PARAPHRASING, EDUCATION

Article 1
1- Mixed-methods approaches along with qualitative research were classified in hierarchical taxonomies. They were mostly fitted together within Level I Exploratory in the scientific research taxonomy although, when involving a survey, mixed methods slipped into Level II Descriptive .
2- The combining of qualitative and quantitative findings would give more evidence, more certainty and therefore more confidence in the truth
value of the outcomes. These claims fell on fertile ground.
3- the most often presented arguments for using a mixed-methods approach are its ability to be holistic or to give a rounded understanding of process and outcome and its ability to be inclusive of multiple approaches to a problem so there is more certainty in the results.
4- Methodology guides how a researcher frames the research question, and decides on the process
and methods to use. The methods, in contrast, are how one gets to the outcome;
they are the practical means, the tools for collecting and analyzing data.
5- A co-operative inquiry framework for mixed-methods research would move debate beyond methodological competitiveness to a collective
approach to dealing with social and health disparities and issues.

Article 2
1- how a mixed-methods research team designed and conducted a 4-year study (Variations in Teachers’ Work and Lives and Their Effects on Pupils) that tracked 300 teachers in 100 schools in England over a 3-year fieldwork period.
2- Mixed Methods: Limitations and Benefits first: A potential flaw of a mixed-methods approach is that the quantitative and qualitative elements of the research might be designed and conducted separately and combined only at the stage of interpreting findings.
3- The authors discuss processes that led to new knowledge. Although mixed methods are becoming more popular, few published accounts describe in detail how researchers have moved beyond the use and integration of mixed methods to arrive at more synergistic understandings.
4- the methodological integration is an essential precondition for achieving synergy but that conceptual integration is a necessary part of methodological integration. Initial conceptual awareness of the field of research will need to develop as the reciprocal processes of analysis and integration of data present new understandings of the research field and research problem; and such conceptual development needs to interact with emergent findings to create tentative hypotheses.
5- The advantage of synergistic approaches is their consideration and combination of a greater range of data, resulting in more nuanced, authentic accounts and explanations of complex realities