using the following research question conduct an observation in a first-year high school math class setting for one hour and take annotated notes. Your observations should take place for at least 1 ho

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using the following research question

conduct an observation in a first-year high school math class setting for one hour and take

annotated notes. Your observations should take place for at least 1 hour in the classroom.   Please review the literature on annotated notes for observational

purposes using this link .

Research Question:

How has the time spent in online learning impacted classroom management and culture?

Theoretical Frameworks:

you will be using both Bronfrenbrenner and Zygotsy as focus points and lenses for this observational research. Specifically, you will use Bronfrenbrenner’s Ecological Systems Theory as a lens with which to understand the impact of online learning on students’ zone of proximal development as it relates to classroom behavior and culture.


you predict that classroom management and culture will be less automated, and more deliberate teaching of skills will need to be done than in previous years. In being out of the classroom (many students for over a year), students did not get the day-to-day experience of being in the school and thus are not practiced at it. Expected classroom behaviors and the social norms of learning together in the same space and/or online are now in the ZPD of most students, whereas it was mastered or fluent behavior pre-pandemic. Using Bronfenbrenner’s framework as a lens, the macrosystem and exosystem surrounding the students for the last year and a half have been entirely different than the typical experience, and the mesosystem has shifted profoundly. Teachers of adolescents have always had to teach into classroom expectations and class culture directly. Still, we expect with the myriad of impacts from online learning, this will become more of a focus in the next year or two as we return to entirely in-person learning.

Observational Setting:

you will observe first-year high school math class for one hour.

Project Overview: Your  Application-theory project will connect course concepts to real-

world observations of adolescents in natural settings. You and your team members will use the

theoretical frameworks discussed in your readings to observe an adolescent, a group of

adolescents, or adolescents with their families in a natural setting (e.g., the park). Then, you

will analyze all observations using theory-driven concepts.

Project Objectives:

Evaluate a topic related to adolescence by linking theory to real-world observations;

Understand the importance of observational research in understanding aspects of adolescent



Erikson, E. H. (1970). Autobiographic notes on the identity crisis. Daedalus, 99 (4), 730-759.

  • In this document, Erik Erikson discusses the identity crisis that adolescents experience, which can impact their future development. Erikson proposed 8 psychosocial stages, where adolescence was seen as a time for identity exploration. Given that each stage has a psychosocial crisis such as identity vs. role confusion in adolescence (e.g., how do I see myself?), it is the duty of caregivers and other educators to assist young people in resolving their crises through healthy guidance. Please think about how you might address the psychosocial conflicts that arise among adolescents.

2. Kett, J. (2003). Reflections on the history of adolescence in America. The history of family, 8(3), pp. 355-373.

  • This article details the history of adolescence as a distinct period from childhood and adulthood, and reviews our change in the value of adolescence, especially as it pertains to boys. As you read this text, reflect on how you can utilize this historical knowledge in your work with adolescents.

3. Kuhn, D. (2008). Formal operations from a twenty-first century perspective. Human Development, 51(1), 48-55.

  • This article focuses on adolescent cognition, with specific attention to the relevance of Jean Piaget’s Formal Operations stage of cognitive development and its relevance in the 21st century.

4. McLeod, S. (2008). Psychosexual stages. Simply Psychology.

  • This brief article is on Sigmund Freud’s Psychosexual theory. Please pay special attention to the genital stage and search for additional readings on the stage, as it is the stage of adolescence – the onset of puberty. As you read this text, consider how Freud’s thoughts on youth might help you to better understand the focus that adolescents place on understanding the opposite sex during puberty.

5. Mortimer, J. T., & Larson, R. W. (Eds.). (2002). The changing adolescent experience:

Societal trends and the transition to adulthood. Cambridge University Press.

  • The selected chapter discusses the paths adolescents take from childhood into adulthood, with each path being shaped by broad demographic, institutional, and technological forces. As you read this text, think about the ways in which you can utilize this information in your understanding of adolescents within educational contexts.

6. Rosa, E.M., & Tudge, J. (2013). Urie Bronfenbrenner’s theory of human development: Its evolution from ecology to bioecology. Journal of Family Theory and Review, 5, 243-258.

  • This article focuses on the evolution of Uri Bronfenbrenner’s theory from ecological to bioecological systems theory.

7. Vygotsky, L. (1978). The interaction between learning and development. In Vygotsky, L, Mind in Society. Harvard University Press.

  • Chapter 5 discusses Lev Vygotsky’s sociocultural theory, where he emphasized the influence of social interactions on cognitive development, such that both informal and formal learning within socio-cultural contexts influenced development. Also, Vygotsky believed that development drove a young person’s interests, learning and knowledge construction. Therefore, the relation between learning and development is considered to be bi-directional or mutually influential. Thus, caregivers and other educators are encouraged to facilitate and guide children’s learning and development through appropriate social means. Think About It: Do you prefer to provide direct instruction to youth or allow them to learn from their peers? Do you prefer rote learning and memorization to facilitating stimulating classroom discussions, where children have the freedom to express their thoughts and co-construct knowledge with others?

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