Week 2 – discussion 2

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Reply in 200 words that you agree or complement the following post: 


Week 2 Discussion

Internal and external criticism that is used to evaluate middle range theories

                What is Middle range theory and how is it use? Middle range theory is a type of theory that is general and specific and its aim is to connect empirical research and abstract concepts.  When middle range theory is used, components are identified to each other ((Peterson & Bredow, 2020).  Middle range theory are later theorist was later developed later down the years, to be specific in the 90s.  Theory is widely used to critiquing theory initially known as the 5 criteria.  In 1990, Barnum developed internal criticism and external criticism.  Internal criticism is described as internal constructions of theory and how they fit together, and external criticism is the theory relationship to people, nursing, and health  (Peterson and Bredow 2020). 

Internal criticism requires the reader to answer the following questions: 1. Does the theory logically follow 2, Is the theory consistent with and logical in the assumptions.  She gave some criteria for judging internal criticism: clarity, consistency, adequacy, logical development and level of theory development.  In clarity, two questions are used, does the theory clearly state the main component to be considered and can the reader easily understand it.  In consistency, does the theory maintain key concepts and explanation of the theory and does it have interpretations, principles and methods. Generally each of these internal criticism criteria has compartment questions that has to be answered to meet for a theory. 

External Criticism ask the following: Is the theory assumption true and does the assumption represent the real world especially the world of nursing.  She recommends these criteria when evaluating for external criticism.  Reality convergence, utility, significance and capacity for discrimination.  In addition to scope and complexity (Peterson and Bredow, 2020). 

Middle range theory is limited to reality .  An example would a nursing home facility with increase number of falls and what nurses can do to help reduce fall in the facility is an example of grand nursing theory.  Middle range theory would focus on the symptoms associated with falling like pain and fracture and the symptoms that are causing the problem for the patient

Another example used is the use of ventilator and weaning patient off them slowly.  Middle range theory was used to establish the theoretical basis for the nursing diagnosis dysfunctional ventilatory weaning responsis.  This study was quanititative and was used to describe middle range theory can be use as basis for nurses to understand the dysfunctional weaning process (Lemos and Cavalcante, 2020).  

Lemos LA, Cavalcante LP, Lopes MVO (2020). Middle Range Theory for the Nursing Diagnosis of Dysfunctional Ventilatory Weaning Response. Int J Nurs Knowl.

Peterson, S. J., & Bredow, T. S. (2020). Middle range theories: Application to Nursing Research and Practice. LWW.


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