Students are required to write a 5-6 (up to 9) page type-written paper on the book They Take Our Jobs! and Twenty Other Myths about Immigration. This paper requires students to clearly state the main arguments made by Aviva Chomsky, and present key, summarized points of evidence that she utilizes to support her claim. This is NOT an outside research paper, nor an opinion paper. This is a critical reflection paper identifying Chomsky’s arguments, claims, and evidence.

They Take Our Jobs Paper Assignment:

History 40

 

Students are required to write a 5-6 (up to 9) page type-written paper on the book They Take Our Jobs! and Twenty Other Myths about Immigration.  This paper requires students to clearly state the main arguments made by Aviva Chomsky, and present key, summarized points of evidence that she utilizes to support her claim. This is NOT an outside research paper, nor an opinion paper. This is a critical reflection paper identifying Chomsky’s arguments, claims, and evidence.

 

Paper Outline:

Because the text is outlined in six main thematic chapters, I expect students to explain the overall thesis (point/argument/contention) of each chapter, and then choose the required number of examples (myths) as support.

 

  • Provide an introduction where you state the author, text name (italicize), and you provide Chomsky’s purpose in writing the text.

 

  • Essay structure: After your intro, you can provide a paragraph for each of the myths you cover. Be sure in the first body paragraph for each section, you provide the overall thesis (her argument) concerning that particular section.

 

  • After identifying Chomsky’s thesis for that section, you need to detail the number of myths that I list below for that section in paragraph format (the number of myths I want you to discuss in your paper vary by section, so please pay close attention to the number of myths I ask you to cover in each section).

 

  • A good rule of thumb for an effective, structured essay: Write a paragraph per myth that you are discussing. What you are doing is identifying the myth, then summarizing with evidence why that myth is not an accurate reality of immigrants in the U.S.

 

  • SECTION 1: Immigrants and the Economy: What is Chomsky’s overall thesis for the relationship between immigrants and the economy?

 

  • Choose any 2 of the 6 myths in this section (your choice!) and identify why they are in fact myths. Provide a few examples and/or a summary of Chomsky’s evidence to support your claim.

 

 

  • SECTION 2: Identify in your paper what Chomsky’s overall thesis is for the relationship between immigrants and the law.

 

  • You will then choose 1 of the 3 myths of this section: Explain the myth, and provide a few examples to prove that it is in fact a myth.

 

 

  • SECTION 3: What is Chomsky’s thesis on immigrants and race? What is the relationship between the two?
    • Choose 2 of the myths: Explain the myth, and provide a few examples to prove that it is in fact a myth.

 

  • SECTION 4: Identify why the notion that immigrants come here only to “enjoy our high standard of living” is a myth. Provide support.

 

  • SECTION 5: What is the current debate at the turn of the 20th century? What are the most persistent notions on immigration, and how has government and society generally assessed immigration, and immigrants themselves?

 

  • Please discuss and dissect Myth #s 15, 16, 17 and 20. Provide specific detail to support why this rhetoric is exactly that: myth.

 

  • Provide a summary of Chomsky’s contentions made in the Epilogue. This will be your conclusion to the paper, where you use the information in the Epilogue to tie all of her discussion together, and ultimately restate her overall objective and thesis of the entire text. Please be thoughtful here. Make connections.

 

 

Technicalities:

  • 5-6 (up to 9) double-spaced typed pages
  • Size 12 font: Arial, Times New Roman, Cambria
  • Standard 1”margins
  • Numbered Pages
  • Paper Title, Name, Class (Hist 40), Class Period (i.e. M/W 11:30 am), Professor’s Name, Due Date on page 1, top right or left corner
  • Stapled Papers!!!!!!!
  • No fancy folders necessary J
  • Works Cited page: Please be prepared to utilize proper MLA (or Chicago) in-text citations. You can simply use the bottom of your last page to provide a short Works Cited, which only needs to give the proper MLA Works Cited for Chomsky’s book. No outside research or materials are necessary.
  • Worth 100 points of the final grade

 

Due Thursday, November 15th at the beginning of class! No emailed or late papers will be accepted!

 

 

 

 

H ISTORY 1302 : MIDTERM EXAM

H IS TORY 130 2 : MID TERM E XAM
DIRECTIONS:
1) On page 2 of this document, you will find the Midterm Exam Assignment. Your
response to the question must be typed—twelve-point font, double-spaced, one-inch
margins. In writing your answer, please do not exceed five pages.
2) In your response, use only your assigned text(s), the instructor’s handouts, videos,
or class notes taken from discussions. Do not use additional library or internet
sources.
3) Your generalizations must be supported by direct citations from the text, class notes,
or instructor’s handouts.
4) Citations should be made in MLA format. Click on HELPFUL LINKS: MLA button
on eCampus if you need additional help.
Note: You must cite parenthetically throughout your narrative. Please follow this format. There
should be many citations throughout your response taken from the sources noted above because
assumptions and interpretations must be bolstered by citations. The strength of your response is
dependent largely upon your citation of the assigned sources.
5) To earn your full points, please include in-text citations AND a Works Cited Page.
6) You must write your own, unique, independent answer to this question. Please try to
write using your SCHOLARLY VOICE (3rd person Point of View: He, She, It, They).
7) Please use proper grammar and spelling, and try NOT to use 1st person POV: “I, Me,
You, Your, Us, We.” Or 2nd person POV: “You, Your.” Also, please try not to use
rhetorical questions or questions of any kind, but write a coherent, persuasive essay.
8) Please look at the sample Rubric handout (under Mid-term exam button) to see how
your Mid-term exam will be graded.
9) All papers will be checked for plagiarism! Make sure you properly site your
sources in your essay (in-text citations) when quoting or paraphrasing source
materials. Students caught cheating will face failure of the course and will be reported
to the Dean. (and it will affect your academic record).
10) Date Due: See eCampus Instructions. NO LATE WORK ACCEPTED!! Directions: Answer the following essay listed below. Please write a multiparagraphed essay and include specific evidence of from Unit 01 and 02
assignments, readings, videos, etc. Please use MLA in-text citations within
your essay and a Words Cited page.
Please watch this TedTalk called:
“How to overcome our biases? Walk boldly toward them.”
Link to video:
https://www.ted.com/talks/verna_myers_how_to_overcome_our_biases_walk_b
oldly_toward_them#t-1055481
(Approx. 17:50 mins)
Consider Verna Myers message on overcoming bias. How has bias played a role in
US History? Consider what you have learned so far this semester in Unit 01 and
02. Why are multiple perspectives in history needed? What do they teach
students?
Provide at least three clear examples of historical events from Unit 01 and 02 where
diverse perspectives are needed to have a better understanding of historical events.
What effect might diverse perspectives continue to have on future generations?
*Note: Include your Works Cited page on the same document as your essay.
Provide at least 3 specific examples (from Unit 01 and 02) to support your
argument. (The Howard Zinn Textbook counts as one source).
*Note: try to write this in 3rd person Point of View (Scholarly tone): He, She, It,
They. This essay is different than writing a discussion board. You are writing a
research essay exam. Please do not reflect on your own person experiences,
but instead provide examples learned in this History course

Thomas Hobbes and John Locke were the 17th century’s preeminent political philosophers. Identify and briefly explain one important similarity and one important difference in their political philosophies.

Answer all parts. Be sure to write complete sentences, double space, set one-inch margins, and use Times Roman 12-point font.  For the essay questions, aim for one-and-a half to two pages for each.

A. Thomas Hobbes and John Locke were the 17th century’s preeminent political philosophers.

Identify and briefly explain one important similarity and one important difference in their political philosophies.

(10 points)

B. This semester we have studied state-building in England/Great Britain (which was covered on the first exam), France, Prussia, and Russia, focusing much attention on important rulers such as France’s Louis XIV, Prussia’s Frederick William the Great Elector, Frederick William I, Frederick II (“the Great”); and Russia’s Ivan IV (“the Terrible”), Peter I (“the Great”), and Catherine ii (“the Great”). Among these rulers, select the three you consider the most successful in the task of creating a strong state; rank them as 1, 2, and 3; and explain the reasons for your selections in terms of the quality of leadership each provided and his/her achievements. Finally, what obstacles did each of your choices have to overcome in order to create a strong monarchy?

(45 points)

C. In his essay “What is Enlightenment?” (1784), Immanuel Kant explains enlightenment as “man’s release from his self-incurred tutelage.” What did he mean? What views did he and the other philosophes advance on three of the following topics: politics, economics, law and justice, sex and marriage, the press, and education? Where possible, be sure to mention relevant books by individual philosophes on the subjects you choose. Why were the philosophes so critical of organized religion? What was Deism and why did so many philosophes embrace it? Briefly explain three important effects of the Enlightenment.

(45 points)

Bonus: What, n your opinion, does it mean to be enlightened today?

(3 points)

ESSAY PROJECT #3: Creation Stories In Early Civilization

Prompt:

All early civilizations regardless of the continent attempted to explain how the Earth and mankind were formed. Within this essay, select two non-Western (not from European origin) civilizations from your studies and discover their creation story. In your writing, provide a summary of each civilizations creation story, and locate specific artwork examples (including identifying data, such as titles or source references) to include throughout your essay. Finally, conclude your writing with how these creation stories compare to your own ideas of how this Earth and its inhabitants were created.

To assist in understanding what a “creation story” is watch: M07 Video List: Creation Myths Around the World

Writing Requirements:

  • Length must meet at minimum three (3) pages.
    • Please note: The full length of written content MUST be three pages long, not including any author information (such as written in the upper right by MLA style)
  • Provide three (3) sources for your entry minimum.
    • Wikipedia and other non-academic websites will not be accepted for this criteria.
    • Acceptable sources may be located from the following:
      • their textbook
      • Academic and scholarly journals
      • smarthistory.org
      • Museum websites – such as those linked on this page: http://www.artcyclopedia.com/museums-us.html
    • The sources above are merely suggestions of where credible sources could be found, and should not be mistaken as always acceptable. Please use proper academic discretion to determine if your source is appropriate. If you have any questions regarding this, please review this website: https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/553/01/ (Links to an external site.) or speak with your local librarian.
  • Cite academic articles, books, or other research at sources of your conclusions.
    • Citations may be written in APA or MLA style. Refer to the Ivy Tech Writing Guide for examples of citations commonly used.
    • In-text citations and a full resource(s) citation must be included.
    • See the citation resources in “Resources” area for information specific to art citations.
  • Thoroughly address all aspects of the prompt.
  • Use proper terminology as presented in the textbook.

Plagiarism: Please review the syllabus statement regarding academic honesty and plagiarism.

Rubric:

This assignment will be graded with a rubric. You should be able to see the rubric when you access the assignment’s submission area. Please review the rubric and ensure that your submission meets the standards of the assignment before submitting.

Helpful Tool – by proceeding to the next item, students will be provided with a YouTube video list that may assist with the completion of this essay.

COM205: Week 4 Assignment

Course Project Part 1: Speech Outline

Assignment Overview

For your speech outline, you will begin compiling ideas for your speech and consider how you can use research to support you in developing your speech. Possible topics include an aspect related to your field of study, topics in the news, or any other topics of interest. Keep in mind that talking about what you know and are passionate about can make the speech easier to write, as well as present.

This is the first of a five-part project to compose and present a persuasive or informative speech. You will present the final speech to your instructor only, in Week 11, via YouTube video. Review the Course Project Details to review the timeline of deliverables and the descriptions of the different parts of the project.

Assignment Details:

Perform the following tasks:

  • Create a 1-2 page (250-500 word) speech outline in Word to be submitted by the end of Week 4.
    • Include the following in your outline:
      • Main topic summary – Briefly describe the main topic you will be presenting in your speech (3-5 sentences).
      • Background – Briefly describe why you chose your topic (3-5 sentences).
      • Speech type– Define if your speech will be informative, persuasive, or entertainin
      • Supporting topics – Briefly discuss at least three supporting topics (i.e. subtopics) that will be discussed in your speech (3-5 sentences).
      • Conclusion – Summarize the main points of your speech and the angle or position that you plan on taking (5-7 sentences).
      • References – Brainstorm and briefly describe three ways references found via your research will help in writing and delivering your speech (3-5 sentences).

Hint: Review the Speech Grading Guidelines to get an idea of how your final speech will be graded.

Grading:

Gradable items in assignmentPoints
Summarized main topic in brief but adequate detail.30
Provided background explanation of topic.30
Defined clearly speech type.15
Articulated clearly supporting topics (i.e. subtopics).15
Provided conclusion summarizing main points.15
Described three ways references provided help.15
Error-free grammar, spelling, punctuation.10
Correct formatting – double-spacing, Times New-Roman, 12pt font.10
Total Points140

Course Project Part 2: Resources and References

Assignment Overview

Your speech should incorporate at least two resources of information, which you paraphrase, summarize, and/or quote. Using LIRN and the Internet, identify at least two sources of information that will be used to support your speech. At least one of these resources of information must be obtained through the LIRN online library resource.

This is the second of a five-part project to compose and present a persuasive or informative speech. You will present the final speech to your instructor only, in Week 11, via YouTube video. Review the Course Project Details to review the timeline of deliverables and the descriptions of the different parts of the project.

Assignment Details:

Perform the following tasks:

  • Create a 2-page (500 words) Word document outlining your resources (see below) to be submitted by the end of Week 6.
  • Develop a Reference page.
    • Include the following:
      • Paraphrase, summarize, and/or quote information you will use in your speech from no less than two resource
      • Explain how you will use this information to support your main and supporting topics within your speech.
      • Consider using this Source Materials and Reference List worksheet to assist you with this part of your project. This worksheet does not need to be turned in to your instructor.
      • Provide a reference list in proper APA styl

Hints: Locate the following resources on the Internet to help you format the references page and paraphrase, summarize, and/or quote the information from your sources. Your instructor can help you determine the best sources to use.

  • Purdue OWL – Click on “Using Research” in the left navigation; click on “Quoting, Paraphrasing, and Summarizin”
  • Citation Machine– automated citing and referencing of sources.

Grading:

 

Gradable items in assignmentPoints
Correctly paraphrase, summarize, or quote from two resources.50
Explained how information from resources supports speech.50
Used proper APA style for citations and for references.20
Error-free grammar, spelling, punctuation.10
Correct formatting – double-spacing, Times New-Roman, 12pt font.10
Total Points140

Course Project Part 3: Written Speech Draft

Assignment Overview

Over the past few weeks, you have created a rough outline and conducted research for writing your speech. Based upon what you have already created for this project, you will write a draft of your speech to be submitted to your instructor by the end of the day Sunday for feedback. You will then have the opportunity to incorporate feedback in the next part of this project.

This is the third of a five-part project to compose and present a persuasive or informative speech. You will present the final speech to your instructor only, in Week 11, via YouTube video. Review the Course Project Details to review the timeline of deliverables and the descriptions of the different parts of the project.

Assignment Details:

Perform the following tasks:

  • Create a minimum 1-page (250 words) written draft speech in Word to be submitted by the end of Week 8.
    • Include/adhere to the following in your written speech:
      • Title pag
      • Written speech (portion you will deliver in Part 4).
      • Reference page using APA styl
      • Summary regarding feedback received from your instructor on your initial draft and how it was incorporated into your final speech (5-7 sentences).
      • Double-spaced, Times New Roman, 12pt fon

Hints: Refer to the following resource located on the Internet to help you paraphrase, summarize, or quote your source materials.

  • Purdue OWL – Click on “Using Research” in the left navigation; click on “Quoting, Paraphrasing, and Summarizin”

Grading:

 

Gradable items in assignment follow Written Assignment RubricPoints
Completed the following as directed:
Organization40
Content of speech60
Feedback summary20
Style10
Writing Conventions10
Total Points140

Course Project Part 4: Written Speech Final

Assignment Overview

Over the past few weeks, you have conducted research and created a rough outline and submitted a draft for your speech. Based upon the feedback provided from the draft you have already created for this project, you will prepare your final copy by end of day Sunday for instructor grading.

This is the fourth of a five-part project to compose and present a persuasive or informative speech. You will present the final speech to your instructor only, in Week 11, via YouTube video. Review the Course Project Details to review the timeline of deliverables and the descriptions of the different parts of the project.

Assignment Details:

Perform the following tasks:

  • Create a minimum 1-page (250 words) written final speech in Word to be submitted by the end of Week 9.
    • Include/adhere to the following in your written speech:
      • Title pag
      • Written speech (portion you will deliver in Part 4).
      • Reference page using APA styl
      • Summary regarding feedback received from your instructor on your initial draft and how it was incorporated into your final speech (5-7 sentences).
      • Double-spaced, Times New Roman, 12pt fon

Hints: Refer to the following resource located on the Internet to help you paraphrase, summarize, or quote your source materials.

  • Purdue OWL – Click on “Using Research” in the left navigation; click on “Quoting, Paraphrasing, and Summarizin”

Grading:

 

Gradable items in assignment follow Written Assignment RubricPoints
Completed the following as directed:
Organization40
Content of speech60
Feedback summary20
Style10
Writing Conventions10
Total Points140

 

In preparation of filling this role, develop a 2- to 3-page role description for a graduate-level nurse to guide his/her participation on the implementation team. The role description should be based on the SDLC stages and tasks and should clearly define how this individual will participate in and impact each of the following steps:

To Prepare:

  • Review the steps of the Systems Development Life Cycle (SDLC) and reflect on the scenario presented.
  • Consider the benefits and challenges associated with involving a nurse leader on an implementation team for health information technology.

The Assignment: (2-3 pages)

In preparation of filling this role, develop a 2- to 3-page role description for a graduate-level nurse to guide his/her participation on the implementation team. The role description should be based on the SDLC stages and tasks and should clearly define how this individual will participate in and impact each of the following steps:

  • Planning and requirements definition
  • Analysis
  • Design of the new system
  • Implementation
  • Post-implementation support

Example of local government’s Legal Framework: general-law v. charter?  search  (1) either a city or school district or special district within your County # map, click Zipcode Map

Part 1: Government websites by State/local questions from Governing Cal. State & Local Governments-3

Your task is Search for government website within from your LA county district# 

Submit (3) websites relevant to (3) questions from readings documents, Governing Cal. State & Local Governments-3 below:  

Choose 3  questions choices from the following:

  •   Example of local government’s Legal Framework: general-law v. charter?  search  (1) either a city or school district or special district within your County # map, click Zipcode Map
  • Example of a Los Angeles County government One type of service website?
  • Example of the LAFCo’s role, incorporation process, website?
  • Example of a City government services website? within your County # map, click Zipcode Map
  • Example of a  City Government representation system, mayor-council vs. council-manager system? within your County # map, click Zipcode Map
  • Example of  a County  limited -purpose of Special districts,
  • Example of a  regional government and the problem it addresses?

The Process?  Search government websites based on Three (3) of the above bullet point or questions,

NOTE: the above questions are from module 3 click, Governing Cal. State & Local Governments

Source for the websites either google the name of the Local government from The map or use the LA County website click  https://lacounty.gov/government/

Part 2: Census and Demographics

Three website guides — Submit (2) websites and data relevant to the above (3) government websites Above:

County Statistics is an option:

  • Go to the  Los Angeles County, click  https://lacounty.gov/government/  > Census 2020  >
  • Once on 2020 Census click top of the page tab resources > additional resource > census maps & profiles by county district number [your group # zipcode map] click, https://census.lacounty.gov/
  • Zipcodes, map, and stat is a good start  to review demographic and other activity within [your group # zipcode map]

Equity  website on economic, earnings outcomes option:

–Background story to the website: click, NPR story (Links to an external site.)

(or copy/paste to URL:  https://www.npr.org/2018/11/12/666993130/zipcode-destiny-the-persistent-power-of-place-and-education )

Review for terms and possible national topic (left column) that may apply to your zip codes,

Equity  website on broad demographic, economic, readiness  option:

Go to, https://nationalequityatlas.org/

Click TAB INDICATORs > demographics and equity  dropbox 

General Los Angeles County data by Zipcode  option

Go to Additional Database: Los Angeles click,  http://www.laalmanac.com/cities/ci99a.php 

Since 1998, the Los Angeles Almanac has been a unique online reference devoted to providing statistical and narrative information about the people, places, and stories that make up the incredible panorama of Los Angeles County.

checklist

Did you include state/local group #.  click, People

How do I view my Canvas groups as a student?

https://community.canvaslms.com/docs/DOC-10661-421255565 (Links to an external site.)

  1. does the submission include:
  •  (3) government websites ? Are the websites of governments within the LA county board district = your group #?
  • (3)  URL/links of each of the website by question example?
  • (3) labeles or Titles

Are the government website(s) relevant to the questions? Explain with a note/sentence “how you found the site/relevant answer” 

Part 2

Part 2 census/demographic

  • Did you include at least (2) two (website sources)? with url/links?
  • zip code?
  • Example of Data category that interested you?

Title your selection, i.e., the demographics, equality, and location, & Zipcode and how you found the data about people, economic status within your group# district, or Los Angeles County?

What do IR scholars mean by regional integration? What different forms of integration are there? Which actors are involved in regional integration? What are the motivations leading different actors to seek integration, or to prevent? How do these actors facilitate integration? How successful has the Asia-Pacific been in terms of regional integration? Provide examples and explicate the reasons by which these actors have failed, or been successful in terms of regional integration. What factors have facilitated, or hampered regional integration in the Asia-Pacific?

PS 356 – Exam
Exam Rubric
Please refer to this rubric when completing your Exam. It outlines the expectations, due dates,
grading, and other information that you will need to successfully complete the project.
Skills
This project will help you to develop several skills:
1. Writing Concisely – You are expected to explain the complex issues of representation and
redistricting in no more than a few paragraphs, which will help you to write concisely for a
broad audience.
2. Critical Thinking – You are expected to evaluate concepts that do not always have a
single “correct” answer, and you will evaluate claims made in previous research.
Reference Materials
For this assignment you will need to refer to this rubric, readings from the course reading list,
and find appropriate original resources from outside the course readings to answer the Exam
questions.
Due Dates
This assignment is due on Friday, May 1st, at 11:59 P.M. (uploaded to Canvas or emailed if
Canvas is not responsive).
Grading
This assignment is worth (300) points (or 30 %) of your course grade. In order to earn points
for this assignment you must submit your final exam to Canvas by the due date.
How to Submit Your Assignment
To submit your paper:
1. Log in to Canvas (https://oregonstate.instructure.com/) and navigate to our PS
356 course site.
2. Submit your paper to the submission link called Exam.
Late Submissions
Late submissions will not be accepted unless students are able to provide a reason and documentation in line with the course Makeup Policy outlined in the syllabus. In all other cases a late
assignment earns a score of zero.
1
PS 356 – Exam
Directions
Select two of the essay prompts below for your exam. Your exam should result in a submission
that is between 8 and 9 pages in length (Times New Roman, 12-point font, 1-inch margins,
double spaced). Your submissions should have a title page and a reference page. Note these
pages do not count toward the minimum page length for your submission.
Your analysis should include multiple citations and resources. Each essay should include a minimum of three outside academic resources and a minimum of at least 8 academic resources
in total. Citations should be generously weaved throughout your submission in order to support
your analysis (20+).
Question Prompt:
Please select two of the prompts below to address in your exam. Each prompt should receive
equal attention in your exam.
Prompt 1: What do IR scholars mean by regional integration? What different forms of integration are there? Which actors are involved in regional integration? What are the motivations
leading different actors to seek integration, or to prevent? How do these actors facilitate integration? How successful has the Asia-Pacific been in terms of regional integration? Provide
examples and explicate the reasons by which these actors have failed, or been successful in terms
of regional integration. What factors have facilitated, or hampered regional integration in the
Asia-Pacific?
Prompt 2: What is ASEAN and why is it (un)important in the region? What are its origins?
How has ASEAN developed and evolved over time? What are the principal features and actors
of ASEAN? Which IR theory or theories best explain the successes/failures of ASEAN as an
institution? Has ASEAN facilitated greater integration within the region? If so, how? Provide
clear examples to support your analysis.
Prompt 3: What role has geography and history played in the interstate politics of the AsiaPacific? How has/could the region been conceptualized? What limitations and difficulties exist in
conceptualizing the Asia-Pacific as a region? In what ways does geography facilitate or attenuate
regional integration? How has history shaped the politics of the region over time and into the
modern era? Provide clear examples of how historical events have and continue to affect the
region’s politics.
2
PS 356 – Exam
Exam Advice
Synthesize the readings and content from our course when you answer this question. You can
draw on our course readings, but it would also be a good idea to use outside sources that can
support your analysis.
Justify, Support, and Cite: Demonstrate your mastery of subject while providing numerous
citations, defining terms and concepts, and supporting your argument by scaffolding citations and
evidence to support your analysis. Do not assume the reader know what is going on in your head.
Be explicit, detailed, and thorough in your analysis.
Outside Sources: While you may, and are expected to use, readings from our course I also
expect that you will examine sources not form our course readings. These sources should be a
mix of academic (peer-reviewed) sources, but may also include sources from organizations and
actors that may be relevant in your exam essay. For instance, you may use data from the WB
or IMF, a web page document from an NGO, or a report from the United Nations or another
IGO. Reputable news sources may also be used to frame your issue, but the vast majority of your
outside sources should be from academic sources, or come directly from reports, information, and
data acquired from the institutions and actors that you are using in your essay.
You should provide a minimum of 3 outside sources in your analysis.
Quality Matters: Do not get fixated on the minimum pages for this assignment. Instead, focus
on putting together a quality essay and response that is well cited, grounded in the literature,
provides analytical excellence through nuance and depth.
3

The Controversy: Does fracking contribute to global warming?

Read the passages below and write an essay that addresses the following:

  • What is the position in each passage?
  • What evidence or reasons are given in support of each position?
  • Which position is more convincing and why?

Do no additional research on the topics other than using a dictionary.

The Controversy:  Does fracking contribute to global warming?

 

Passage 1.  Pro:  from “Fracking Contributes to Global Warming” by Louis W. Allstadt

The fracking that’s going on right now is the real wake-up call on just what extreme lengths are required to pull oil or gas out of the ground now that most of the conventional reservoirs have been exploited—at least those that are easy to access.

First of all you have to look at what is conventional oil and gas. That was pretty much anything that was produced until around 2000. It’s basically a process of drilling down through a cap rock, an impervious rock that has trapped oil and gas beneath it. And once you’re into that reservoir—which is really not a void, it’s porous rock—the natural pressure of the gas will push up the gas and oil.

Now what’s happened is that the prospect of finding more of those conventional reservoirs, particularly on land and in the places that have been heavily explored like the US and Europe and the Middle East just is very, very small. And the companies have pretty much acknowledged that. All of them talk about the need to go to either nonconventional shale or tight sand drilling or to go into deeper and deeper waters or to go into really hostile Arctic regions and possibly Antarctic regions.

Both the horizontal drilling and fracturing have been around for a long time. The industry will tell you this over and over again—they’ve been around for 60 years, things like that. That is correct. What’s different is the volume of fracking fluids and the volume of flowback that occurs in these wells. It is 50 to 100 times more than what was used in the conventional wells.

The other [difference] is that the rock above the target zone is not necessarily impervious the way it was in the conventional wells. And to me that last point is at least as big as the volume. The industry will tell you that the mile or two between the zone that’s being fracked is not going to let anything come up.

But there are already cases where the methane gas has made it up into the aquifers and atmosphere. Sometimes through old well bores, sometimes through natural fissures in the rock. What we don’t know is just how much gas is going to come up over time. It’s a point most people haven’t gotten. It’s not just what’s happening today. We’re opening up channels for the gas to creep up to the surface and into the atmosphere. And methane is a much more potent greenhouse gas in the short term—less than 100 years—than carbon dioxide.

Source Citation

Allstadt, Louis W. “Fracking Contributes to Global Warming.” Natural Gas, edited by Dedria Bryfonski, Greenhaven Press, 2015. Opposing Viewpoints. Opposing Viewpoints in Context, Accessed 12 Dec. 2016. Originally published as “Former Mobil VP Warns of Fracking and Climate Change,” Truthout.org, 19 July 2013.

 

 

Passage 2.  Con:  from “Fracking Does Not Contribute to Global Warming” by Coral Davenport

A new study in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences concludes that hydraulic fracturing—the controversial technique behind the nation’s recent oil and gas boom—doesn’t appear to contribute significantly to global warming, as many environmental groups have warned.

It’s great news for oil and gas companies such as ExxonMobil, Shell, and Chevron, which have relied on breakthroughs in so-called fracking technology to cheaply unlock vast new reserves of domestic oil and natural gas that had been trapped underground in shale-rock formations.

“It’s very good news,” said Richard Keil, a spokesman for ExxonMobil, of the study. “This is a groundbreaking survey. It’s the most extensive one that’s been done yet, and it serves to add important new evidence that hydraulic fracturing does not contribute to climate change—it does not contribute methane emissions at levels higher than those set by the Environmental Protection Agency [EPA].”

The study concluded that the majority of hydraulically fractured natural gas wells have surface equipment that reduces on-the-ground methane emissions by 99 percent, although it also found that elsewhere on fracking rigs, some valves do allow methane to escape at levels 30 percent higher than those set by EPA. Overall, however, the study concludes that total methane emissions from fracking are about 10 percent lower than levels set by EPA.

The $2.3 million study was conducted by scientists at the University of Texas, with funding provided by nine energy companies, including ExxonMobil, and one environmental group, the Environmental Defense Fund. A spokesman for the University of Texas said that while the companies contributed money to the study, they had no input on the research or results, which were subject to independent peer review before being published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, one of the nation’s most prestigious scientific journals.

University of Texas researchers say their yearlong study, which involved measuring methane emissions from 190 natural gas production sites in the Gulf coast, mid-continent, Rocky Mountains, and Appalachia, is far more comprehensive than [other studies], which relied on existing data rather than new fieldwork.

Source Citation

Davenport, Coral. “Fracking Does Not Contribute to Global Warming.” Natural Gas, edited by Dedria Bryfonski, Greenhaven Press, 2015. Opposing Viewpoints. Opposing Viewpoints in Context, Accessed 12 Dec. 2016. Originally published as “New Study Says Fracking Doesn’t Contribute to Global Warming,” National Journal, 16 Sept. 2013.

Essays will be evaluated on the following criteria:

  1. IDEAS–focus on topic; effective support; explains & discusses main points
  2. ORGANIZATION–underlying plan to guide reader; progresses logically
  3. WORDING / DICTION–clear, straight-forward, lacks wordiness & inappropriate expressions
  4. SENTENCES–clear & well-constructed; avoids fragments & run-ons; variety in structure & length
  5. GRAMMAR–reflects standard written English; spelling & punctuation do not interfere with meaning
  6. MEETS OBJECTIVE–follows written assignment directions

 

TOPIC: THE SOCIOLOGY OF THE HIP HOP CULTURE AND FASHION

 TOPIC: THE SOCIOLOGY OF THE HIP HOP CULTURE AND FASHION

  1. 5 page double spaced final paper using either APA or ASA writing style
  2. The final project will demonstrate students’ global engagement.
  3. Students will choose 1or all components of culture as it relates to hip-hop based on their own interests. (Symbols, Language, Norms, Values, Beliefs)
  4. A list of some potential subjects might include:
    1. the portrayal of women in the culture
    2. The Origins
    3. Race
    4. Identity
    5. Sexuality
    6. Art
    7. the role of Hip-Hop in politics
    8. Hip-Hop and war on drugs;
    9. Hip-hop from a global perspective.
    10. Cognitive Elements
    11. Vision
  5. The final paper will require an introduction, historical contextualization, five samples, a tie into class readings, additional research, a personal reflection on the chosen topic(s), and an annotated bibliography.
  6. The examples above are not everything you can write about, but it is designed to give you vision.
  7. Make sure that you spend some time in your paper tying in the components of culture to defend your argument.