Read the Marketing insight on Google found at the end of Chapter 2. What is Google’s core business? What are the pros and cons of managing a diverse of businesses? With a portfolio as diverse as Googl

Read the Marketing insight on Google found at the end of Chapter 2. What is Google’s core business? What are the pros and cons of managing a diverse of businesses? With a portfolio as diverse as Google’s, what are the company’s core brand values? What’s next for Google? Where should the company focus its resources?

Create a 6 pages page paper that discusses violence and the number of perpetrators with eye-witness memory.

Create a 6 pages page paper that discusses violence and the number of perpetrators with eye-witness memory. In this essay, it will be argued that eye-witness memory is not reliable. This essay will firstly discuss the study by Krug & Weaver (2005) about eyewitness memory in civil cases which shows that memory performance is poor with a rating of only 20%, as with metamemory accuracy after a delay. The accuracy decreases when researchers deliberately delay the testing for more than a week. Then it will discuss the study done by Clifford and Hollin (1981) about witnesses’ memory performance after a violent incident, which shows that accuracy was low as well, and it decreased with the number of perpetrators seen, with the lowest accuracy recorded when the participants were shown a violent video with five perpetrators.

The purpose of the study by Krug and Weaver (2005) was to conduct a study on the reliability of eye witness memory by studying memory in product identification, which is common in civil cases. The independent variables are the products used in the recipes and time, with eight levels (the number of products used) and two levels (a week and two weeks), respectively. The dependent variable is the memory performance after the subject has been exposed to the recipe and the said products. The participants were one hundred and ten Baylor University undergraduates who consist of ninety-six women and fourteen men. Their age range was 18 to 23 years old. These participants received extra credit for participating in the experiment.

The procedure involved following a recipe and remembering the ingredients. They were tested separately and were told that the researchers were investigating different kinds of writing instructions on the speed and accuracy of recipe mixing. They were also told that they would be timed and speed was important. Then, each participant randomly drew a number corresponding to the type of recipe they should use. But the kinds of recipes are all the same in reality, while the brands of the products used varied per recipe.

Intercultural Activity Presentation Final Submission, communications homework help

 Intercultural Activity Presentation Final Submission
. For this assignment, create a 5-7 minute Adobe Connect video presentation with a visual component (PowerPoint) in which you narrate and describe an intercultural activity and experience. Complete the following for your presentation:
Engage in an intercultural activity or activities with a culture other than your own.  choose one that is new to you; however, you must choose a different culture than the one from whom you interviewed someone in Unit 5. Some suggestions for activities to engage in include:
Eating at an ethnic restaurant.
Visiting a courthouse, jail, military installation, school, retirement home, and other ethnically-diverse institution.
Visiting a part of town that is culturally different.
Visiting or attending a service of another world religion.
Attending a celebration or an ethnically diverse craft fair.
Going to a shop that is associated with a particular ethnic group.
Visiting a school that teaches ESL (English as a Second Language) or ELL (English Language Learners).
Visiting an international student organization at a college or university.
Visiting or socializing with people from other cultures.
To add perspective and context to your presentation, gather resources such as informal interviews with people from the respective culture, corresponding text readings and articles, Web sites, and media presentations.
In your presentation, specifically address the following, using examples and illustrations from your intercultural experience(s) and the resources you collected:
Compare the culture you engaged in with your own.
Discuss the potential impact cultural differences have on communication.
Analyze how nonverbal communication affects intercultural communication.
Summarize your thoughts, questions, and viewpoints regarding your experience.
Analyze why you chose specific experiences to share.
Include a written transcript with your video presentation.

Assignment Requirements
Written Communication: Written communication is free of errors that detract from the overall message.
APA Formatting: Resources and citations are formatted according to APA style and formatting.
Presentation Length: Your presentation should be 5-7 minutes, but it may go longer if necessary.
Audio Transcript: Include an accurate Word transcript of your Adobe Connect video.

comm110 forum 6

Week 6 Forum: Digital Footprint: Privacy vs. Security

In the news we are constantly hearing about security breaches, invasion of personal privacy, and the increasing prevalence of our digital footprint. The increased availability of digital information presents concerns and challenges of privacy, accuracy, intellectual property rights, security, and censorship. As a global citizen, you need to be aware of these issues and how they impact your life.

Your instructor will set-up two (2) conversation groups this week in which you will select one topic to discuss which interests you. You are required to participate in one group, and are welcome to participate in the other. Once the conversation is flowing, participate substantively with your peers to teach from one another.

Conversation Group: Privacy

Privacy, as it relates to social media, video surveillance, drones, digital footprint or other topics as they relate to digital privacy. How does the electronic environment impact one’s right to privacy?

Conversation Group: Security

Security, as it relates to social media, video surveillance, drones, digital footprint or other topics as they relate to digital privacy. How does the electronic environment impact one’s personal security?

Using the Richard G. Trefry Library or another credible source, locate and read a quality article regarding digital privacy or security. Be sure to provide attribution for your source in the forum.

Once you have chosen the conversation group and found the source make an initial post to the forum and answer the following questions:

  • · What is the issue? Tell us about it as if we know nothing on the topic.
  • · What are the pros and cons of the issue?
  • · Why is the issue important?
  • · How might the issue impact your life?

Within your group, hold an interesting and informative conversation about the topic. Feel free to visit the other group and contribute to those conversations as well.

Use the rubric below to ensure you are meeting forum expectations.

The Neighborhood I picked is Delridge, Seattle, WA also you can include Seattle Delridge Highland Park Windshield Survey Assignment The purpose of the windshield study is for nurses to look at a neigh

The Neighborhood I picked is Delridge, Seattle, WA also you can include Seattle Delridge Highland Park

Windshield Survey Assignment

The purpose of the windshield study is for nurses to look at a neighborhood and understand the community that they are researching and records their observations.

Nurses need to be able to knowledgeably plan services for a community. It is essential to know a specific community, identify health-related resources that may be helpful to members, and learn about gaps in services. A windshield survey is traditionally conducted from a car and provides a visual overview of a community. Conditions and trends in the community that could affect the health of the population are noted. It is possible to complete the windshield study by bus and on foot.

You will need to do a windshield study for two distinct neighborhoods. The distinctions could encompass whatever categories you choose. Examples: Geological area, urban/nonurban, socioeconomic status, etc.

Please use the survey tool to complete your neighborhood assessments.

Then you will need to write a comparison of the two neighborhoods, comparing their potential healthcare needs based on what you have seen. This first project is designed to help you with your final project so please be thoughtful in how you go about it.

Topics to focus on related to Crime and Safety

*How high crime areas affect medical care

*Mental health/illness

*Poverty level

*Healthcare facilities and how cose/accessing it is for the community

*Causes of crimes and safety issues (drug abuse, unemployment, mental health etc.)

*Gang related crimes


Windshield Survey Grading Rubric

Neighborhood One Windshield: There is an in-depth analysis of the neighborhood. Includes good research on neighborhood statistics.

Neighborhood Two Windshield: There is an in-depth analysis of the neighborhood. Includes good research on neighborhood statistics.

Comparison write-up Grammar and Spelling References and APA format There are 2 or fewer spelling or grammar mistakes.: Write up is correctly done in APA. All references are correctly laid out in APA format. References are correctly sited.

Comparison write-up Content: The information in the write-up accurately reflects the neighborhoods studied. A thoughtful comparison of the two neighborhoods is written out.

Comparison Content Ease of reading: The write up has ease of reading. Flow is easy to follow and not repetative.

Create slides of 5-6 pages excluding title for a 5 pages research journal

Create 5-6 slides excluding title about the kinetics and mechanism of the oxidation of bromothymol blue by permanganate ion in perchlorate acid solution. The kinetics and mechanism are based on the 5 pages research journal attached together in this question. No need to create the content from scratch. It’s just designing the presentation.

Create slides of 5-6 pages excluding title for a 5 pages research journal
Kinetics and mechanism of oxidation of bromothymol blue by permanganate ion in acidic medium: Application to textile industrial wastewater treatment Samia M. Ibrahim a,⁎, Ahmed F. Al-Hossainy a,b aChemistry Department, Faculty of Science, New Valley University, El-Kharga 72511, New Valley, Egypt.bChemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Northern border University, Arar 1321, Saudi Arabia abstract article info Article history: Received 21 February 2020 Received in revised form 29 July 2020 Accepted 11 August 2020 Available online 16 August 2020 Oxidation of Bromothymol Blue (BTB) by oxyanion potassium permanganate as a strong oxidizing agent in acidic solutions using perchloric acid at a constant ionic strength of 1.0 mol dm −3has been studied kinetically spectro- photometrically. The order isfirst-order in [MnO 4 −], while a fractional-first-order in both [H +] and [BTB]. The de- pendency on the hydrogen ion concentration of the rates shows the oxidation reaction is acid-catalyzed. Absence of either Mn IIIand/or Mn IVtransient species as involvement species in the oxidation process was confirmed from Mn IIadded to the oxidation reaction. Formation of 1:1 intermediate complex formation kinetically was revealed during the rate-determining step. In the slowest step two-electron transfer processes of the inner-sphere form have been proposed. A mechanism of tentative reaction was proposed and explored with respect to kinetic pa- rameters. Identification of the oxidation product revealed the formation of keto-BTB as derivative of bromothymol blue oxidation. The product of oxidation was isolated and identify using elemental analysis and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectra. © 2020 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Keywords: Bromothymol blue Permanganate Oxidation Kinetics Mechanisms 1. Introduction The textile industry is one of the largest water-consuming industries [1]. They therefore refuse large amounts of wastewater. Such wastewa- ters contain toxic dyes and pigments that have a negative influence on human health and the ecosystem [2]. The existence of dyes in wastewa- ter actually creates various hazards for living organisms, such as muta- gens and carcinogenic problems, and reduces photosynthesis; by limiting the penetration of oxygen into water [3]. Multiple methods treat these effluents [4]. However, in the presence of toxic and non-biodegradable dyes, the biological treatments are inef- fective and produce high quantities of sludge; the physicochemical methods do have a fairly high investment cost [5]. These limitations mean that new efficient processes are developed. Bromothymol blue (BTB) is a silk dye product often used as the pH measure [6]. It is a useful probe molecule that is not corrupted by direct oxidation and can only be chemically degraded via free-radical pathways. Potassium permanganate is a strong oxidizing agent. It has several additional advantages over other oxidizing agents: easier to handle, a readily soluble solid, and, as demonstrated for some contaminants and a higher efficiency in water and soil treatment [7]. Permanganate ionis an effective oxidant in acid, neutral and basic media that is known to be a leading, environmentally friendly, and active oxidant in kinetic research [8]. Oxidation by permanganate ion have a various mechanism so, permanganate ion is used as a multi-equivalent oxidant [8,9]. The mechanism of some redox reactions was focused on intermediate com- plexes [9–12] production, whereas free-radical mechanisms [13–15] studied other redox reactions. The suggested electron transfer form method was based on the successive electron transfers of the outer [16–18] sequence or inner [9,19–21]; simultaneous two-electron inner sphere modifications were introduced in one step [10,22–27]. It is inter- esting, in this situation, for a single phase [28–30], that a two-electron transfer type outer sphere is not verified. Methyl cellulose kinetics and oxidation mechanism [31], alginates [32], pectates [33], carboxymethyl cellulose [34 ], kappa-carrageenan [35], and chondroitin-4-sulfate [36] polysaccharides of permanganate ion have been recorded elsewhere in alkaline media. Again, the oxida- tion of methyl cellulose [37], pectates [38], carboxymethyl cellulose [39], carrageenanes [40], ADA [41] and poly (ethylene glycol) [42]by permanganate ion in acidic solutions has been reported earlier. Pseudo-first- order plots were shown to be reversed S-forms in these oxidation reactions and free radical interference carried out the oxida- tion reactions. The decoloration by potassium permanganate of the BTB coloration solutions has been examined kinetically in this work. Effects of pH, Journal of Molecular Liquids 318 (2020) 114041 ⁎Corresponding author. E-mail address:[email protected](S.M. Ibrahim). 0167-7322/© 2020 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Contents lists available atScienceDirect Journal of Molecular Liquids journal reactant concentrations and decoloration temperature have been stud- ied. The application of potassium permanganate for the treatment of real textile wastewater was also carried out. The present work seems to merit a study in order to shed more light on the mechanistic aspects of oxidation and to cover for the lack of information on the existence of both the electron transfer and the transition states in the rate- determining step. The results obtained will offer important knowledge on the chemistry of BTB dye as one of the sulfones phthalein in acidic so- lutions. Again, this study will boost the elucidation of an appropriate ox- idation reaction process in acidic solutions for these alcoholic dyes. 2. Experimental section 2.1. Materials All used products are analytical grade. Water has doubly been dis- tilled from alkaline permanganate and degassed through the atmo- spheric pressure bubbling, boiling and cooling [43]. Through adding the reagent powder to double distilled water step through process, BTB (Aldrich Chemical Co. Ltd) solutions in stock were prepared and the solution rapidly was agitated. A stock solution of KMnO 4was prepared and standardized by the conventional methods as described elsewhere [43,44]. Then, the stock solution was stored in a dark bottle away from light to avoid photore- duction and was re-standardized spectrophotometrically before each run. By dissolving the required sample amounts in double distilled water, all other reagents were prepared. The ionic strength was kept in check by the addition of NaClO 4as non-complexing agent [45]. In ±0.05 °C, the temperature was regulated. 2.2. Kinetic measurements The present oxidation reaction for the available spectrophotometer was relatively quick. All kinetic operations have been made under the scope of pseudo-first-order conditions [42]. The absorption decrease was recorded at 525 nm at permanganate ion, with the maximum ab- sorption depending on time (where [BTB]≫10 [MnO 4 −]0). During the reaction process no overlaps were found with other BTB, MnO 4 −and substances at this wavelength. AsFig. 1a indicates, an isosbestic point is found at wavelength of 274 nm. Once, a new band appear at a wave- length of around 380 nm was found to confirm the presence ofintermediates and this studied occurs at the same concentration of per- manganate ion of the same concentration of the mixture (Fig. 1b). These observations may indicate the formation of some intermediate complexes. Absorbance–time plots showed that the initial part (~5–10%) was too fast to be followed by the conventional spectrophotometer used. Therefore, the cited kinetic measurements were concerned with the remained part (~90–95%) of the reaction completion. In the presence of a large quantity of BTB above [MnO 4 −] in all kinetic measurements pseudo-first-order conditions were used. Sodium perchlorate, NaClO 4, as an inert electrolyte was used to maintain the ionic strength constant. The absorbance shift measurements on the spectrophotometer Perkin Elmer (Lambada 750) with a thermostated cell partition using a path length of cells of 1 cm is total. The estimation method was the same as elsewhere [43,44].Fig. 1(a, b) indicates the spectral variations during the redox reaction. 2.3. Polymerization test Ten percent acrylonitrile (v/v) has been used in the reaction mixture during oxidation; to test the possibility of free radical’s formation brown precipitate forming after 15 min of warmth indicates the oxidation reac- tion occurs by free-radical intervention mechanism [46]. Again, reaction mixture between the reactants was carried out in deareated vessels at room temperature in the presence of mercuric chloride, brown precipi- tate appears after 15 min on warming. 3. Results 3.1. Stoichiometry The oxidation reaction with varying initial BTB and MnO − 4concen- trations was combined at room temperature at [H +] = 0.5 and I = 1.0 mol dm −3. The unreacted permanganate ion is expected to reach a con- stant value on a regular basis. There has been a stoichiometric average of 1.0 mol ([MnO 4 −]unreacted /[BTB] 0). The corresponding stoichiometric equation is agreed with C 27H28Br2O5SþMnO 4− þ4H þ¼C 27H24Br2O5SþMn 2þþ4H 2Oð1Þ where C 27H28Br2O5S and C 27H24Br2O5S represent the BTB and keto- derivative of BTB, respectively. The keto-derivative of BTB had been iso- lated by another approach [46,47]. Again, the product was also identi- fied by the Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectral bands observed at frequency 3448 cm −1 and 3443 cm −1 that characterize the two– OH groups in BTB and these two bands converted to one band at 3443 cm −1 so, this confirm the oxidation occurs at one–OH group. Again band observed at 1720 cm −1 that characterize the carbonyl group of α-ketones; strong band appear at 2962 which characterize–CH group in case of BTB but appear weak band at 2962 cm −1 in case of KBTB which characterize–CH group [10,11,17,47]. The enhancement of the absorption band of OH group at wavelength of 1720 nm in the IR spectra of the product may indicate oxidation of OH group present in BTB dye to its corresponding keto-forms as shown inFig. 2. The naked eye observation of the mixture showed that the purple color of permanganate ion in the mixture was changed to the orange color which rapidly changes to rose color indicates the completion rection of oxidation of BTB as shown inFig. 3. 3.2. Influence of reaction rate on [MnO 4 ] and [BTB] ln (absorbance) against time, plots showed that the redox reaction in [MnO 4 −]isfirst-order in sequence, with good straight lines for more than two half-lives of end of reaction. Not only pseudo plotting but also an independently of the oxidation rates at different initial Fig. 1.Spectral changes (200–900 nm) in the oxidation of BTB by permanganate ion in aqueous HClO 4. (a) [MnO 4 −] = 4.0 × 10 −4, [BTB] = 1.0 × 10 −3, [HClO 4] = 0.5 and I = 1.0 mol dm −3at 20 °C. (b) At the same concentrations of reactants (Reference cell: [MnO 4 −] = 4.0 × 10 −4mol dm −3at 20 °C). 2S.M. Ibrahim, A.F. Al-Hossainy / Journal of Molecular Liquids 318 (2020) 114041 permanganate concentrations ranging from 1 × 10 −4 to 5 × 10 −4 mol dm −3 have confirmed this effect. A fractional-first-order in [BTB] was obtained from the plots of lnk obs against ln [BTB] and is confirmed by (lnk obs = n ln [BTB] equation). Once more, straight lines were achieved by drawings of 1/k obs in the positive intercept axis on an X axis against 1/ [BTB]. The present redox system shows the creation of 1:1 intermediate complex shown by Michaelis-Menten kinetics (Fig. 4). 3.3. Influence of reaction rate on hydrogen ion concentrations In order to explain the reaction rate and evaluate the successful reac- tion mechanism, [H +] controlled the constant ionic strength of 1.0 mol dm −3 and the constant concentrations of all other reagents. There was a rise in the acid amount to speed up the rates of oxidation. The oxidation reaction is therefore catalyzed acidically (Table 1). Dependence from [H +] was fractional-first-order (lnk obs-ln [H +]plots). 3.4. Influence of reaction rate on ionic strength The influence of ionic strength on the oxidation rates were studied at constant [H +] and different concentrations of NaClO 4to 1.5 mol dm −3. This result was found tofit the extended Bronsted-Debye-Huckel equa- tion (lnk obs vs.ffiffi I p =1þffiffi I p plot) with positive slope as shown inFig. 5. The dependence of ionic strength is as expected in consideration of the charges, despite the ionic strength used, far from the Debye-Huckel range [48,49]. The oxidation reaction between neutral molecule of HMnO 4and positive ion or neutral molecule of BTB can therefore occur. 3.5. Reaction rate impact on salts The oxidation rate effect of Mn 2+ must be studied as it is one of the oxidation materials [50,51] is indicated that Mn 2+ is reduced to Mn III and/or Mn IVas a transient species according to the Eq.(2),byperman- ganate ions in acidic solutions. MnO 4− þ3Mn IIþ8H þ¼3Mn IIIþMn IVþ4H 2Oð2Þ When reactive oxidizing species are intermediates of Mn IIIand/or Mn IV, the addition of Mn IIwill lead in the oxidation rate accelerations. Again,fluoride ions should slow down the reaction, if manganese ions are primarily the oxidation responsible species, but if permanganate ions are the primary oxidizing entities, they should not be significantly altered [51]. Addition of either [Mn II]or[F −] ions to the redox reaction was found to have no appreciable changes of the reaction rates under our experi- mental conditions. This negative result may interpret indicate the ab- sence of formation of either Mn III or Mn IV as transient-species intermediates throughout the oxidation reaction. 4. Discussion Although there have been substantial research on the kinetics of ox- idation by permanganate ion of organic and inorganic substrates and of alcoholic macromolecules in acidic solutions as multi-equivalent oxi- dants, several unanswered questions concerning the mechanisms of ox- idation in terms of electron transfer and the intermediate states in the rate-determining processes have been recorded [52]. Therefore, there may be a problem of fundamental importance, whether the transition, in a series or in the simultaneous two-electron transitions, of electrons, takes place through a sequential one-electron transfer procedure: Mn VII Fig. 2.FTIR spectra of BTB and its keto-derivative. Fig. 3.Naked eye observation for changing of color during the reaction progression at room temperature. (a): [BTB] in 0.5 M HClO 4;(b):[MnO 4 −] in 0.5 M HClO 4; (c): during progression (d): after completion of reaction. Fig. 4.Chart 1/k obsagainst 1/[BTB] in perchlorate solutions to oxidize BTB through permanganate ion. [MnO 4 −] = 4.0 × 10 −4,[H+] = 0.5 and I = 1.0 mol dm −3at 35 °C.3 S.M. Ibrahim, A.F. Al-Hossainy / Journal of Molecular Liquids 318 (2020) 114041 to Mn VIto Mn Vin a sequence or Mn VIIto Mn Vto Mn IIIin a single step. Therefore, it is important to know whether the pathways for the elec- tron transfer process are outer-sphere or inner-sphere type. The reactions complexity in relation to the formation of unstable in- termediates through the transition of manganese ion from heptavalent to divalent state into acidic solutions can cause these difficulties. Conse- quently, this oxidant has proposed different reaction pathways for oxi- dation of various substrates. Many redox reactions tend to take place by free-radical [44] or free-radical interventions through creating ion-pairs [43], and intermediate complexes of the inner-sphere nature [53]. In the absence of free-radical intervention certain reactions of oxidation were carried out via outer-sphere mechanisms [54]. Under our discrepancies of the kinetic results the speculated mech- anism for the oxidation of BTB by permanganate ion involves the pro- tonation of both permanganate ion and BTB to give the more reactive permanganic acid (HMnO 4) and alkoxnium ion (BTBH +), respectively. BTBþH þK1⇌BTBH þ ð3Þ MnO 4þH þK2⇌HMnO 4 ð4Þ The BTBH + substrate, with proton release before the rate- determining stage, were followed by a HMnO 4attack at the center of a 1:1 intermediate complex (C 1). HMnO 4þBTBH þK3⇌C 1þH þ ð5ÞInstead, in a rate determining stage, the slow decomposition of the formed intermediate complex to give radical (C 1•) substrate and re- duced (Red) shape (as Mn III/Mn IV) of the permanganate ion, throughout the slowfirst stage oxidation products as follows. C 1→kC∙ 1þRedð6Þ The following equation provides a rate rule for changing the rate constants by changing the concentrations of hydrogen ion and substrate as shown in the following equation. Rate¼− dMnO − 4 dt¼ kK1K2K3Hþ BTB ½ TMnO − 4 1þK 1Hþ þK 1K2K3Hþ MnO − 4 ð7Þ where [BTB] Tis the analytical total concentration of the BTB substrate. The term rate-law is usually written as Rate¼− dMnO − 4 dt¼k obs MnO − 4 ð8Þ Comparing Eqs.(7) and (8)and rearrangement, ones concludes that 1 k obs ¼ 1 kK 1K2K3Hþ þ 1 kK 2K3 ! 1 BTB ½ þ K 0 ð9Þ where *K′=[MnO 4 −]/k[BTB]. With the use of Eq.(9)where either the expressions of (1/k obs) vs. (1/[BTB]) were given straight lines with positive intercepts on (1/k obs) axes at constant [H +]or(1/k obs) vs. (1/[H +]). In the Michaelis-Menten plot the tiny intercept (Fig. 4) could be overlooked and thus Eq.(9) the following formula may be limited, BTB ½ k obs ¼1 k n¼ Hþ −1 k0 þ1 k″ ! ð10Þ wherek nis the second-order rate constant,k′=kK 1K2K3andk″= kK 2K3, respectively. In compliance with Eq.(10)[BTB]/k obs versus [H +]−1 has given good straight lines with positive intercept on [BTB]/ k obs axes, as shown onFig. 6; the values of the apparent rate constants k’,k″and the protonation constantK 1can be determined on their slopes and intercepts. These values calculated by using the least-squares Fig. 5.Ionic strength dependency of the rate constants in the oxidation of bromthymol blue by permanganate ion in aqueous perchlorate solutions. [MnO 4 −]=4.0×10 −4, [BTB] = 1.0 × 10 −3,[H+] = 0.5 mol dm −3at 35 °C. Table 1 Dependence of pseudo-first order of the rate constants (k obs)on[H +] and [BTB] reactants in the oxidation of bromothymol blue by permanganate ion in aqueous perchlorate solu- tions. [MnO 4 −] = 4.0 × 10 −4and I = 1.0 mol dm −3at 35 °C. [H +]amol dm −3 103kobs,s−1 103[BTB] b mol dm −3 103kobs,s−1 0.5 0.58 1.0 0.58 1.0 1.51 3.0 1.47 Experimental error ± 4%. a[BTB] = 1 × 10 −3mol dm −3. b[H+] = 0.5 mol dm −3. Fig. 6.Plots of [BTB]/k obsvs 1/[H +] in the oxidation of bromothymol blue by permanganate ion in aqueous perchlorate solutions. [MnO 4 −] = 4.0 × 10 −4, [BTB] = 1.0 × 10 −3,I=1.0 mol dm −3at various temperatures. 4S.M. Ibrahim, A.F. Al-Hossainy / Journal of Molecular Liquids 318 (2020) 114041 method and found to be 0.91, 0.79, 0.57 and 0.55 at 20, 30, 40 and 50 °C, respectively. The calculated values of protonation constants (K 1)were found to be in good agreement. The negative entropies of activation (ΔS ≠) values inTable 2show the compactness of the intermediates rather than the reactants. Again, the positive values forΔG ≠indicated that the intermediate complexes pro- duced were non-spontaneity as suggested by the proposed mechanism. As shown by the ionic strength dependency of rate constant, the strong propensity of the reaction between the neutral molecule and the posi- tive ion would aid in this phase the observed low energy activation value of E ≠(Table 2). It implies that the reactants need little energy to interact and create the intermediate states of the complexes developed. However, entropy of activation has been previously reported [55–59] as being more negative for inner-sphere reactions, with reac- tions with negative values of theΔS ≠being conducted of one- and two-electron transfer of inner-sphere mechanism. Considering the values found for the entropy of activation (Table 2), it is better to use permanganate ion to oxidize BTB by means of two-electron shifts within the sphere rather than by the outside-sphere method. It should beremembered in this context that the mechanism of outer-sphere two- electron transition does not seem to be experimentally confirmed [58]. The disturbance of the alteration in spectra (Fig. 1) can suggest that the original quick portion of the reaction to oxidation is not the true phase of electron transfer. Therefore, the initial rapid part of oxidation may be attributed to a fast formation of an intermediate between the re- actants. The appearance of an isosbestic point indicate the existence of equilibrium state between the permanganate ion and the intermediate complex formed. Again, some trials have been performed in order to de- tect the formation of hypomanganate (V) intermediate as transient spe- cies. Unfortunately, all attempts were unsuccessful. This failure may be attributed to the lower absorptivity of formed Mn(V) under our exper- imental conditions of lower reactants concentrations or the fast reaction between the formed Mn Vand C 1 .(Eq.(6)) to give rise to thefinal oxida- tion products. In view of the above-mentioned kinetic definitions and study results, as outlined inScheme I, a tentative reaction process can be proposed for oxidation of bromothymol blue by acidic permanganate. 5. Conclusions The kinetics and mechanism of oxidation of BTB in acid perchlorate solutions with a constant ionic strength of 1.0 mol dm −3 as sulfonphthalein dyes by permanganate ion oxidizer have been analyzed spectrophotometrically. The experimental results revealed that oxida- tion displays a single pathway reaction; the order with respect to [MnO − 4]isfirst-order, fractional-first-order with respect to both [BTB] and [H+]. Dependence on acidity in reaction levels suggested acid- catalyzed reaction. The addition of Mn IIto the reaction mixtures con- firmed the absence of either Mn IIIand/or Mn IVtransient species as in- volvement species in the oxidation phase. Formation of 1:1 intermediate complex prior to the rate-determining step was revealed, kinetically. A tentative reaction mechanism was speculated and discussed with respect to the kinetic data and measured the kinetic parameters. Table 2 The thermodynamic parameters of the protonation constant (K 1) and the activation pa- rameters of the apparent rate constants (k′andk″) in the oxidation of bromothymol blue by permanganate ion in aqueous perchlorate solutions. Constants Parameters ΔH ≠ kJ mol −1 ΔS≠ J mol −1K−1 ΔG≠ 293 kJ mol −1 Ea ≠kJ mol −1 k′43.66−391.09 114.63 50.36 k″18.14−305.96 89.66 26.96 k′ na 21.35−181.25 53.13 23.95 ΔH° kJ mol −1 ΔS° 293 J mol −1K−1 ΔG° 293 kJ mol −1 K1 −12.49−0.0433 +0.219 Experimental errors ±4%. aThesecond-orderrateconstantat[H +] = 0.5 mol dm −3. Scheme I.Mechanism of oxidation of bromothymol blue by permanganate ion in aqueous perchlorate solutions.5 S.M. Ibrahim, A.F. Al-Hossainy / Journal of Molecular Liquids 318 (2020) 114041 CRediT authorship contribution statement Samia M. Ibrahim:Conceptualization, Methodology, Formal analy- sis, Data curation, Writing – original draft.Ahmed F. Al-Hossainy:Con- ceptualization, Methodology, Resources, Formal analysis, Data curation. Declaration of competing interest The authors declare no conflict of interest. Acknowledgements This work was supported by the Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, New Valley University, El-Kharga 72511, New Valley, Egypt. References [1]S. Vajnhandl, J.V. Volmajer, The status of water reuse in European textile sector, J. Environ. Manag. 141 (2014) 29–35. [2]V. Tigini, P. Giansanti, A. Mangiavillano, A. Pannocchia, G.C. Varese, Evaluation of toxicity, genotoxicity and environmental risk of simulated textile and tannery wastewaters with a battery of biotestes, Ecotoxicol. Environ. Saf. 74 (2011) 866–873. [3]J.H. Sun, S.P. Sun, G.L. Wang, L.P. Qiao, Degradation of azo dye Amido black 10B in aqueous solution by Fenton oxidation process, Dyes Pigments 74 (2007) 647–652. [4]C. Galindo, P. Jacques, A.J. Kalt, Photochemical and photocatalytic degradation of an indigoid dye: a case study of acid blue 74 (AB74), Photochem. Photobiol. 141 (2001) 47–56. [5]M.S. Nawaz, M. Ahsan, Comparison of physico-chemical, advanced oxidation and bi- ological techniques for the textile wastewater treatment, Alexandria Eng. J. 53 (2014) 717–722. [6]A.B.M. Giasuddin, S.R. Kanel, H. Choi, Adsorption of humic acid onto nanoscale zerovalent iron and its effect on arsenic removal, Environ. Sci. Technol. 41 (2007) 2022–2027. [7]Xiang-Rong Xu, Hua-Bin Li, Wen-Hua Wang, Ji-Dong Gu, Decolorization of dyes and textile wastewater by potassium permanganate, Chemosphere 59 (2005) 893–898. [8]F.A. Cotton, G. Wilkinson, Advanced Inorganic Chemistry, John Wiley and Sons, New York, 1980 747. [9]M.M. Girgis, S.A. El-Shatoury, Z.A. Khalil, Kinetics and mechanism of oxidation of lac- tic acid by KMnO 4in H 2SO4, Can. J. Chem 63 (1985) 3317–3321. [10]A.F. Al-Hossainy, M.S. Zoromba, Doped-poly (para-nitroaniline-co-aniline): synthe- sis, semiconductor characteristics, density, functional theory and photoelectric properties, J. Alloys Compd. 789 (2019) 670–683. [11]M.S. Zoromba, M. Abdel-Aziz, M. Bassyouni, H. Bahaitham, F.A. Al-Hossainy, Poly (o- phenylenediamine) thinfilm for organic solar cell applications, J. Solid State Electr. 22 (2018) 3673–3687. [12]K.K. Senkupta, D.K. Samurai, D.C. Mukaherjee, Kinetics of acid permanagante oxida- tion of glycol & glycolic acid, Ind. J. Chem 13 (1975) 348–351. [13]A.Y. Drummond, W.A. Water, Stages in oxidations of organic compounds by potas- sium permanganate. Part VI. Oxidations of ketones and of pyruvic acid, J. Chem. Soc. (1955) 497–504. [14]R.S. Verma, M.J. Reddy, V.R. Shastry, Kinetic study of homogeneous acid-catalysed oxidation of certain amino-acids by potassium permanganate in moderately con- centrated acidic media, J. Chem. Soc. Perkin II (1976) 469–473. [15]M.D. Mudallar, V.R. Choumey, R.S. Verma, V.R. Shastry, Kinetics and mechanism of oxidation of L-arginine by potassium permanganate in moderately concentrated sul- furic acid medium, J. Ind. Chem. Soc. LX (1983) 561–565. [16]K.W. Hicks, Kinetics of the permanganate ion-potassium octacyano tungstate (IV) reaction, J. Inorg. Nucl. Chem. 38 (1976) 1381–1383. [17]A. Al-Hossainy, A. Ibrahim, Facile synthesis, X-ray single crystal and optical charac- terizations of Cu-diphenylphosphino-methane organic crystalline semi- conductors, J. Optoelectron Adv. M 16 (2014) 1472–1480. [18]L. Tomas, K.W. Hicks, Kinetics of the permanganate ion-potassium octacyanomolybdate(IV) reaction, Inorg. Chem. 13 (1974) 749–752. [19]R.M. Hassan, Kinetics and mechanism of oxidation of DL-α-alanine by permanganate ion in acid perchlorate media, Can. J. Chem. 69 (1991) 2018–2023. [20]F.S. Hassan, A.F. Al-Hossainy, A.E. Mohamed, Diphosphine compounds, part III: UV/ Visible spectroscopy and novel routes to functionalized diphosphine-M (CO) 6 com- plexes (M = W, Mo, or Cr), Phosphor. Sulfur 184 (2009) 2996–3022. [21]K.W. Hicks, G.A. Chappell, Kinetic study of the permanganate (1-) ion-hexakis (cyano)ruthenate(4-) ion reaction in acid perchlorate media, Inorg. Chem. 19 (1980) 1623–1625. [22]R.M. Hassan, S.A. El-Gaiar, A.M. El-Summan, Kinetics of oxidation of selenium (IV) by permanganate ion in perchlorate solutions, Collect. Czechoslov. Chem. Commun. 58 (1993) 538–546. [23]M. Jaky, L.I. Simandi, Mechanism of the permanganate oxidation of unsaturated compounds. Part III. Intermediates in the oxidation of maleic and fumaric acids, J. Chem. Soc. Perkin II (1973) 1565–1569. [24]I. Kacem, M. Daoudi, W. Dridi, H. Sellemi, K. Harzli, G. De Izzara, B. Geslot, H. Guermazi, P. Blaise, F. Hosni, Effects of neutron–gamma radiation on the free radicalcontents in epoxy resin: upconversion luminescence and structural stabilization, Appl. Phys. A-Mater. 125 (2019) 758. [25]A.F. Al-Hossainy, A.E. Mohamed, F.S. Hassan, M.A. Allah, Determination of cadmium and lead in perchfish samples by differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry and furnace atomic absorption spectrometry, Arab J. Chem 10 (2017) S347–S354. [26]M. Jaky, L.I. Simandi, Mechanism of the permanganate oxidation of unsaturated compounds. Part I. Short-lived intermediates of the oxidation of acetylene dicarbox- ylic acid, J. Chem. Soc. Perkin II (1972) 1481–1486. [27]M. McAllister, K.W. Hicks, M.A. Hurless, Kinetics of the permanganate ion oxidation of the bis(.mu.-oxo)bis(oxomolybdate(V)) ion, Inorg. Chem. 21 (1982) 4098–4100. [28]S.A. Lawani, J.R. Sutter, Kinetic studies of permanganate oxidation reactions. IV. Re- action with bromide ion, J. Phys. Chem. 77 (1973) 1547–1551. [29]A. Ibrahim, M. Abdel-Aziz, M.S. Zoromba, A. Al-Hossainy, Structural, optical, and electrical properties of multi-walled carbon nanotubes/polyaniline/Fe 3O4ternary nanocomposites thinfilm, Synthetic Met 238 (2018) 1–13. [30]R.M. Hassan, Oxidation of uranium(IV) by polyvalent metal ions. A linear free- energy correlation, J. Coord. Chem. 27 (1992) 255–266. [31]A.M. Shaker, R.M. El-Khatib, H.S. Mahran, Kinetics and mechanism of the decay of methyl cellulose-manganate (VI) polysaccharide transient species—novel spectro- photometric kinetic trace of methyl cellulose hypomangate (V) gel intermediate polysaccharide, J. Appl. Poly. Sci. 106 (2007) 2668–2674. [32]R.M. Hassan, R.M. Hassan, Alginate polyelectrolyte ionotropic gels. XIV. Kinetics and mechanism of formation of intermediate complex during the oxidation of alginate polysaccharide by alkaline permanganate with a spectrophotometric evidence of manganate (VI) transient species, J. Poly. Sci. Part A Chem 31 (1993) 51–59Alginate polyelectrolyte ionotropic gels. XVIII. Oxidation of alginate polysaccharide by potas- sium permanganate in alkaline solutions: kinetics of decomposition of intermediate complex, J. Poly. Sci. Part A Chem 31 (1993) 1147–1151. [33]K.S. Khairou, R.M. Hassan, Pectate polyelectrolyte ionotropic gels 1. Kinetics and mechanisms of formation of manganate (VI)-pectate intermediate complex during the oxidation of pectate polysaccharide by alkaline permanganate, Eur. Poly. J. 36 (2000) 2021–2030. [34]A.M. Shaker, Base-catalyzed oxidation of carboxymethyl-cellulose polymer by per- manganate: 1. Kinetics and mechanism of formation of a manganate (VI) transient species, J. Coll. Interf. Sci 233 (2001) 197–204. [35]R.M. Hassan, A. Fawzy, A. Alarifi,G.A.Ahmed,I.A.Zaafarany,H.D.Takagi,Base- catalyzed oxidation of some sulfated macromolecules. Kinetics and mechanism of formation of intermediate complexes of short-lived manganate (VI) and/or hypomanganate (V) during oxidation of iota- and lambda-carrageenan polysaccha- rides by alkaline permanganate, J. Mol. Catal. 335 (2011) 38–45. [36]I.A. Zaafarany, A. Gobouri, R.M. Hassan, Oxidation of some sulfated carbohydrates: kinetics and mechanism of oxidation of chondroitin-4-sulfate by alkaline perman- ganate with novel synthesis of coordination biopolymer precursor, J. Mater. Sci. Res 2 (2013) 23–36. [37]R.M. Hassan, A. Dahy, S.M. Ibrahim, I.A. Zaafarany, A. Fawzy, Oxidation of some mac- romolecules. Kinetics and mechanism of oxidation of methyl cellulose by perman- ganate ion in acid perchlorate solutions, Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 51 (2012) 5424–5432. [38]M. Abdel-Hamid, K.S. Khairou, R.M. Hassan, Kinetics and mechanism of permanga- nate oxidation of pectin polysaccharide in acid perchlorate media, Eur. Poly. J. 39 (2003) 381–387. [39]R.M. Hassan, D.A. Abdel-Kader, S.M. Ahmed, A. Fawzy, I.A. Zaafarany, B.H. Asghar, H.D. Takagi, Acid-catalyzed oxidation of carboxymethyl cellulose. Kinetics and mechanism of permanganate oxidation of carboxymethyl cellulose in acid perchlo- rate solutions, Cat. Commun. 11 (2009) 184–190. [40]R.M. Hassan, A. Fawzy, G.A. Ahmed, I.A. Zaafarany, B.S. Asghar, K.S. Khairou, Acid- catalyzed oxidation of some sulfated macromolecules. Kinetics and mechanism of oxidation of kappa-carrageenan polysaccharide by permanganate ion in acid per- chlorate solutions, J. Mol. Catal. 309 (2009) 95–102. [41]R.M. Hassan, S.M. Ibrahim, Kinetics and mechanism of permanganate oxidation of ADA in aqueous perchlorate solutions, Curr. Organocatal. 6 (2019) 52–60. [42]R.M. Hassan, S.M. Ibrahim, S.A. Sayed, Kinetics and mechanistic aspects on electron- transfer process for permanganate oxidation of poly (ethylene glycol) in aqueous acidic solutions in the presence and absence of Ru(III) catalyst, Inter. J. Chem. Kin. (2018) 775–785. [43]A.F. Al-Hossainy, Simultaneous determination of Cd (II) and Cu (II) using stripping voltammetry in groundwater, soil and Alhagi maurorum plants in industrial and urban areas in Northern Border, Saudi Arabia with luminol as a chelating agent, Water Sci. Technol. 72 (2015) 1127 –1139. [44]M.S. Manhas, F. Mohamed, Z. Khan, A kinetic study of oxidation of b-cyclodextrin by permanganate in aqueous media, Colloids Surf. 295 (2007) 165–171. [45]C. Billing, I. Cukrowski, Measurements and modeling to determine the reduction po- tential of uncomplexed Bi(III) in nitrate solutions for application in Bi(III)-ligand equilibria studies by voltammetry, J. Phys. Chem. B 120 (18) (2016) 4268–4278. [46]R.M. Hassan, H.D. Takagi, S.M. Ibrahim, Orientation on the mechanistics of electron- transfer on oxidation of chondroitin-4-sulfate as sustainable sulfated polysaccharide by permanganate ion in aqueous perchlorate solutions, J. Renew. Mater. 8 (2020) 205–218. [47]A.A.I. Abd-Elmageed, S.M. Ibrahim, A. Bourezgui, A.F. Al-Hossainy, Synthesis, DFT studies, fabrication, and optical characterization of the [ZnCMC] TFpolymer (or- ganic/inorganic) as an optoelectronic device, New J. Chem. 44 (2020) 8621–8637. [48]K. Laidler, Chemical Kinetics, McGraw-Hill, New York, 1965. [49]S. Glasstone, D. Lewis, Elements of Physical Chemistry, Maruzen Asian Edn, 1960. [50]P.S. Radhabrishnamurti, M.D. Rao, Oxidation of aliphatic ketones, substituted acetophenones and cyclic ketones by potassium permanganate, Ind. J. Chem. Soc. A15(1977)524–527. 6S.M. Ibrahim, A.F. Al-Hossainy / Journal of Molecular Liquids 318 (2020) 114041 [51]V.S. Rao, Workers, oxidation studies: part XIV—kinetics of oxidation of esters by KMnO 4in H 2SO4medium, Ind. J. Chem. 18 (1979) 37–41. [52] R.M. Hassan, Racent Development in Carbohydrate Research. by Pandalai, SG, vol. 3, Chapter 3, 49–61, Transworld Research Network, India 2012. [53]R.M. Hassan, M.H. Wahdan, A. Hassan, Kinetics and mechanism of sol-gel transfor- mation on poly-electrolytes of nickel alginate ionotropic membranes, Eur. Poly. J. 24 (1988) 281 & 1173. [54]M.A. Rawoof, J.R. Sutter, Kinetic studies of permanganate oxidation reactions. II. Re- action with ferrocyanide ion, J. Phys. Chem. 71 (1967) 2767–2771. [55]N. Sutin, Free energies, barriers and reactivity patterns in electron transfer reactions, Acad. Chem. Res. (1968) 225–231. [56]M. Abdel-Aziz, A. Al-Hossainy, A. Ibrahim, S.A. El-Maksoud, M.S. Zoromba, M. Bassyouni, S. Abdel-Hamid, A. Abd-Elmageed, I. Elsayed, O. Alqahtani, Synthesis,characterization and optical properties of multi-walled carbon nanotubes/aniline- o-anthranilic acid copolymer nanocomposite thinfilms, J. Mater. Sci. Mater. El 29 (2018) 16702–16714. [57]R.M. Hassan, Kinetics of reaction of uranium (IV) and hexachloroiridate(IV) in acid perchlorate solutions, J. Chem. Soc. Dalton Trans. (1991) 3003–3008. [58]R.M. Hassan, A review on oxidation of uranium(IV) by polyvalent metal ions. A lin- ear free-energy correlation, J. Coord. Chem. 27 (1992) 255–266. [59]R.M. Hassan, A mechanistic approach to the kinetics of oxidation of uranium (IV) by hexachloroplatinate(IV) in aqueous perchlorate solutions. Evidence of the formation of a binuclear intermediate complex, J. Phys. Chem. 115 (2011) 13338–13345.7 S.M. Ibrahim, A.F. Al-Hossainy / Journal of Molecular Liquids 318 (2020) 114041

Using the GCU Library, locate a journal article about capital budgeting. In the subject line of your post, include the name of the article that you read. Then, in your initial post, provide a link to

Using the GCU Library, locate a journal article about capital budgeting. In the subject line of your post, include the name of  the article that you read. Then, in your initial post, provide a link to the article and a summary followed by your reaction to the article. The summary should be approximately 250 words and the reaction should be approximately 150 words. The summary should describe the major points of the article, and the reaction should demonstrate your interpretation of the article and how you can apply that knowledge. Do not choose an article that one of your classmates has already posted. To participate in follow-up discussion, choose one of the articles that a classmate has posted and provide your own reaction to it. Note: It will be challenging to find a relevant article if you do not use the library.

Please include proper citations in your discussion post. Points will be deducted if proper citations are not used.

Compose a 1000 words assignment on best practices in workplace communication: what is the most important skill of effective communicators. Needs to be plagiarism free!

Compose a 1000 words assignment on best practices in workplace communication: what is the most important skill of effective communicators. Needs to be plagiarism free! , strong communication within peers helps in building a solid relationship among colleagues and the top management which prevent pointless misunderstandings. Effective communication includes several skills such as non-verbal communication, stress management, the ability to understand and recognize emotions of the listener and the speaker. However, listening is considered as one of the most important attribute of effective communication in the organization because it conveys the words and feelings of the communicator simultaneously. Moreover, it also creates a sense of respect and honor in the communicator that he is being listened and given worth too.

In today’s competitive era, organizations need to receive, manage, send and process a large amount of data on everyday basis. The effective communication techniques like listening, managing stress, non-verbal communication and emotional awareness are needed for better understanding of the messages because it is not just exchanging information. in fact it is the understanding of the meaning and emotions behind the message/information. Effective communication in workplace helps in improving relationships at every level of the organization, it improves problem solving, decision making and teamwork. It also helps in communicating even the difficult or negative messages without giving birth to conflicts that can destroy employees trust (David, 2013).

Joe was my project leader at McDonalds, he was like a guiding star for me, and he saw some spark in me, that I couldn’t see in myself even my entire life. I was appointed with a team and task related to the advertisement of the company. My main focus was controlling my team and implementing company policies than coaching them. I made thousands of mistakes in my initial years and Joe office was open every time and I can come with my frustrations, questions anytime I want. He was open to hear me without redirecting or interrupting.

Hello, looking for someone to do my French discussion post. Directions listed below: In this Discussion, consider the places in the World that French is spoken today, which are discussed under “Geo

Hello, looking for someone to do my French discussion post.

Directions listed below:

In this Discussion, consider the places in the World that French is spoken today, which are discussed under “Geography, History and Language,” and choose one of the places that interests you. Do a little research on the place of interest. It can be a former French colony or a place that is strongly influenced by French culture and language.  The only requirement is that the place of interest not be France.  Do not repeat a topic on which someone has already posted. Our library is a great source for information, but if you use the internet, make sure the site is reputable. Wikipedia is not an academic site.

Consider the following:

  • What other languages do these peoples speak?
  • What sort of government exists?
  • What kind of art, architecture, and literature do they produce?
  • Is there a cuisine or specialty food?

Was the IMF’s response to the Global Financial Crisis of 2008 adequate? 2500 words Atleast 5 scholarly sources (Journals, Research articles, books and not newspaper sources count in the 5 sources but

Was the IMF’s response to the Global Financial Crisis of 2008 adequate?

2500 words

Atleast 5 scholarly sources (Journals, Research articles, books and not newspaper sources count in the 5 sources but can be used as supplementary)

Paper must have a proper thesis

All material has to be cited APA format

Need by Monday Noon Canada Time.