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Questions Related to History, Litigation, and Legislation Lectures Posted on Blackboard

Directions: Please answer each the following questions based on your reading and understanding of the lectures related to history, litigation, and legislation associated with special education. Where possible, provide brief responses. Please make sure that your responses are typed to make for ease of reading.

1. The history associated with special education had a beginning that was marred in much oppression, that often lead to death and ridicule. How does this history reflect that of other marginalized populations (In answering this portion of the question, I expect you to use your personal experience) and who were some of the champions that used their skills and knowledge to advocate on behalf of individuals with disabilities?

2. How does the concept of inclusion create the possibility of students/individuals with disabilities to have a more complete and positive experience in society?

3. Based on your reading, what role did Brown vs. Board of Education (Topeka, Kansas) play in the opportunity of students with disabilities getting a chance to receive a free, appropriate, and public education (FAPE)? What was the first case that used the results of Brown vs. Board of Education to argue on behalf of students with disabilities to get a public education?

4. Prior to 1972, only children with intellectual disabilities (formerly mental retardation) could receive education in the United States. What was the court case, its educational implications, and its relationship to special education?

5. In 1970, in the state of California, a Spanish-speaking student was placed in classes for students with mental retardation (now intellectual disabilities) based on the results of an IQ test that was given in English. What was the court case that required school districts to consider a child’s primary language and have test given in the child’s native language? In your opinion, what are long-term advantages for the results of this case? What may be some disadvantages?

6. The Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act (IDEA) has been reauthorized five times. It has six major principles associated with its content that have remained unchanged since the legislation was passed in 1975. Please summarize these six principles and illustrate your understanding of them by providing an example of how they might look in practice.

7. The concept of Universal Design for Learning (UDL) is a new concept associated with the 2004 reauthorization of IDEA. It stipulates that new curricular materials and learning technologies should be designed to be flexible enough to accommodate the learning styles of a students. What are the three principles found in UDL that should be considered when applied to curriculum and instruction for students with disabilities?

8. The reauthorization of IDEA in 1997 and 2004 have some unique features for disciplining students with disabilities. Please summarize these features and provide a personal reflection on your thoughts about the features. I am particularly interested in knowing how you feel about the features and why you feel the way you do.

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