Unit 8 discussion responses

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Write a reply to the following statements:

Arlette R

RE: DQ #1: Child Behavior Checklist

Professor and Class,

The CBSL or Child Behavior Checklist is part of the the Achenbach System of Empirically Based Assessment (ASEBA)(APA, n.d.; Couacoglou, 2017). The ASEBA is used for detecting behavioral and emotional problems in children and adolescents. This particular checklist is filled out by parents but the other components of it are a Teacher Report form(TRF) and the Youth self-report form(YSF). There are 8 different dimensions tested and there are two versions one for pre-schoolers and the other for childern ages 6-18. The 8 syndrome scales are: anxious/depressed ,depressed ,somatic complaints ,social problems ,thought problems, attention problems , rule-breaking behaviour, aggressive behavior. Several score were added in 2001:affective problems, anxiety problems, somatic problems, ADHD, oppositional defiant problems, conduct problems, OCD,  and PTSD. 

The CBSL is one of the most widely used emotional and maladaptive assesments in use for children(DiMaria,2021). It is used in a variety of settings like research, hospitals, private practices, mental health facilities, schools, and pediatric offices. It was developed by Thomas M. Auchenbach in 1966(Couacoglou,2017;DiMaria,2021). The goal of it’s creation was for there to be a simple test that all the adults in a childs life could easily complete the assessment. He researched to find common traits of problematic behaviors exhibited by children. These checklists are filled out individually with pen and pencil. It utilizes a 3 point  Likert score 0-absent, 1-occurs sometimes, 2- occurs often.APA,n.d.). The raw score can only be interpreted by a professional who reviews and discusses the findings. Interestingly, there is an absence of validity scales which means that the scores can be “random, defensive, and exaggerated protocols” as profiles but rather than exclude the results it is important they be included and also interpreted(Lachar,1998). There is low correlation with cross-information which means that it’s got issues with validity and reliability.There have been over 6000 studies done to prove validity of the checklist and it has proven to be useful as a multidimentional child assessment in pediatric settings although there have been issues when it is used for chronically ill children(Aylard et al.,2008). There is low correlation with cross-information which means that it’s got issues with validity and reliability(Konold et al., 2004). However, the scales that directly correlate to the DSM have scale reliability, as well as convergent and discriminative validity(Ebesutani  et al.,2010),  What this tells this writer is that it is difficult to recreate results in test retest settings, but the fact is the research is there and the results speak for themselves. Even if validity is questionable it has uses in discovering the emotional state of children and whether they suffer from depression amongst other things. 

This writer does not intend to work with children at the current juncture but if a child had behavioral issues and the goal was to diagnose then there is reasonable evidence that this easy to administer checklist could garner a respectable amount of information toward diagnosing. Testing children is already difficult with their limited attention span and the House tree person is for personality. Results of this assessment must be cossreferenced with the other parts of the ASEBA as well as more subjective tests that this writer would interpret to feel as though she has a comprehensive picture of the childs maladaptive behaviors and emotional state. 

References:

Child behavior checklist (CBCL) – american psychological association. (n.d.). Retrieved February 28, 2023, from https://www.apa.org/depression-guideline/child-behavior-checklist.pdf

CHAPTER 7 – Screening and Assessment Tools, Editor(s): MARK L. WOLRAICH, DENNIS D. DROTAR, PAUL H. DWORKIN, ELLEN C. PERRIN, Developmental-Behavioral Pediatrics, Mosby,2008, Pages 123-201,,https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-323-04025-9.50010-6. (https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780323040259500106)

Couacoglou, C. (2017). The Assessment of family, parenting, and child outcomes. Science Direct. https://www.sciencedirect.com/topics/psychology/child-behavior-checklist

DiMaria, L. (2021).Using the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) to Assess Depression. Verywell Mind. https://www.verywellmind.com/child-behavior-checklist-cbcl-1066570

Ebesutani, C., Bernstein, A., Nakamura, B. J., Chorpita, B. F., Higa-McMillan, C. K., & Weisz, J. R. (2010). Concurrent Validity of the Child Behavior Checklist DSM-Oriented Scales: Correspondence with DSM Diagnoses and Comparison to Syndrome Scales. Journal of Psychopathology & Behavioral Assessment, 32(3), 373–384. https://doi-org.postu.idm.oclc.org/10.1007/s10862-009-9174-9

Konold, T. R., Walthall, J. C., & Pianta, R. C. (2004). The Behavior of Child Behavior Ratings: Measurement Structure of the Child Behavior Checklist Across Time, Informants, and Child Gender. Behavioral Disorders, 29(4), 372–383. https://doi-org.postu.idm.oclc.org/10.1177/019874290402900405

Heather A

RE: DQ #1: Child Behavior Checklist

The Child Behavior Checklist is an assessment tool that is used in child psychology and psychiatry. It is a standardized parent-report questionnaire that assesses children’s emotional and behavioral problems and strengths.

The CBCL was developed by Dr. Thomas Achenbach and his colleagues in the 1980s and has been revised and updated several times since then. It consists of a list of behavioral and emotional problems, such as anxiety, depression, aggression, and social problems, as well as positive attributes like social competence and academic achievement. Parents rate how often their child exhibits each behavior on a scale from 0 (not true) to 2 (very true or often true).

The CBCL has been shown to be a reliable and valid measure of children’s emotional and behavioral problems. However, it is important to note that the CBCL is only one part of a comprehensive assessment and should be used in conjunction with other sources of information, such as clinical observation, interviews with parents and children, and other assessment tools.

In terms of how this assessment could be helpful with future work, I do work with children who have some behavioral/emotional problems. We don’t normally administer assessments such as these but perhaps in the future as we expand some of our behavioral health services.

DiMaria, L., (2021) Using the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) to Assess Depression. VeryWell Mind. https://www.verywellmind.com/child-behavior-checklist-cbcl-1066570

Ebesutani, C., Bernstein, A., Nakamura, B. J., Chorpita, B. F., Higa-McMillan, C. K., & Weisz, J. R. (2010). Concurrent Validity of the Child Behavior Checklist DSM-Oriented Scales: Correspondence with DSM Diagnoses and Comparison to Syndrome Scales. Journal of Psychopathology & Behavioral Assessment, 32(3), 373–384. https://doi-org.postu.idm.oclc.org/10.1007/s10862-009-9174-9 

Christopher H

RE: DQ #2: State-Trait Anxiety Inventory and House-Tree-Person

Class, 

According to Groth-Marnat (2009), the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) assesses anxiety in a way that helps the human services professional and client to map out therapy and helps the professional to apply interventions appropriately. Spielberger et al. (1983, as cited in Groth-Marnat, 2009) noted that the STAI is optimal because it is short, relatively simple to administer (self-reporting), and can even help to detect the inconsistent as well as the consistent bouts of anxiety and even stimuli that can increase a client’s likelihood to frequently encounter feelings of anxiety. Groth-Marnat added that the STAI is the most commonly utilized instrument for assessing anxiety and is the topic of over 8,000 research investigations, including a significant amount of multicultural studies. Furthermore, Groth-Marnat noted that the STAI is available in at least 60 languages and variations. Spielberger et al. (1999, as cited in Groth-Marnat, 2009) reported that the STAI has been applied in studies for its relevance in addressing conditions such as phobias, test anxiety, and panic episodes as well as the instrument’s effects on cognitive behavior, systematic desensitization, relaxation, and rational emotive therapies. Bados et al. (2010) reported that the instrument’s overall reliability is strong (0.90). Bados et al. noted that the instrument’s validity received a bit of mixed reviews; for example, the STAI-T’s (traitedition) convergent validity was acceptable and in line with its comparison to the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scales, 21-item version (DASS–21; Lovibond & Lovibond as cited in Bados et al., 2010), though lower for anxiety than depression. However, Bieling et al. (1998, as cited in Bados et al., 2010) noted that the instrument’s discriminant validity matched adequately with the BDI, BAI, and DASS-21 in relation to anxiety and depression yet Bados et al. believed that the STAI-T only matched adequately in the area of depression and not anxiety. Bados et al. noted that the STAI (original edition) matched well in its discriminant validity though (particularly with the BDI).

According to Blain et al. (1981), the House-Tree-Person (HTP) measure is utilized to try to gain insight into the possibility of child abuse by soliciting information from participants that coincides with a set of conditions that point toward the existence of abuse (past or present). Blain et al. described the HTP as a subtle device that is developmentally appropriate to the immature mind so that hidden psychological signs of abuse may be revealed. Blain et al. shared that the measure involves looking for certain elements in the child’s illustration and interpreting the results. For example, some elements would be a person shown in the house or next to it, smoke coming from a chimney, presence or absence of windows, fruit on the tree, and even details added to the person’s features. P’Simer (1960) added that the HTP involves the drawing portion, which is a useful approach to involving nonverbal and imagination aspects and then an interview portion. Wilcox (as cited in P’Simer, 1960) shared that the interview addresses five elements of an individual’s personality (sensitivity, flexibility, maturity, efficiency, and integration). Reliability and validity were not discussed by these sources; however, Blain et al. discussed probability of accuracy when noting that the outcomes of their investigation indicated that three out of six criteria most likely meant that the likelihood of experienced abuse is nearly twice as high as not having experienced physical abuse but is psychologically traumatized and is approximately 18 times as high as not having experienced psychological trauma or physical abuse. Furthermore, Blain et al. shared that the higher the score, the higher the probability of abuse.

In future professional work, this writer believes that the STAI and the HTP would be useful. In hopes of working with children and their families, this writer believes that the STAI will benefit in detecting anxiety (Groth-Marnat, 2009) (and possibly depression, though follow-up assessment will likely be necessary) because it may be a contributor to family strife. Furthermore, the HTP will be useful because abuse may be a product of the family strife. Moreover, as Blain et al. (1981) discussed, child abuse is not usually reported because children often do not speak up, parents do not normal self-report their actions, and neighbors or others involved in the family’s life are often apprehensive about reporting their suspicions. Unfortunately, as Blain et al. also remarked, people do not like to get caught up in others’ problems or fear that they do not have enough proof to support their claims. That was stated in 1981 and this writer believes it to still be the case today.

-Chris

References

Bados, A., Gómez-Benito, J., & Balaguer, G. (2010). The State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, Trait Version: Does it really measure anxiety? Journal of Personality Assessment, 92(6), 560–567.

Blain, G. H., Bergner, R. M., Lewis, M. L., & Goldstein, M. A. (1981). The use of objectively scorable House-Tree-Person indicators to establish child abuse. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 37(3), 667–673. https://doi-org.postu.idm.oclc.org/10.1002/1097-46…

Groth-Marnat, G. (2009). Handbook of psychological assessment: Vol. 5th ed. Wiley.

P’Simer, C. (1960). House-Tree-Person test: A case study. Personnel & Guidance Journal, 38, 574–576.

Arlette R

RE: DQ #2: State-Trait Anxiety Inventory and House-Tree-Persons

Professor and class,

The State-Trait Anxiety inventory is a widely used assesment for the presence of trait or state anxiety or negative affect(Range,2023; Bados et al., 2010). One of it’s uses is to identify anxiety and distinguish these symptoms from depressive ones(APA,2011). State anxiety is used to describe situational states of anxiety. Trait anxiety questions are more general seem to be focused on the overall sense of anxiety as a base state within a person. There is considerable evidence based on the studies that have been done which prove it’s reliability(Groth-Marnat,2009; Spielberger,1989). Its test-retest reliability is good because the results stay  pretty stable even when the test is taken multiple times. 

The other assessment for this week is House-Tree-Person. This assessment is a general personality test that can help decode motivations, personality and many other subjective parts of personality when decoded by a trained professional(Practical Psychology,2022). One study found that this assessment can be helpful in indicating child abuse when administered to children(Blain et.al, 1981). There is not a valid test because of it’s subjective nature(Lin et al.,2022). Depending on the test admnistrator who decodes the results, they can be different (Practical Psychology,2022).

The State Trait anxiety is a brief 40 question assessment that is individually taken unless the patients reading skills are below average(Range,2021;Groth-Marnat,2009). But it can provide a wealth of data and even help to see progress with reducing anxiety over time(Range,2023). The fact that it is brief taking about 10-20 minutes to complete means that it can be used to quickly figure out the anxiety/ negative affect of a patient while being able to differentiate many of the symptoms of depression to diagnose and start treatment. Both of these assessments have their uses depending on what the clinician is testing for and what they want to find out about the client. The Tree-House-Person-Test can indicate motivations, insecurities, family relationships/values, unconscious personality traits, and the self/ how the the person interacts in their wider social circle(Practical Psychology,2022). This test takes about 150 minutes to complete and Buck the original creator provided a list of 60 questions but the clinician is free to ask follow-up questions or ask whatever they see fit. This writer thinks that it is interesting and that it could provide interesting data for a client who may be struggling with autonomy and decision making. Interestingly, depending on whether the drawing is on the left or the right depicts if it is the past or the future and the center is the present. So if a client is struggling then the clinician can utilize this technique to better assist the client in becoming aware of their own internal motivations and what they hope to accomplish. Unfortunately, many people are not taught how to decode their emotions in the way society has conditioned us or even our parents(Lepera & Weakland,2021). As such many people end up in therapy because how do you process something that you can barely identify? So if a client is learning about themselves and their emotions in the hope of better self-esteem and decision making then this writer would want to use this test as a way to help them better understand themselves going foreward. 

References:

American Psychological Association. (2011). The state-trait anxiety inventory (STAI). American Psychological Association. Retrieved February 27, 2023, from https://www.apa.org/pi/about/publications/caregivers/practice-settings/assessment/tools/trait-state

Bados, A., Gómez-Benito, J., & Balaguer, G. (2010). The State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, Trait Version: Does It Really Measure Anxiety? Journal of Personality Assessment, 92(6), 560–567.

Blain, G. H., Bergner, R. M., Lewis, M. L., & Goldstein, M. A. (1981). The use of objectively scorable House-Tree-Person indicators to establish child abuse. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 37(3), 667–673. https://doi-org.postu.idm.oclc.org/10.1002/1097-4679(198107)37:3<667::AID-JCLP2270370339>3.0.CO;2-P

Groth-Marnat, G. (2009). Handbook of psychological assessment: Vol. 5th ed. Wiley.

How to be emotionally Intelligent. (2021, December 19). Self-Healers Soundboard. episode. Retrieved February 27, 2023, from https://theholisticpsychologist.com/podcast/episode-17-how-to-be-emotionally-intelligent/.

Lin Y, Zhang N, Qu Y, Li T, Liu J, Song Y. The House-Tree-Person test is not valid for the prediction of mental health: An empirical study using deep neural networks. Acta Psychol (Amst). 2022 Oct;230:103734. doi: 10.1016/j.actpsy.2022.103734. Epub 2022 Sep 1. PMID: 36058187.

The house-person-tree personality test. Practical Psychology. (2022, July 4). Retrieved February 27, 2023, from https://practicalpie.com/house-person-tree-test/

Range, L. M. (2023). State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI). Salem Press Encyclopedia of Health

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