Explain how the United States Constitution makes the role of American law enforcement different from other countries.

Course Learning Outcomes for Unit I Upon completion of this unit, students should be able to: 1. Explain how the United States Constitution makes the role of American law enforcement different from other countries. 2. Examine the three eras of policing in the United States and how police/community relations have changed from era to era. 10. Examine the use of excessive force by police and citizen complaints. Reading Assignment Chapter 1: The Evolution of Community Policing Chapter 2: Inside Police Agencies: Understanding Mission and Culture The following article can be found in the Academic Search Complete database, located in the CSU Online Library: Tomlins, C. (2008). Necessities of state: Police, sovereignty, and the constitution. Journal Of Policy History, 20(1), 47-63. Unit Lesson Community policing has become the current focus of law enforcement efforts and is the result of the progression of law enforcement practices over several eras. So, what is community policing? How did we arrive at a place in which community policing was the benchmark for acceptable policing strategies? Let’s start with the first question. What is community policing? This is a question that is not easily answered as there is no completely agreed-upon definition of community policing. However, there are two primary concepts that permeate all of the definitions of community policing: “police-community partnerships and a proactive, problem-solving approach to the police function.” (Miller, Hess, & Orthmann, 2014, p. 5). Now, let’s address the second question. What does policing history teach us about the evolution of policing strategies? The expectation that community members would all be responsible for maintaining law and order in their communities can be traced back to the beginning of policing. This expectation is evidenced in the structure of the tithing system and the frankpledge (i.e., shire reeve and hue and cry). Modern policing, as we know it here in the United States, can be directly traced back to the efforts of Sir Robert Peel in the passing of the Metropolitan Police Act of 1829, which led to the development of the London Metropolitan Police. The London Metropolitan police force adhered to what has been deemed the Peelian principles. Those principles emphasize the prevention of crime and disorder and the importance of the interdependency of the police and citizens. The Peelian principles emphasize that while the duty of the police is to maintain order and prevent crime, the power by which police are able to carry out those duties is derived from the approval of the citizens they serve and protect. Sir Robert Peel understood that without the respect and cooperation of citizens, it would be impossible for the police to maintain order, ensure adherence to the laws, and prevent crime. It was understood that the police are citizens, and that the citizens are police. In essence, the policing of the community was the responsibility of the entire community. Ultimately, Sir Robert peel emphasized that police do not necessarily have to be visible to demonstrate that they are upholding the UNIT I STUDY GUIDE History of Community Policing BCJ 4101, Police and Community Relations 2 UNIT x STUDY GUIDE Title laws, but that the evidence of that will be seen in the levels of crime and order that exist in the community (Miller et al., 2014).