultural relations today. Three facets of globalization—economic, political and cultural globalization—are examined with a focus on the intercultural communication dimensions of each. The role of global governance, “alter-globalization” movements, democratizing processes and ideological wars as well as cultural imperialism and cultural hybridity are addressed. These global dynamics shape our identities, influence who we interact with, frame our attitudes about and experiences of each other, and structure our intercultural interaction in relationships of power. Chapter Objectives To understand the complex and contradictory influences of globalization on intercultural communication. To introduce the important role history plays in shaping intercultural communication today. To introduce the ways relationships of power impact intercultural communication in our everyday lives. To examine the intercultural dimensions of economic, political and cultural globalization. Key Terms *Indicated below in bold and italicized letters. Globalization World Trade Organization (WTO) Historical legacy of colonization International Monetary Fund (IMF) 1st, 2nd and 3rd World World Bank (WB) Developing /Developed countries Ideology Global south/Global north Democratization Economic globalization Culture as de-territorialized Political globalization Culture as re-territorialization Cultural globalization Remittances Maquiladora Diasporic communities Economic liberalization/Free Trade Cultural imperialism Free Trade Agreements Hybrid cultural forms NAFTA Introduction Five scenarios of globalization All scenarios illustrate the dynamic movement, confluence, and interconnection of peoples, cultures, markets and relationships of power that are rooted in history and are redefined and re-articulated in our current global age. This chapter introduces: The central roles history and power play in intercultural communication The broader context of globalization within which intercultural communication occurs today: economic, political and cultural globalization. The Role of History in Intercultural Communication European expansion and colonization The European conquest starting in the 16th century transformed global migration patterns in ways that continue to impact us today. People moved from Europe to the Americas, Oceania, Africa and Asia for the purpose of conquest, economic expansion and religious conversion. Transatlantic Slave Trade Between the 1600s and the 1850s, 9-12 million people were forcibly removed from Africa and transported to the colonies—primarily in the Americas—to serve as enslaved laborers. In the 19th century, Indians subjected to colonial British rule were relocated as laborers and indentured servants to British colonies in Africa and Oceania. The process of colonization established Europe as the economic and political center of the world and the colonies as the periphery. Post-independence Americas In the 19th century, a mass migration to the Americas occurred with the expulsion of working class and poor people from the centers of Europe. Movements of indentured laborers from Asia (i.e. China, Japan, and the Philippines) to European colonies and former colonies—mainly the U.S. and Canada—swelled the number of migrants to over 40 million during the twenty-five years before WWI. World Wars WWI brought the unprecedented closure of national borders. The implementation of the first systematic immigration legislation and border controls in modern times. The ethnically motivated violence of WWII led to the movement of Jews out of Europe to Israel, the U.S. and Latin America. After WWII, the first institutions of global political and economic governance, the United Nations, the World Bank, and the International Monetary Fund, were established. 1960s-1970s A shift in migratory patterns with the rebuilding of European economic power and the rise of the U.S. as an economic and political center. People from the former colonies or peripheries migrated towards the centers of former colonial power. From Turkey and North Africa to Germany and France respectively. From former colonies in Southeast Asia, and East and West Africa to England, France, Germany, Italy and the Scandinavian countries. From Latin America and Asia to the U.S. From Africa and Asia to the Middle East. In the later part of the 20st century, the number of people seeking asylum, refugees in Africa, the Middle East and Latin America has risen exponentially. Movements of people and intercultural interactions are directly related to economic and political forces. The networks of connection and global relationships of power are a continuation of world-wide intercultural contact and interaction over the past five hundred years. We must understand ICC within a broad historical context. The colonial process initiated the division between “the West and the Rest” that we experience today. Colonization and the global expansion of the West propelled the development of capitalism, leading to the expansion of markets, trade, and the incorporation of labor from the former colonies or developing countries. First, Second, and Third World Used during the Cold War to describe the relationship between the U.S. and other countries. The 1st world: countries friendly to the U.S. and were identified as capitalist and democratic. The 2nd world: countries perceived as hostile and ideologically incompatible with the U.S. (i.e. the former Soviet bloc countries, China and their allies) and were identified as communist. The 3rd world: countries that were seen as neutral or non-aligned with either the 1st world (capitalism) or the 2nd world (communism). Since the end of the Cold War, the meaning of 1st and 3rd worlds is less clearly defined and more closely associated with levels of economic development. Developing and developed country, more commonly used today, are based on a nation’s wealth (Gross National Product), political and economic stability and other factors. The terms global south and global north highlight the socio-economic and political division between wealthy, developed nations (former centers of colonial power) in the northern hemisphere and poorer, developing nations (formerly colonized countries) in the southern hemisphere. The Role of Power in Intercultural Communication Consider how global movements of people, products, cultural forms and cultural representations are shaped and controlled by relationships of power. Who controls the media? Who are in charge of global institutions? Access, availability, and visibility of different cultures reflect power relations among cultures. Introductory scenarios in this chapter illustrate inequitable positions of power that shape intercultural interactions. Example: Amitabh Bachchan, an international star from Bollywood, is largely unknown in the U.S. Example: The U.S. corporate media treat WTO protests in Seattle in 1999 as the first major challenge to global capitalism and gloss over other grassroots resistance around the world. Textbox: Intercultural Praxis: Communication and Power The textbox provides a conceptualization of power as an integral part of intercultural communication. Discussion on how to utilize intercultural praxis to analyze, critique, and transform relations of power in intercultural communication. Intercultural Communication in the Context of Globalization Intercultural communication in the context of globalization is characterized by: An increasingly dynamic, mobile world facilitated by communication and transportation technologies, accompanied by an intensification of interaction and exchange among people, cultures, and cultural forms across geographic, cultural, and national boundaries A rapidly growing global interdependence socially, economically, politically and environmentally, which leads both to shared interests, needs, and resources and greater tensions, contestations, and conflicts. A magnification of inequities based on flows of capital, labor, and access to education and technology, as well as the increasing power of multinational corporations and global financial institutions An historical legacy of colonization, Western domination, and U.S. hegemony that continue to shape intercultural relations today Intercultural communication is central in our current age. Our assumptions and attitudes based on differences in physical appearance condition our responses and shape who we communicate with, build friendships and alliances with. The increased exposure today through interpersonal and mediated communication to people who differ from ourselves deeply impacts how we make sense of, constitute and negotiate our own identities as well as the identities of others. Histories of conflict among groups, structural inequities and ideological differences frequently frame and inform our intercultural interactions. Globalization Refers to the complex web of forces and factors that have brought people, cultures, cultural products, and markets, as well as beliefs and practices into increasingly greater proximity to and interrelationship with one another within inequitable relations of power. Used to address both the processes that contribute to and the conditions of living in a world shaped by: Advances in technology that has brought the world’s people spatially and temporally closer together. Economic and political forces of advanced capitalism and neoliberalism that have increased flows of products, services, and labor across national boundaries. Cultural, economic, and political ideologies that “travel” through public campaigns, the mass media, consumer products, and through global institutions. Intercultural Dimensions of Economic Globalization Global Business and Global Markets Economic globalization Characterized by a growth in multinational corporations. An intensification of international trade and international flows of capital. Internationally interconnected webs of production, distribution, and consumption. Economic globalization has magnified the need for intercultural awareness, understanding, and training at all levels of business. Geert Hofstede studied differences in national cultures and their impact on workplace culture. Five dimensions of national cultural difference, which include Power distance Individualism-collectivism Uncertainty avoidance Masculinity-femininity Long/short term orientation Cultural differences in values, norms and behaviors play a significant role in team-building, decision-making, job satisfaction, marketing and advertising. Example: The popular Pepsi slogan: “Pepsi Brings You Back to Life.” The slogan, translated into Chinese reads, “Pepsi Brings Your Ancestors Back from the Grave.” Or the Coors beer slogan, “Turn it loose,” when translated into Spanish, told the consumer to “Suffer from diarrhea.” Example: “Konglish” in corporate slogans damages the image of Korean companies. Free Trade and Economic Liberalization Economic liberalization; also known as trade liberalization, or free trade. Economic policies that increase the global movement of goods, labor, services and capital with less restrictive tariffs (taxes) and trade barriers. The movement of goods, labor, services and capital is increasingly unrestricted by tariffs (taxes) and trade barriers. Developed nations or 1st World nations used protectionist policies (taxation of foreign made products and service) until they accumulated enough wealth to benefit from free trade. Until the last 30 to 40 years, the U.S. opposed “free trade” policies in an effort to protect U.S. jobs, products, and services. Free Trade Agreements liberalize trade by reducing trade tariffs and barriers transnationally. Moving manufacturing sectors and service sectors to off-shore locations with cheaper labor and less business and environmental regulations. NAFTA (The North American Free Trade Agreement) by Canada, Mexico and the U.S. was signed in January 1994 to support the free movement of goods, services, and capital without trade or tariff barriers The implications of its policies remain highly controversial and contested. It is important to be aware of the broader economic context that propels and shapes intercultural interactions today. It is critical to underscore how different actors on the global stage experience and make meaning about economic globalization in vastly different ways. Global Financial Institutions and Popular Resistance World Trade Organization (WTO) In 1995, the World Trade Organization (WTO) was formed as a successor to the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT). WTO supervises and liberalizes international trade. GATT (now the WTO), the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the World Bank (WB) were set up immediately following WWII to maintain global economic stability and to address poverty through development. Economic globalization has resulted in: Increased business transactions. Economic interdependence. A need for intercultural communication skills in business and workplace. An increased economic disparities between the wealthy and the poor not only globally but within the U.S. Textbox: Communicative Dimensions: Communication and Globalization The textbox addresses the relationship between three types of globalization (cultural, economic, and political) and communication. The focus on the central role and impact of communication in globalization. Intercultural Dimensions of Political Globalization Democratization and Militarism Democratization refers to the transition from an authoritarian to a democratic political system that ensures the universal right to vote. Francis Fukuyama (1992) argues that Western liberal democracy has been universalized and human history has reached the end of ideological evolution. Amy Chua (2003) shows that economic globalization and the rapid expansion of free market democracy has lead to an increase in inter-ethnic conflict worldwide. Ideological Wars Ideology: A set of ideas and beliefs reflecting the needs and aspirations of individuals, groups, classes or cultures, which form the basis for political, economic and other systems. International conflicts are caused by, or framed as, the clash of ideologies. Example: 9/11 attacks, “war on terror,” and the histories of U.S. intervention in the Middle east. Example: Multiculturalism in the U.K. and the crisis of unified national identity. Globalization is shaped by the tension between contradictory ideologies of inclusion and exclusion. Ideological wars: impact intercultural communication. employ false dichotomies to galvanize the public. often scapegoats one group for the challenges and ills of a society. Global Governance and Social Movements Questions of governance on global, national, state and local levels are closely linked to intercultural communication. It is important to address the question of who gets to govern whom, what kind of decisions are made, and how. Developed nations control the decision-making process for IMF and World Bank. Individuals and groups have also come together to organize movements against the domination of global financial and political institutions. Global governance is shaped by contradictory forces of democratization, Western dominance, and grassroots resistance. Intercultural Dimensions of Cultural Globalization Migration and Cultural Connectivities We live in “a world in motion” where people and cultures move across places (Inda & Rosaldo, 2001, p. 11) Culture as de-territorialized: Culture in the context of globalization where cultural subjects and cultural objects are uprooted from their situatedness in a particular physical, geographic location. Culture as re-territorialized: Culture in the context of globalization where cultural subjects and cultural objects are relocated in new, multiple and varied geographic spaces. The way people connect with their culture and cultivate a sense of home is changing due to: Communication technology Frequent trips home International economic and social networks Remittances or financial support sent to a distant location Diasporic communities: Groups of people who have been forced to leave their homeland and who maintain a longing for—even if only in their imagination—a return to “home.” Example: the expulsion and dispersion of the Jews during the Babylonian Exile in 700 BCE. Example: the African diaspora that forcibly uprooted and transplanted Africans to the Americas and the Caribbean during the period of British colonization. Example: the Armenian diaspora in the early part of the 20th century that resulted from the genocide of approximately 1.5 million Armenian. Globalization enables a sense of community beyond and across national borders. Cultural Flows and Unequal Power Relations Cultural imperialism: The domination of one culture over others through cultural forms such as popular culture, media, and cultural products. Cultural imperialism is shaped by unequal power relations and cultural flows. Example: Starbucks has 16,000 coffeehouses in 50 countries outside North America. McDonald’s spread around the world. Coca Cola is ubiquitous in even the most remote areas. Mickey Mouse the most internationally recognized figure. Unequal and asymmetrical flows of culture have various implications for local and national culture. Americanization: Global cultural homogenization by U.S. American culture, such as McDonald’s and Disney. Local industries are affected by the dominance of U.S. corporations and products. Local traditions and national cultures are altered or lost due to the presence of American culture. Example: In France, people try to resist U.S. fast-food industry. Example: In China, marketing targeted at children by McDonald’s and Disney disrupts cultural norms of parental authority, where children are informed through mass advertising that they can make choices about what they want independent of their parents. Example: In India, production and consumption of Barbie dressed in a sari (traditional Indian dress) advances notions of universal female subjectivity that is essentially bound to White American norms and values and yet is “veiled” in Indian attire. John Tomlinson (1999) argues that cultural imperialism in the context of globalization is a continuation of earlier forms of imperialism during the 16th-19th centuries. Cultural imperialism is a site where the forces of cultural homogenization and resistance coexist. Hybrid Cultural Forms and Identities Hybrid cultural forms: A new and distinct cultural form created by a mix of different cultures and appropriation of other cultural forms based on local knowledge and practice. This notion describes how U.S. and Western cultural forms get modified and appropriated for the local audience. Cultural products travel across national borders, and are interpreted and used differently by different groups of people. Global cultural flows are shaped by the relations of power; at the same time, the level of influence and adaptation is different across places. Example: Reggaeton, a blend of rap and reggae with Latin influence and origins, which soared into popularity in the mid-2000s. Radha Hegde (2002) defines the creation of hybrid cultures and hybrid cultural forms as a type of resistance that non-dominant groups employ out of fear of total assimilation and as a means of cultural maintenance in the midst of powerful dominant cultural forces. Summary The role of history in ICC The role of power in ICC Definition of globalization Political globalization Economic globalization Cultural globalization