posts responses

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subject one

post one Yas

Imagine yourself as either homeless or incarcerated. Would you be accepting or oppositional to receiving aid during a disaster, including evacuation, sheltering and social services? Why?

From my point of view, I see that homelessness is closely the same position with incarceration in that time. Homeless is closely linked with incarceration, approximately 50,000 people a year enter homeless shelters directly after exiting incarceration. Along with that people returning from jail or prison face barriers to finding stable housing and employment due to legal restrictions and discrimination against them. People experiencing homelessness can also get dragged to be criminals for misdemeanor offenses related to attempts to survive on the streets. For me I will accept the assistant because in that case I will be extremely vulnerable, and I will not be able to evacuate or move to shelters without assistance. Moreover, I will be in difficult situation understanding what going on because for sure I will not be able to get access for media to know what going on and how to evacuate. However, being homeless mean that I have less resources than other or even I may not have anything, so in case of disaster I don’t have the choice whether to accept the assistant or not. I really try to find one reason to not accept the assistant but I could not come with any single reason, unless if I prefer to be in very difficult situation with high chance to die rather than to trying to life. Homeless deserve to get not just assistance they also need to get basic emotional and tangible psychological support when disaster strike.

post two nor

any emergency plan homeless population come under special need population. Populations whose members may have additional needs before, during, and after an incident in functional areas, including but not limited to maintaining independence, communication, transportation, supervision, and medical care. However, in some communities, they created an emergency plan for the homeless population rather than include them in the same plan for special need population.

In case of emergency planning personal preparedness is a significant component especially for people with limited resources. In many communities they make a great effort to prepared people with limited resources in different ways:

  1. Leaflets which include instructions for accessing current information about the emergency situation.
  2. Training, many communities are encouraged to supplement written material with personal preparedness training because some of homeless have difficulty reading and interpreting written instructions in English or other languages.
  3. Emergency kit, providers should consider distributing emergency kits at training that contain water, a flashlight, first aid supplies, a whistle, a portable radio, and batteries.
  4. Emergency health information card, Emergency health information cards provide first responders with potentially lifesaving personal and medical information

subject two


The kind of risk is likely a biological hazard affecting the respiratory system of people.

Identified vector

The vector of the observed hazard is likely the cooling sprinkler system, which creates an aerosol of cold, humid air.

Implicated agent

The implicated agent according to the symptoms presented would be any bacteria of the family Legionella.

How can the syndrome be altered?

The syndrome of the Legionnaires or legionellosis can be altered by using HEPA filters in an air conditioning device as the cooling sprinkler present in the amusement park (Liu et al., 2018). Additionally, it would be desirable to use alternative cooling methods that do not require the use of water, as the bacteria grows in humid environments such as the water reservoirs of such cooling sprinkler (Mitra et al., 2017).

Strategy of the EOC to facilitate the response phase

The approach used by the EOC to promote the response phase would imply the sampling and testing for the presence of Legionella species on the surface of the cooler sprinkler. Once they confirmed the presence of Legionella, they would alert the hospitals in the nearby of a potential increase in the risk of pneumonia such that they can get prepared for the treatment of the patients. Additionally, it would be necessary to limit the access to the area to prevent the contagion of more people. By doing so, the EOC will be sure that there will be no more new cases declared after the typical incubation time of 10 days (CDC, 2018).

Recommended protective strategies

Considering how the Legionellosis spreads through the use of the air conditioning system as the bacteria spreads in the droplets of water in the conditioned air, the first protective strategy is that of immediately turning off any cooling system in the amusement park. On the other hand, it would be necessary to use protective equipment such as gloves when handling the potentially contaminated refrigeration systems. It is important to note that legionellosis is not contagious, such that isolation of the patients is not necessary.

Recommended investigations, assessments, or instruments

The prompt treatment is crucial for reducing the risk of complications. As such, any person that shows flu-like symptoms and persistent fever and that have been close to cooling sprinkler should seek medical assistance to check whether he got infected such that he can receive immediate treatment. From this point of view, I would recommend the use of different sorts of instruments oriented at warning the population about the risk they may have contracted the disease and what to do in case they experience the symptoms. Such instruments could be, for instance, announcements on the local radio and television networks. Additionally, it may be necessary to support the hospitals in the area by providing them with ventilators to aid patients showing shortness of breath.

Considerations I would include in preparation for response

The first consideration I would consist of is to raise the awareness about the risks associated to the use of refrigerating systems that rely on the use of water and the creation of aerosols, as they are the vector enabling the transmission of the bacteria to the people who inhale the humid aerosol droplets. Additionally, I would prepare a risk mitigation plan in the hospitals in the region considering how the hot temperatures increase the risk of getting infected due to the use of such refrigeration systems. As per the information provided, it is likely that the hospitals will show the same problems all the summers, such that it is crucial that the medical staff is able of detecting the symptoms and treating the disease promptly. Lastly, for this same reason, I would carry out different informative campaigns during the summer to inform the general population about the risks of using cooling sprinkler systems and about how to identify the symptoms of an infection by Legionella

I need three responses ( two in the subject one and one in subect two) each response no more than 150 words with APA style refrances

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